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Homework 2

Institutional Affiliation
Course Number
Course Title
Tutors Name
Homework 2
Date

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Homework 2

DV: Reading Time measured on a scale of 0-1600 seconds. Score is measured during the test
IV: Ambient Lighting. Categorical Variable with four groups
Design: The IV is manipulated within groups which are randomly assigned by block so it is a true
experiment.
/PLOT BOXPLOT STEMLEAF HISTOGRAM NPPLOT
/COMPARE GROUPS
/MESTIMATORS HUBER(1.339) ANDREW(1.34) HAMPEL(1.7,3.4,8.5) TUKEY(4.685)
/STATISTICS DESCRIPTIVES EXTREME
/CINTERVAL 95
/MISSING LISTWISE
/NOTOTAL.

Explore
Case Processing Summary
Cases
Valid
N
Reading time in seconds

Missing

Percent
20

100.0%

Total

Percent
0

0.0%

Percent
20

100.0%

Reading time mean score : 1032.1995

Standard Deviation : 307.432
Skewness and Kurtosis tell more about distribution

Descriptives

Reading time in seconds

Mean
95% Confidence Interval
for Mean

Statistic

Std. Error

1032.1995

68.74523

Lower Bound

888.3141

Upper Bound

1176.0849

5% Trimmed Mean

1028.0006

Median

1085.9200

Variance

94518.120

Std. Deviation

307.43799

Minimum

551.34
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Maximum

1588.64

Range

1037.30

Interquartile Range
Skewness
Kurtosis

501.28
.026

.512

-.905

.992

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Homework 2

M-Estimators
Huber's MEstimator
Reading time in seconds

Tukey's
b
Biweight

1035.9210

Hampel's Mc
Estimator

1033.4395

Andrews'
d
Wave

1028.6167

1033.5063

a. The weighting constant is 1.339.

b. The weighting constant is 4.685.
c. The weighting constants are 1.700, 3.400, and 8.500
d. The weighting constant is 1.340*pi.

No outliers as indicated by the extreme values table.

Extreme Values
Case Number
Reading time in seconds

Highest

Lowest

Value

1588.64

1501.26

1395.44

15

1308.35

1290.54

18

551.34

16

583.03

12

634.06

14

641.96

741.65

Tests of Normality
a

Kolmogorov-Smirnov
Statistic
Reading time in seconds

.111

Df

Shapiro-Wilk

Sig.
20

.200

Statistic
*

.965

df

Sig.
20

.655

*. This is a lower bound of the true significance.

a. Lilliefors Significance Correction

Reading time in seconds

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Homework 2

Histogram
5

Mean = 1032.20
Std. Dev. = 307.438
N = 20

Frequency

0
500.00

750.00

1000.00

1250.00

1500.00

Reading time in seconds

Reading time in seconds Stem-and-Leaf Plot
Frequency
9.00
9.00
2.00
Stem width:
Each leaf:

Stem &
0 .
1 .
1 .

Leaf
556678889
000122233
55

1000.00
1 case(s)

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3

Expected Normal

-1

-2
500

750

1,000

1,250

1,500

1,750

Observed Value

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Homework 2

0.2

0.0000

-0.2

-0.4
500

750

1,000

1,250

1,500

Observed Value

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Homework 2

1500.00

1250.00

1000.00

750.00

500.00

Reading time in seconds

Boxplot looks asymmetrical therefore indicating that the distribution is not normal but the
skewness might be as a result of working with a small sample size
Sample sizes in the IV were normal even though categorical

IV ANALYSIS

EXAMINE VARIABLES=Condition
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Homework 2

/PLOT BOXPLOT STEMLEAF HISTOGRAM NPPLOT

/COMPARE GROUPS
/MESTIMATORS HUBER(1.339) ANDREW(1.34) HAMPEL(1.7,3.4,8.5) TUKEY(4.685)
/STATISTICS DESCRIPTIVES EXTREME
/CINTERVAL 95
/MISSING LISTWISE
/NOTOTAL.

Explore
Case Processing Summary
Cases
Valid
N
Ambient illumination level

Missing

Percent
20

100.0%

Total

Percent
0

Percent

0.0%

20

100.0%

Descriptives

Ambient illumination level

Mean
95% Confidence Interval
for Mean
5% Trimmed Mean
Median

Statistic

Std. Error

2.50

.256

Lower Bound

1.96

Upper Bound

3.04
2.50
2.50

Variance

1.316

Std. Deviation

1.147

Minimum

Maximum

Range

Interquartile Range

Skewness
Kurtosis

.000

.512

-1.401

.992

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Homework 2

M-Estimators
Huber's MEstimator
Ambient illumination level

Tukey's
b
Biweight

2.50

Hampel's Mc
Estimator

2.50

Andrews'
d
Wave

2.50

2.50

a. The weighting constant is 1.339.

b. The weighting constant is 4.685.
c. The weighting constants are 1.700, 3.400, and 8.500
d. The weighting constant is 1.340*pi.
Extreme Values
Case Number
Ambient illumination level

Highest

Lowest

Value

16

17

18

19

20

Tests of Normality
a

Kolmogorov-Smirnov
Statistic
Ambient illumination level

.169

df

Shapiro-Wilk

Sig.
20

.139

Statistic
.863

df

Sig.
20

.009

Ambient illumination level

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Homework 2

Histogram
5

Mean = 2.5
Std. Dev. = 1.147
N = 20

Frequency

0
1

Ambient illumination level

Ambient illumination level Stem-and-Leaf Plot
Frequency
5.00
.00
5.00
.00
5.00
.00
5.00
Stem width:
Each leaf:

Stem &
1
1
2
2
3
3
4

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

Leaf
00000
00000
00000
00000

1
1 case(s)

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2

Expected Normal

-1

-2
0

Observed Value

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Homework 2

0.3

Dev from Normal

0.2

0.1

0.0000

-0.1

-0.2

-0.3
1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

Observed Value

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Homework 2

4.0

3.5

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0
Ambient illumination level

UNIANOVA ReadingTime BY Condition

/METHOD=SSTYPE(3)
/INTERCEPT=INCLUDE
/PRINT=TEST(LMATRIX) OPOWER ETASQ DESCRIPTIVE PARAMETER
/CRITERIA=ALPHA(.05)
/DESIGN=Condition.

Univariate Analysis of Variance

Between-Subjects Factors
Value Label
Ambient illumination level

200 lx

500 lx

1000 lx

1500 lx

Descriptive Statistics

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Homework 2

Mean

Std. Deviation

Ambient illumination level

200 lx

1250.1880

297.53116

500 lx

1096.5940

258.71975

1000 lx

914.0060

298.14101

1500 lx

868.0100

298.11137

1032.1995

307.43799

20

Total

Tests of Between-Subjects
Effects
Dependent Variable: Reading time in seconds
Source
Corrected Model

Type III Sum

of Squares
462967.666

df
a

Mean Square

Sig.

Partial Eta
Squared

154322.555

1.853

.178

.258

Intercept

21308716.16

21308716.16

255.792

.000

.941

Condition

462967.666

154322.555

1.853

.178

.258

1332876.614

16

83304.788

Total

23104560.44

20

Corrected Total

1795844.279

19

Error

This table showed information about the significance of the groups as well as the eta squared. The p-value was
.0, so less than .05, which means it is significant in difference
between ambient lighting that means we can reject the null hypothesis, which would assume that the groups
have the same outcomes under the different ambient lighting .
The partial eta squared shows how big of a difference exists between groups, and the value of .24 indicates
that there is ~24% of the variance is due to the ambient lighting used.

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1

Homework 2

Tests of BetweenSubjects Effects

Dependent Variable: Reading time in seconds
Source
Corrected Model

Noncent.
Parameter

Intercept

Observed
b
Power

5.558

.390

255.792

1.000

5.558

.390

Condition
Error
Total
Corrected Total

a. R Squared = .258 (Adjusted R Squared = .119)

b. Computed using alpha = .05

Parameter Estimates
Dependent Variable: Reading time in seconds
95% Confidence Interval
594.378

1141.642

Std. Error

868.010

129.077

6.725

.000

[Condition=1]

382.178

182.543

2.094

.053

-4.796

769.152

[Condition=2]

228.584

182.543

1.252

.228

-158.390

615.558

[Condition=3]

45.996

182.543

.252

.804

-340.978

432.970

[Condition=4]

Sig.

Upper Bound

Parameter
Intercept

Lower Bound

Parameter Estimates
Dependent Variable: Reading time in seconds
Parameter
Intercept

Partial Eta
Squared

Noncent.
Parameter

Observed
b
Power

.739

6.725

1.000

[Condition=1]

.215

2.094

.503

[Condition=2]

.089

1.252

.218

[Condition=3]

.004

.252

.056

[Condition=4]

a. This parameter is set to zero because it is redundant.

b. Computed using alpha = .05

Contrast Coefficients (L' Matrix)

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Homework 2

Intercept
Contrast
Parameter
Intercept

L1
1

[Condition=1]

.250

[Condition=2]

.250

[Condition=3]

.250

[Condition=4]

.250

The default
display of this
matrix is the
transpose of the
corresponding L
matrix.
Based on Type III Sums
of Squares.

Condition
Contrast
Parameter
Intercept

L2

L3

L4

[Condition=1]

[Condition=2]

[Condition=3]

[Condition=4]

-1

-1

-1

The default display of this matrix

is the transpose of the
corresponding L matrix.
Based on Type III Sums of Squares.
UNIANOVA ReadingTime BY Condition
/METHOD=SSTYPE(3)
/INTERCEPT=INCLUDE
/PLOT=PROFILE(Condition)
/PRINT=TEST(LMATRIX) OPOWER ETASQ DESCRIPTIVE PARAMETER
/CRITERIA=ALPHA(.05)
/DESIGN=Condition.

Univariate Analysis of Variance

Between-Subjects Factors
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Homework 2

Value Label
Ambient illumination level

200 lx

500 lx

1000 lx

1500 lx

Descriptive Statistics

Mean

Std. Deviation

Ambient illumination level

200 lx

1250.1880

297.53116

500 lx

1096.5940

258.71975

1000 lx

914.0060

298.14101

1500 lx

868.0100

298.11137

1032.1995

307.43799

20

Total

Tests of Between-Subjects
Effects
Dependent Variable: Reading time in seconds
Source
Corrected Model

Type III Sum

of Squares
462967.666

df
a

Mean Square

Sig.

Partial Eta
Squared

154322.555

1.853

.178

.258

Intercept

21308716.16

21308716.16

255.792

.000

.941

Condition

462967.666

154322.555

1.853

.178

.258

1332876.614

16

83304.788

Total

23104560.44

20

Corrected Total

1795844.279

19

Error

Page
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Homework 2

Tests of Between-Subjects
Effects
Dependent Variable: Reading time in seconds
Source
Corrected Model

Noncent.
Parameter

Intercept

Observed
b
Power

5.558

.390

255.792

1.000

5.558

.390

Condition
Error
Total
Corrected Total

a. R Squared = .258 (Adjusted R Squared = .119)

b. Computed using alpha = .05

Parameter Estimates
Dependent Variable: Reading time in seconds
95% Confidence Interval
594.378

1141.642

Std. Error

868.010

129.077

6.725

.000

[Condition=1]

382.178

182.543

2.094

.053

-4.796

769.152

[Condition=2]

228.584

182.543

1.252

.228

-158.390

615.558

[Condition=3]

45.996

182.543

.252

.804

-340.978

432.970

[Condition=4]

Sig.

Upper Bound

Parameter
Intercept

Lower Bound

Parameter Estimates
Dependent Variable: Reading time in seconds
Parameter
Intercept

Partial Eta
Squared

Noncent.
Parameter

Observed
b
Power

.739

6.725

1.000

[Condition=1]

.215

2.094

.503

[Condition=2]

.089

1.252

.218

[Condition=3]

.004

.252

.056

[Condition=4]

a. This parameter is set to zero because it is redundant.

b. Computed using alpha = .05

Contrast Coefficients (L' Matrix)

Page
3

Homework 2

Intercept
Contrast
Parameter
Intercept

L1
1

[Condition=1]

.250

[Condition=2]

.250

[Condition=3]

.250

[Condition=4]

.250

The default
display of this
matrix is the
transpose of the
corresponding L
matrix.
Based on Type III Sums
of Squares.

Condition
Contrast
Parameter
Intercept

L2

L3

L4

[Condition=1]

[Condition=2]

[Condition=3]

[Condition=4]

-1

-1

-1

The default display of this matrix

is the transpose of the
corresponding L matrix.
Based on Type III Sums of Squares.

Profile Plots

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Homework 2

1300.00

1200.00

1100.00

1000.00

900.00

800.00
200 lx

500 lx

1000 lx

1500 l

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Homework 2

Ambient illumination level

This histogram shows the difference between the 4 groups. It indicates that those in the low
ambient lighting exhibit longer reading times than those in the high ambient lighting. I think
that a bar chart or a scatter plot with best fit line would be a better way to show the data
since it would be easier to read and show the actual numbers without having to guestimate.

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