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Ana Fatimah (2013002150)

David Ausubel was a cognitive learning theorist who focused on the learning of
school subjects and who placed considerable interest on what the student already knows as
being the primary determiner of whether and what he/she learns next. Ausubel viewed
learning as an active process, not simply responding to your environment. Learners seek to
make sense of their surroundings by integrating new knowledge with that which they have
already learned.
Ausubel was leery of the research on learning done in labs often using stimuli that
were not typical of school subjects. For example, at the time Ausubel was writing a large
amount of the research on learning involved having students memorize non-sense terms
such as "sdrgp" or paired associates such as "table-banana" since these were likely new and
unfamiliar to learners. For Ausubel this was simply rote learning that remained isolated
from other knowledge the learner had acquired. It was not potentially meaningful while
schools subjects were potentially meaningful. Rote learning was unlike the learning of
school subjects, so Ausubel sought to study how we learn content, like school subjects, that
is potentially meaningful. He wrote often about "meaningful learning" and this is why he
rejected the revel Vygotsky and Social Learning Theories.
Social learning theories help us to understand how people learn in social contexts
(learn from each other) and informs us on how we, as teachers, construct active learning
communities. Lev Vygotsky (1962), a Russian teacher and psychologist, first stated that we
learn through our interactions and communications with others.
Video is a part of everyday life, comparable to driving a car or taking a shower. It is
nearly omnipresent, available on demand and attached to nearby anything, anywhere.
Online Video became something vital and independent. With all the video created by the
cameras around us, constantly uploading, sharing, linking, and relating, a blue ocean is
covering our planet, an ocean of video. What might look as bluish noise and dust from the
far outside, might embed beautiful and fascinating living scapes of moving images, objects
constantly changing, re-arranging, assembling, evolving, collapsing, but never
disappearing, a real cinema.Andreas Treske describes and theorizes these objects formerly
named video, their forms, behaviours and properties.
"Listening is more complex than merely hearing. It is a process that consists of four
stages: sensing and attending, understanding and interpreting, remembering, and
responding. The stages occur in sequence but we are generally unaware of them."
(Sheila Steinberg, An Introduction to Communication Studies. Juta and Company
Ltd., 2007). "The reason why we have two ears and only one mouth is that we may listen
the more and talk the less."
(Zeno of Citium) Elements and Levels of Listening."There are four elements of good
listening:Attention, hearing, understanding, remembering.