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ID
GU E

MV/LV sensors and accessories


sensors
2-3 ELECTRICAL NETWORK SELECTION GUIDE
a) Power circuit

1. MV/LV sensors and accessories


1.1 Sensors
1.1.1 Connection of voltage transformers according to the type of neutral
point connection. Should precautions be taken for ungrounded neutral
systems?

1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5

Measurement test boxes


MV apparatus auxiliary drawin-drawout position contacts
MV apparatus auxiliary open-closed position contacts
Voltage present indicators

2.

Protections

3.

Measuring apparatus

4.

Metering apparatus

5.

Recording apparatus

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Merlin Gerin Modicon Square D Telemecanique

MV/LV sensors and accessories


sensors

CONNECTION OF VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS IN MV


SYSTEMS. SHOULD PRECAUTIONS BE TAKEN FOR
UNGROUNDED NEUTRAL SYSTEMS?

HELLO!
WE HAVE ALREADY MET
HAVENT WE?

SUMMARY
ections, independent of
nn
co
d
re
te
un
co
en
ly
on
1 - Comm
int connection
ted
the type of neutral po
dings of 3 star connecection
in
w
y
ar
im
pr
e
th
of
int conn
2 - Linking
the type of neutral po
s
VTs according to
ounded neutral system
gr
un
r
fo
n
ke
ta
be
to
3 - Precautions ected VTs
with 3 star conn
ndary windings
4 - Earthing of VT seco
tion load resistor R.
ec
nn
co
a
lt
de
a
of
ce
oi
5 - Guide to the ch

If you wish for more general information concerning voltage


transformers, see binder B, chapter 1, topic 3.

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page 2

MV/LV sensors and accessories


sensors

1 - Commonly
encountered connections,
independent of the type
of neutral point
connection

THREE STAR CONNECTED VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS (VT)

P1

S1

P2

S2

1
Usn
2

Usn
Usn

3
N

Un
1

Usn / 3

ach VT is supplied with a voltage equal to the system voltage =


Un divided by 3 Un / 3
Each VT secondary winding delivers a voltage equal to the voltage Usn / 3
VTs ratio =

Un / 3
Usn / 3

VTs usually employed this case, have only one primary isolated HV terminal
(P1), the second terminal (P2) is not considered as a HV terminal and is put
back to the secondary terminal level (e.g. TPRF type VT).
In the case of an integrated HV fuse type VT, only one fuse is required
(terminal P1).
At the VT secondary windings, we have three phase-to-phase voltages and
three phase-to-earth voltages: Us1 - 2 ; Us2 - 3 ; Us1 - 3 and Vs1 ; Vs2 ; Vs3

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page 3

MV/LV sensors and accessories


sensors

1 - Commonly
encountered connections,
independent of the type
of neutral point
connection (contd)

TWO VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS CONNECTED BETWEEN PHASES, V-CONNECTED

P1

S1

P2

S2

1
2
Usn
3

Un
1

he VTs used in this case have two isolated HV primary windings


(P1 and P2).
In the case of integrated fuse type VTs, two HV fuses are required.

Each secondary winding delivers a voltage equal to the phase-to-phase


voltage Usn
VTs ratio =

Un
U sn

At the secondary windings, we find the three phase-to-phase voltages.


Us1 - 2 ; Us2 - 3 ; Us1 - 3
Caution! this type of connection excludes amongst other things:
measurement of phase to earth voltages Vs1 - Vs2 - Vs3
measurement of the zero sequence voltage
adaptation of a directional earthing protection (the polarisation of the
relays being made using the zero sequence voltage).

For the various VT connection possibilities according to the type of cubicle,


REFER TO THE EQUIPMENT CHOICE TABLE.

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page 4

MV/LV sensors and accessories


sensors

2 - Linking of the primary


windings of 3 star
connected VTs
according to the type of
neutral point connection

DIRECTLY EARTHED SYSTEMS OR SYSTEMS EARTHED VIA A LOW IMPEDANCE


(earthing fault intensity 3 Io approx. 10 A, depending on the system)

ince earthing fault current detection is carried out by overcurrent


relays, the star point of the VTs primary windings will be directly
connected to earth.

UNGROUNDED NEUTRAL SYSTEM


This type of neutral point connection:
requires a waiver to avoid tripping on the first occurrence of a fault
(decree dated 14/11/62).
requires that the current during the first fault should not be dangerous
to personnel (potential difference between two accessible points).
requires an installation capable of withstanding the phase-to-phase
voltage between the phase and earth, especially if tripping occurred on
the second fault (cables, VT, etc.).
requires surveillance of the systems isolation.
often makes it difficult to install selective earthing fault protection.

Surveillance of system isolation not using injection of direct current


(e.g. use of 59 N neutral point displacement type surveillance relays).
The star point of the VT primaries must be directly earthed.

Surveillance of system isolation using injection of direct current


(using Vigilohm)
Isolation surveillance is carried out by continuous measurement of the
resistance of the insulators across the whole system (Vigilohm THR).
This measurement gives the real value of isolation for all of the live conductors.
Its sensibility is identical on each of the conductors and is independent of
the system voltage.

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page 5

MV/LV sensors and accessories


sensors

2 - Linking of the primary


windings of 3 star
connected VTs
according to the type of
neutral point connection

To avoid shunting the direct current injected by the Vigilohm, it is necessary


to earth the star point of the VTs primary windings by means of:
a standard MG P1 plate including an overvoltage limiter and a capacitor
to fix the neutral point voltage for the VT connected to the Vigilohm.

a Cardew, parallel mounted with a capacitor for the other VT (star mounted)
connected to the same system.

Choose a 250 V type Cardew and a 2.5 F, 1,600 Vcc capacitor*.

(contd)

Only one Vigilohm should be installed on a system, as near as possible


to the supply.
If two separate systems exist, that may be coupled, provision should be
made for one of the Vigilohms to be disconnected when the coupling is
closed (by opening of the direct current return connection: see binder C,
chapter 2.3 a) 2. 7, topic page A5 to A7).

3
N
1

3
Vigilohm
P1

* May be subject to modification (see DOMT. F design office - factory L - FRANCE).

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MV/LV sensors and accessories


sensors

3 - Precautions to be
taken for ungrounded
neutral systems with
3 star connected VTs

Each VT must be connected between phase and earth.

hus in normal operation it withstands the phase-to-phase voltage divided


by 3 U n / 3

If an earthing fault occurs, the VTs neutral point may increase in potential
up to that of the faulty phase. The two VTs must then withstand the phaseto-phase voltage until tripping occurs.
VT1

VT2
2
VT3
3
N

Un

A
1

Normal VTs supply voltage VT = Un/ 3


If A is subject to a continuous bolted fault:
VT1 must withstand Un 1-3
VT2 must withstand Un 2-3

Un
3

Un

N
VT 3

VT

VT3
2

3
A

On the primary winding, phase 3


is accidentally earthed.

date

VT

Un

VT1

N
3

VT2
2
Un

Consequently: the primary winding


of VT3 is short circuited.
The primary windings of VT1 and
VT2 must withstand respectively
the phase-to-phase voltages Un 1-3
and Un 2-3.

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MV/LV sensors and accessories


sensors

3 - Precautions to be
taken for ungrounded
neutral systems with
3 star connected VTs
(contd)

A VT is characterised by its rated voltage factor according to the installations


type of neutral point connection and the probable duration of the fault in
accordance with standards (IEC Publication 186 and NFC 42-501).

Normal values of the rated voltage factor


The rated voltage factor is determined by the maximum operating voltage,
which itself depends in turn on the system and on the earthing conditions
of the transformers primary winding.
Normal values of the rated voltage factor appropriate to the various system
earthing conditions are given in the table below, together with the permissible
duration for which the maximum operating voltage may be applied (in other
words the rated duration).

rated
voltage
factor

rated
duration

additional
permissible
temperature rise

1.2

continuous

none

1.2

continuous

none

1.5

30 s

10 C

1.2

continuous

none

1.9

30 s

10 C

1.9

h(1)

30

C(2)

1.2

continuous

none

1.9

8 h(1)

10 C

connection mode of the primary winding


and system earthing conditions
between phases of any one system, between the neutral
point and earth of star connected transformers in any
particular system.
between phase and earth in a neutral system
effectively earthed neutral system.
between phase and earth in a neutral system
effectively not earthed, with automatic elimination of
the earthing fault.
the verification opposite (1.9 Un 2 h) is not compulsory.
It is only carried out on agreement between the
manufacturer and the user.
between phase and earth in an ungrounded neutral
system without automatic elimination of the earthing
fault or in a resonant earthed system without automatic
elimination of the earthing fault.

(1) Reduced rated durations are admissible by agreement between the manufacturer and
the user.
(2) Additional permissible temperature rise of 30 C at 1.9 Un 2 h takes account of the fact
that overvoltages of this duration are exceptional and in no way risk reducing insulator reliability.

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page 8

MV/LV sensors and accessories


sensors

3 - Precautions to be
taken for ungrounded
neutral systems with
3 star connected VTs

The VTs must be loaded.


The VTs must be loaded to avoid ferro-resonant effects appearing on an
ungrounded neutral system.
If consumption downstream of the VTs is not very high, it is necessary
to install load resistors.

(contd)

VTs with only one secondary winding


Load each VT with a resistor (standard MG plate including three resistors
(R1 - R2 - R3 of 68 ohms - 240 W).

R
1

R
2

R
3

Usn
Usn
3

Un
1

In this case, the resistors are supplied power and continuously absorb
power as soon at the VTs are live.
Verify that the total power consumed on each VT permit the required
rated conditions for use to be met.
Example :

Un

Usn / 3

{
11,000

VT

110

50 VA cl. 1

Supposing that the power required for measurement = 3 VA for each


secondary phase.
Then calculating the power absorbed by a resistor in normal operation:
2

P=U
R

Usn / 3 2
110/ 3 2
=
= 59.3 VA
R1
68

Calculating the total consumed power (PT) on 1 VT.


The VT should have a rated output greater than PT
PT 3 + 59.3 = 62 W
In our example, the rated output is 50 VA. This transformer is not suitable in
this instance.

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page 9

MV/LV sensors and accessories


sensors

3 - Precautions to be
taken for ungrounded
neutral systems with
3 star connected VTs

VTs with two secondary windings


In this case, the second secondary winding of the VTs is used. They are
delta connected to supply a load resistance R.

(contd)

U2
U1
U3
2

U3
3
N
U3
1

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MV/LV sensors and accessories


sensors

U1

U2

10,000

VT

U3

{
100

100

(contd)

Example :

3 - Precautions to be
taken for ungrounded
neutral systems with
3 star connected VTs

cl. 0.5

cl. 3 P

Pe = 100 VA secondary winding rated continuous power used by the load


resistance.
VT in normal operation
In the absence of a fault, the voltage at the delta connected secondary
winding terminals (or at the terminals of the resistor R) is nil.
Example :
HV primary (V)
10,000/ 3

1st secondary LV (V)


100/ 3

2nd secondary LV (V)


100/3

1
2'

N"

N'

N"
60

N
00 /

,0
10

2"

120

3"

3'

100/3
1"

100/ 3

N"

120

1'

The resistor only absorbs power should a fault occur.


VT with fault: phase 1 to earth
The voltage at the terminals of resistor R is at the maximum of 3 U3.
Example :
HV primary (V)
10,000/ 3

1st secondary LV (V)


100/ 3

2nd secondary LV (V)


100/3

1
3"

N
30

60

10,000

2'

3'

60

N'
3
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least favourable case

N'

1'.N'

100

In our example, the voltages N'' 2'' and N'' 3'' = 100
3
The voltage at the terminals of R: 1'' 3'' = 2 x N'' 2'' x cos 30

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revis

12/95

100

N"
120
R
2"
U = 100
3 30 1".N"
N"

This being 3 times U3.

= 2 x 100 x 3 = 100 V
2
3
page 11

MV/LV sensors and accessories


sensors

3 - Precautions to be
taken for ungrounded
neutral systems with
3 star connected VTs
(contd)

CALCULATION OF THE LOAD RESISTOR R


To minimise the risks of ferro-resonance effects, this power must be greater
than 50 watts and less than the rated continuous power of the winding.
In the instance of a fault, the current that flows through R is equal to: I = 3U3
R
This current flows through the VTs secondary windings. The power supplied
by VT is thus:
2
P = 3 U3 x 3 U3 = 3 3 U3
R
R

U3 2

3 3

Pe

< R <

3 3 U3 2
50

Pe = rated thermal burden of the load secondary winding.


Resistor R, will be chosen in order to be able to continuously dissipate
the power (for VT with a minimum voltage factor of 1.9 - 8 hours).
PR

3 U3 2
R

PR = power of the resistor.

N.B.:

P = U with U = 3 x U3
R

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MV/LV sensors and accessories


sensors

3 - Precautions to be
taken for ungrounded
neutral systems with
3 star connected VTs

Example calculation of the load resistor R

(contd)

Data:
Secondary windings, delta connected to the load resistor
Secondary voltages: U3 = 100 V
3
Rated thermal power of this secondary winding: Pe = 100 VA
1) Calculating R
3 3 U3 2
Min. value:
R>
Pe
2
3 3 100
3
R>
100

R > 58 ohms

Max. value:

R<

3 3 U3 2
50

2
3 3 100
3
R<
50

R < 115 ohms


We will choose for this example a resistance of between 58 and 115 ohms.
Our choice:

R < 68 ohms (the rated value immediately


above 58 ).

2) Calculating the power dissipated by this resistor R in the case of a fault


3U 3 2
P
=
R

3 x 100
3
68

= 147 W

Final choice R = 68 ohms/147 watts


(See chapter 5 Guide to choice of a delta connection load resistor).

Assembly with two VTs connected between phases (V-type assembly)


No particular precautions are necessary for its use in an ungrounded
neutral system.

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page 13

MV/LV sensors and accessories


sensors

4 - Earthing of VT
secondary windings

Any possible excitation between the secondary and primary windings


should under no circumstances lead to a dangerous increase in the
potential of the secondary winding in relation to earth.
In all connection configurations, the VTs secondary windings must be connected
to earth, either directly (generally) or via an overvoltage limiter if earthing is
unsuitable for any upstream equipment.

If you require general information on voltage transformers,


see binder B, chapter 1, topic 3.

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page 14

MV/LV sensors and accessories


sensors

5 - Guide to the choice of


a delta connection load
resistor R

Preferably, resistors from the attached 140 W standard series will be chosen.
For Fluair type cubicles, an enclosure, enabling their installation has been
designed to take resistance of this size and of this type of fixing.
Below are a few values that are usually used.

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MV/LV sensors and accessories


sensors

5 - Guide to the choice of


a delta connection load
resistor R (contd)
TABLE FOR CHOICE OF THE LOAD RESISTANCE

Ratio of
the secondary
winding
in question

{
{
{
{

X
3
100
3
X
3
110
3
X
3
115
3
X
3
120
3

Rated
continuous
power*

Minimum
calculated
resistance

Standard
resistor to
be chosen

Check of the
power dissipated
by the resistor

Standard
resistor
power

50 VA

115.5

120

83 W

1 x 140 W

100 VA

57.7

2 x 120 in //

2 x 83 W

2 x 140 W

200 VA

28.9

2 x 100 in //

2 x 100 W

2 x 140 W

50 VA

139.7

150

80.7 W

1 x 140 W

100 VA

69.9

2 x 150 in //

2 x 80.7 W

2 x 140 W

200 VA

34.9

2 x 100 in //

2 x 121 W

2 x 140 W

50 VA

152.7

180

73.5 W

1 x 140 W

100 VA

76.3

2 x 180 in //

2 x 73.5 W

2 x 140 W

200 VA

38.1

2 x 100 in //

2 x 132.2 W

2 x 140 W

50 VA

166.3

180

80 W

1 x 140 W

100 VA

83.1

2 x 180 in //

2 x 80 W

2 x 140 W

200 VA

41.5

2 x 120 in //

2 x 120 W

2 x 140 W

*This is indeed the rated continuous power for the secondary winding
concerned by the load resistor and not of the VTs total power.
For part numbers, see the following pages.

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MV/LV sensors and accessories


sensors

5 - Guide to the choice of


a delta connection load
resistor R (contd)

As an example, you will find below an extract from the MG technical standard.
The characteristics given may be subject to change.

140 W, 5% RESISTOR (ring type output)

technological characteristics

Technology: coiled
Type of casing: axial, ring type

electrical characteristics

rated power
tolerance
rated voltage limit

dimensions
A
15.5
B
170
C
26.9
D
28
E
12

140

W
%
1700 V

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

C
E

environmental or climatic characteristics


operating temperature
- 55 + 350 C
storage temperature
- 55 + 350 C
climatic classification
55/200/56

100

Pn (%)

75
50
Tamb
(C)

25
0
- 55

installation
type of fixing

+ 25

+ 100

+ 200

+ 300

+ 350

clip

standards and approvals


model
RB25 x 168
approval
Merlin Gerin
standard 1
NFC 93-214

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page 17

MV/LV sensors and accessories


sensors

5 - Guide to the choice of


a delta connection load
resistor R (contd)

accessories - tooling

A - clip
B - grip
C - connection spade
D - insulator
- nut
- washer

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reference

quantity

25512013
25512023
25512001
1503569
21253104
21232004

2
2
2
2
4
4

guide table

MG code

value (ohm)

MG code

value (ohm)

25512725

12

25512728
25512729
25512730
25512732
25512734
25512736
25512737
25512738
25512739

22
27
33
47
68
100
120
150
180

25512740
25512743
25512744
25512745
25512746
25512747
25512748
25512749
25512750
25512753

220
390
470
560
680
820
1000
1200
1500
2700

12/95
page 18