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Bignay is a small, smooth, dioecious tree, 4 to 10 meters high. Leaves are shiny,
oblong, 8 to 20 centimeters long, pointed at the tip, rounded or pointed at the base.
Spikes are axillary or terminal, simple, and usually 5 to 15 centimeters long.
Scientific names
Common names
Antidesma bunius (Linn.) Spreng
Bignay (Tag., Sbl., Bik.,C. Bis.)
Antidesma cilliatum Presl.
Bignay-kalabaw (Tag.)
Antidesma cordifolium Presl.
Bugnay (Ilk., Bon., Ibn., P. Bis., C. Bis.)
A. bunius var cordifolium Muel.
Bugney (Bon., If.)
Alimpai is a straggling, climbing shrub. Leaves are extremely variable, the smaller
ones ovate-cordate and 2.5 to 7.5 centimeters long, the larger ones, orbicularcordate and 10 to 18 centimeters long.
Scientific names

Common names


Alimpai (Tag.)
Ranhlui (India)
Miracle plant of Saikot (Engl.)
Caudated croton (Engl.)
Luan ye ba dou (Chin.)

caudatus Geisel.
aromaticus Gaertn.
denticulatus Geisel.
drupaceus Geisel.
racemosus Burm. f.

Pintado is an erect, branched, smooth, half-woody herb or shrubby plant, 0.5 to 1.5
meters high. Leaves are alternate and extremely variable in shape, most often
oblong-ovate, 3 to 10 centimeters long, the lower ones usually entire, the upper ones
variously lobed, sinuate, dentate, or subentire, and the uppermost ones blotched with
red at the base, similar to the bracts.
Scientific names
Common names
Euphorbia heterophylla (L.) Klotz. & Garcke Pintado (Tag.)
Euphorbia geniculata Ortega.
Mexican fireplant (Engl.)
Euphorbia prunifolia Jacq.
Painted euphorbia (Engl.)
Makikitot is an annual, spreading or prostrate, much branched, slender, smooth or
somewhat hairy herb. Stems are usually reddish, growing up to 20 centimeters in
length. Leaves are opposite, distichous, somewhat oblique, elliptic to oblong, 4 to 7
millimeters long and obscurely crenulate.
Scientific names

Common names

Euphorbia thymifolia Linn.

Euphorbia rubrosperma Lotsy
Euphorbia microphylla Lam.
Chamaesyce thymifolia (L.) Millsp.
Anisophyllum thymifolium

Makikitot (Tag.)
Nayoti (India)
Golondrina (Span.)
Chickenweed (Engl.)
Gulf sandmat (Engl.)

Binugang-malapad is a tree growing 5 to 10 meters high. Large leaves are
characteristic, about 60 to 100 centimeters wide. Petiole is very long and joins the
leaf within the leaf margin. Leaf blade is broad, rounded-ovate or ovate, 30 to 80
centimeters greater in length than in width, wider towards the base than near the tip,
with stems attaching towards the center of the leaf blade.

Scientific names
Macaranga grandifolia (Blanco) Merr.
Macaranga mappa F.-Vill.

Common names
Abing-abing (Tag.)
Biluak (Tag.)

Tubang-bakod is a smooth, glabrous, erect, branched shrub 2 to 5 meters high.

Branches are stout, cylindric, and green. Leaves are entire, orbicular-ovate, angular
or somewhat 3- to 5-lobed, 10 to 18 centimeters long, acuminate with a cordate
base. Petioles are long.
Scientific names
Common names
Jatropha curcas L.
Galumbang (Pamp.)
Jatropha acerifolia Salisb.
Kasla (Bis.)
Jatropha edulis Cerv.
Kirisol (Tag.)
Bulak-bulakan is an erect, slightly branched shrub growing to 2 to 3 meters high.
Leaves are ovate, 10-20 centimeters long, somewhat 3-lobed or nearly entire, green
and nearly smooth in the upper surface, hairy beneath, pointed at the tip, and broad
and heart-shaped at the base.
Scientific names
Common names
Thespesia lampas (Cav.) Dalz. and Gibs
Amagong (Tag.)
Thespesia sublobata Blanco
Bulak-bulak (Tag.)
Azanza lampas (Cav.) Alefeld
Bulak-bulakan (Tag.)
Hibiscus callosus Blume
Dadlallupang (Neg.)
Hibiscus lampas Cav.
Dalimokan (Bag.)
Babara is an erect, somewhat hairy, branched, half-woody perennial, about 1 meter
high. Leaves are oblong to ovate-lanceolate, 2 to 5 centimeters long, with blunt tip,
rounded base and irregularly toothed margins.
Scientific names
Common names
Malva coromandelina Linn.
Babara (Ilk.)
Malva tricuspidata R, Br.
Gagabuten (Ilk.)
Malva luzonica Blanco
Kinaylumpang (Tag.)
Labuag is a weak-stemmed trailing plant covered with soft hairs and scattered
prickles. Leaves are rounded, toothed, and deeply and palmately 3- or 5-lobed.
Flowers are yellow with a dark red center. Capsules are hairy and ovoid. Seeds are
Scientifric names
Common names
HIbiscus suratensis Linn.
Ahimit (Gad.)
Hibiscus aculeatus G. Don
Andahalit (Sul.)
Hibiscus appendiculatus Stokes

Barbarinit (Ilk.)

Hibiscus involucratus Salisb.

Inabu (Ilk.)

Kastuli is an annual, erect and branched herb, about a meter high or less, covered
with very long hairs. Leaves are orbicular-ovate to ovate, 6 to 15 centimeters long,
variously angled and 3- to 5-lobed or more, pointed at the tip, broad or heart-shaped

at the base, toothed at the margins. Flowers are about 10 centimeters in diameter,
with yellow petals, purple at the base inside. Capsules are oblong-ovoid, 5 to 7
centimeters long, covered with long hairs and containing many musky seeds.
Scientific names
Common names
Abelmoschus moschatus Medic.
Agukai (Sul.)
Hibiscus abelmoschus Linn.
Dalak (Buk.)
Bamia abelmoschus R. Br.
Dalupang (Tag.)
Phalsa is a small tree, with young stems and inflorescences densely covered with
hairs. Leaves are obliquely ovate, sometimes obscurely 3-lobed, 7.5 centimeters to
20 centimeters long, 5 to 16 centimeters wide, with pointed tip and obliquely heartshaped base.
Other scientific names
Common names
Grewia asiatica Linn.
Bariu' an (Ilk.)
Grewia subinaequalis DC.
Bariuan-gulod (Ilk.)
Grewia hainesiana Hole
Asiatic grewia (Engl.)
Kalit-kalit is a perennial vine, climbing by means of tendrils found opposite the
leaves. Leaves are trifoliolate with petioles 2 to 3 centimeters long. Leaflets are ovate
to oblong-ovate, 2 to 8 centimeters long, 1.5 to 5 centimeters wide, pointed at the
tip, and coarsely toothed at the margins. Flowers are small, greenish white, borne on
axillary and solitary cymes.
Scientific names

Common names

Cayratia trifolia (Linn.) Quis.

Cayratia carnosa Gagnep.
Columella trifolia (Linn.) Merr.

Alagigi (Tag.)
Arinat (Tag.)
Barinatnat (Ilk.)

Matang-ulang is a climbing, smooth shrub, reaching a height of 4 meters or more.
Leaves are oblong, 8 to 16 centimeters long, margins entire or faintly and distantly
toothed, and pointed at both ends. Flowers are borne in clusters in the axils of the
Scientific names

Common names

Salacia prinoides (Willd.) DC.

Salacia chinensis Willd.
Salacia latifolia Blanco

Matang-ulang (Tag.)
Ope (Ig.)
Chinese salacia (Engl.)

Kabatiti is a climbing, smooth shrub, reaching a height of 6 meters. Leaves are
shining, ovate, 5 to 9 centimeters long, 2 to 6 centimeters wide; with pointed tips,
rounded bases and toothed margins.
Scientific names
Common names
Colubrina asiatica (Linn.) Brongn.
Ceanothus asiaticus Linn.
Rhamnus carolinianus Blanco


Kabatiti (Tag.)
Kayaskas (Ilk.)
Paria (Bag.)

Mana is a smooth shrub 2 to 3 meters high, with the petioles as long as the leaves.
Leaves are glaucous beneath, 15 to 30 centimeters in diameter, and cleft nearly to
the base into about 10 lanceolate, entire or pinnately incised lobes, the lobes about 1
to 4 centimeters wide. Flowers are red, borne on long peduncled cymes, 3 to 6
centimeters broad. Capsules are obovoid, about 2 centimeters long, somewhat threeangled, with the angles rounded.
Scientific names
Common names
Jatropha multifida Linn.
Jatropha janipha Blanco.
Adenoropium multifidum (L.) Pohl

Mana (Span., Tag.)

Tubang-americano (Bik.)
Coral bush (Engl.)

Tula-tula is a tree that attains a height of 10 meters or less. Leaves are alternate,
peltate orbicular or suborbicular-ovate, 7 to 16 centimeters long, 5 to 15 centimeters
wide; the apex is pointed, smooth above but glaucous beneath, with hairy glands on
the axils of the base. Flowers are small.
Scientific names
Common names
Mallotus floribundus (Blume) Muell.-Arg.
Bagnan (Tagb.)
Mallotus anamiticus Kuntze
Batalang (Bag.)
Mallotus amentiformis Mull. Arg
Katula (Sub.)
Luha is a half-woody, succulent, and erect shrub growing to a height of 1.5 meters or
less, with fleshy and stout branches which produce a milky latex. Leaves are green or
variegated, fleshy, smooth, alternate, deciduous, ovate or oblong, 3.5 to 7.5
centimeters long, 2.5 to 5 centimeters wide, pointed at both ends. Flowers are
reddish, clustered on leafless stems, terminal or axillary. Capsules are 9 millimeters
Scientific names
Common names
Pedilanthus tithymaloides Linn.
Luha (Tag.)
Luhang-dalaga (Tag.)
Bird cactus (Engl.)
Devil's backbone (Engl.)
Tagan-tagan is a coarse, erect, branched, smooth, somewhat woody bush, 1 to 4
meters high. Younger parts are glaucous, and the vegetative parts and inflorescence
are green or purplish.
Scientific names
Common names
Ricinus communis Linn.
Gatlaoua (If.)
Ricinus communis (L.) var viridis (Willd.) Mull.
Gatlawa (If.)
Katana (Iv., Bon.)
Lansina (Tag.)
Ligang-sina (Tag.)
Kasuy is a small tree with a usually small and crooked trunk. Leaves are simple,
smooth, alternate, ovate or obovate, 10 to 20 centimeters long, 7 to 12 centimeters
wide, with slightly rounded, emarginate apex. Flowers are small, 5 to 6 millimeters in

diameter, crowded at the tips of the branches, and yellow to yellowish-white, the
petals usually with pink stripes.
Scientific names
Common names
Anacardium occidentale Linn.
Balogo (Ilk.)
Anacardium microcarpum Ducke
Balubad (Tag., Pamp.)
Acajuba occidentalis (L.) Gaertn.
Balubag, Baluban (Tag.)
Parol-parolan is a slender, herbaceous, more or less hairy vine, 1 to 3 meters in
Leaves are trifoliate, and 5 to 9 centimeters long. Leaflets are ovate to lanceolate,
and 1 to 5 centimeters long, with coarsely toothed or lobed margins. Flowers are
small, white, and about 2.5 millimeters long. Sepals are 4, concave, the outer ones
Scientific names
Common names
Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn.
Alalayon (C. Bis.)
Bangkolan (Tag.)
Kana (Bis.)