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Erythrina edulis

http://food-security.info/food-security.info/Winrock%20Archive/edulis.htm

Llamado tambin Bal, Sachaporoto, Poroto,


Balsuy o Frijol Mompas

el legado de Los
Incas
El Chachafruto es conocido como el Man del Trpico
como el rbol multipropsito y tambin
como el rbol que nunca muere.
Oswaldo Prez *
Una historia personal
Cuando renunci a mi cargo de profesor en la ULA, en
el ao 1975, para irme a una pequea finca de
aproximadamente 10 has. en el municipio Andrs
Bello del Estado Mrida, fu con la intencin de
descubrir un nuevo modelo de vida sobre el planeta
que nos resultara mas satisfactorio y ms
convincente.

Cuestionbamos en esa poca la direccin que segua la sociedad industrial de consumo y la forma como
dentro de sta sociedad se resolvan los asuntos bsicos de la existencia como lo son la alimentacin, la
vivienda, la convivencia de pareja, la salud, y la educacin de los hijos. As que optamos por lanzarnos sin ningn
tipo de experiencia a la aventura de irnos al campo, para iniciar la investigacin prctica de un proceso orientado
a descubrir si exista un nuevo modelo de vida que diera una respuesta diferente, alternativa o mas adecuada a
nuestras inquietudes.
Despus de 26 aos de intensa bsqueda, nos encontramos en la actualidad en una encrucijada importante
que nos interesa comunicar, pues estamos seguros que lo que actualmente percibimos como una verdadera
solucin, o un nuevo modelo de vida que puede llegar a ser de extrema utilidad para nuestro Municipio, para el
Pas y para el mundo entero.
La Propuesta del Chachafruto
Esta propuesta la estamos enviando actualmente a un concurso internacional y la hemos titulado: "Consolidacin
de un Nuevo Modelo Agroalimentario Sustentable de Produccin de Protenas para la Regin Tropical". El
Sumario de este proyecto es el siguiente:"Los 800 millones de personas que existen en el mundo en estado de
desnutricin crnica son consecuencia de la aplicacin de un modelo agroalimentario de produccin y consumo
insustentable. Se propone un nuevo modelo basado en :
1) El cultivo de la leguminosa "Erythrina Edulis" que es un legado de los Incas, originaria de los
Andes y que tiene la mayor productividad de protena utilizable/Ha. del mundo,y
2) El procesamiento de esta leguminosa para la fabricacin de "Miso", uno de los mejores y
ms estratgicos alimentos del planeta para consumo humano directo".
Tratar en el presente artculo introductorio hacer un resumen descriptivo de la agro ecologa
de esta leguminosa, dejando para el prximo nmero de La Era Ecolgica los datos de
utilidad prctica que permitan crear un semillero de esta planta.

Descripcin agroecolgica del Chachafruto


La "Erythrina Edulis" es una de las 115 especies de Erythrinas dentro de la subfamilia Papilionoideae de las
leguminosas, es un rbol que alcanza una altura de 14 mts. y su follaje puede llegar a los 7 mts. de dimetro, su
rango de vida oscila entre 30 y 40 aos, y el tronco principal alcanza los 37 cms. de dimetro.El rango altitudinal
para sta especie es desde los 1200 hasta los 2600 mts. sobre el nivel del mar. Los nombres comunes con los
que se conoce este rbol son los siguientes : chachafruto, bal, sachaporoto, poroto, balsui y frijol mompas. El
Chachafruto es conocido como el "Man del Trpico", como el rbol multipropsito y tambin como el rbol que
nunca muere. Es calificado como una planta milagrosa por sus propiedades medicinales y como un
superalimento para el hombre y los animales, no solo por la cantidad de protenas sino tambin por la calidad y
balance de sus aminocidos.

Ac en el Municipio Andrs Bello del Estado Mrida lo


hemos escogido como uno de los renglones agrcolas

estratgicos para solventar la crisis econmica y ambiental


en la que estamos. Y esto debido a las inmensas
posibilidades que nos ofrece entre las que resalta el hecho
de que es totalmente comestible: sus hojas, flores, cscara
del fruto y semillas, pueden servir de excelente alimento
proteico para todos los animales y para el ser humano. Los
niveles de produccin de este rbol resultan increbles pues
se ubican en las 36 toneladas de frjol por hectrea, para
ejemplares de 6 aos sembrados con una densidad de 400
rboles por hectrea (5mts. x 5mts.). Este rbol puede
usarse como acompaante para el cultivo del caf,
recomendndose en este caso sembrar a 7 mts.x 7 mts. y
tambin para otros cultivos como malanga, lulo y tomate de
rbol. Esta especie puede usarse para "cercas vivas" pues
prende fcilmente por estacas. Se usa actualmente en
Colombia para "bancos de protenas" pues produce 80
toneladas de forraje protico por hectrea (23% de protenas
). Para este ltimo esquema de produccin, hay que
sembrarlo cada 50 cms. entre rbol y cada 1 mt. entre
hileras. La primera poda se hace a los 12 meses y las 2
podas siguientes distanciadas 6 meses cada una y en
adelante cada 4 meses se puede realizar un corte.

Los lectores de La Era Ecolgica que estn interesados en conocer este proyecto en detalle pueden enviarnos su
e-mail a la siguiente direccin: granjaom@yahoo.es , y con mucho gusto le enviaremos una copia del mismo.
Aqu les adelantar algunas direcciones en el cyberespacio que tienen mas informacin sobre este tema :
www.winrock.org/forestry/factnet.htm
www.desde_abajo.org
* Ingeniero-Agricultor

Erythrina Species - Pantropical Multipurpose Tree Legumes


http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/Publicat/Gutt-shel/x5556e0b.htm

Forage Tree Legumes in Tropical Agriculture


http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/Publicat/Gutt-shel/x5556e00.htm#Contents

NFT Highlights
NFTA 94-01, January 1994
A quick guide to nitrogen fixing trees from around the world

Erythrina edulis: multipurpose tree for tropical highlands


Cultivated for centuries, Erythrina edulis is an important food source for humans and animals in the
tropical highlands of South America. The seed is a component of many diets,and the trees also
provide shade in coffee and cacao plantations, support for vine crops, green manure, live fenceposts,
wood for construction and fuel, and medicinal preparations.
Botany
Erythrina edulis Triana ex M. Micheli is one of
about 115 Erythrina species in the subfamily
Papilionoideae of the Leguminosae (syn.
Fabaceae) family. Over a normal life span of 30
to 40 years, the leafy trees grow up to 14 m tall
with stem diameters up to 37 cm and crown
diameters up to 7 m. The stem and branches
are covered with stout prickles. The alternate
leaves are trifoliate with long petioles and two
nectar-producing glands at the base of each
leaflet. The flower cluster (raceme), supported
on a stout stalk, consists of 180 to 200
short-stalked flowers arranged in threes around
the axis. The flowers have a reddish-green
calyx and a crimson corolla with an upper petal
(standard) and two lateral petals forming the
keel. The pistil is surrounded by 10 stamens.
The two-petaled flowers face upward, forming
a large cup in which nectar gathers (Ruskin,
1989).
Erythrina edulis is cross pollinated by sucking insects, bees, wasps and birds. Seeds mature 65
days after flowering. Fruits hang in bunches of 9 and 18 cylindrical pods. Pod size varies widely, but
averages 32 cm long and 3 cm in diameter with six seeds. The seed coat is generally brownish-red
but is sometimes yellow or black (Acero, 1989).
Distribution
Erythrina edulis is distributed from Mrida in Venezuela, to the mountain ranges of Colombia and
the Andes mountains of Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. It is commonly known as chachafruto, bal,
basul or sachaporoto in Colombia, guato in Ecuador, and pashuro, pajuro, basul sachaporoto
or sacha purutu in Argentina and Bolivia (Ruskin, 1989).
Ecology

Erythrina edulis is a pioneer species that grows best in full sunlight, but trees can tolerate some
shade in the early stages of growth. In Colombia, the species occurs from elevations of 1200 to
2600 m, with an optimum range from 1600 to 2200 m. In Peru, E. edulis grows from 900 to 3200
m (Martel, 1989). In the species's native range, annual rainfall varies from 450 to 1800 mm and
temperatures are between 5 and 25C. The trees grow well in loose-textured sandy loams and in
heavy clay soils. They do not tolerate frequent frosts.
Uses
Human food. The seeds contain 23% protein, 1% fat, 8% crude fiber and 84% moisture. They
have a good balance of amino acids and a digestibility after cooking of about 50%. Seeds must be
boiled at least 45 minutes or fried thoroughly before being eaten. As a paste, they provide a
nutritious base for tortillas, desserts, pies, soups and food for infants. They are also boiled, sun dried,
ground and added to flour. Research indicates that uncooked E. edulis seeds can be toxic if
consumed over a long period (Prez et al., 1979). Seeds of all other Erythrina species are highly
toxic.
Forage. The leaves and tender branches can be fed to cattle, goats, horses, pigs, guinea pigs and
rabbits. Leaves contain 24% protein, 29% crude fiber (dry weight) and 21% total carbohydrates.
They are rich in potassium but low in calcium (Surco, 1987). Seeds and pods can be fed fresh to
cattle and goats, but should be cooked before feeding to pigs, chickens, rabbits or fish. The pods
contain 21% protein, 23% crude fiber (dry weight), 24% carbohydrates and 91% moisture. Cooked
seed can replace up to 60% of the concentrate fed to chickens and fish (Martn and Falla, 1991).
For maximum fodder production, the trees can be planted in protein banks at a close spacing (1.0 x
0.5 m). They are first pruned at 10 months and then at six- or four-month intervals. A two-year-old
protein bank can produce up to 80 tons of leaves and tender branches per ha, or the leaves can be
dried and ground to produce 6 tons of chicken feed rich in carotene (Vargas and Ocampo, 1991).
Shade and support. Erythrina edulis is widely used as a shade tree for coffee or as a support for
vine crops such as pepper, betel and grape. In Colombia, trees are spaced at 6 x 6 to 8 x 8 m in
coffee plantations or 5 x 5 m with vine crops (Vargas and Ocampo, 1991). Annual pod production
from three- to four-year-old trees at a 6 x 6 m spacing can average 30 kg/tree or 8 tons/ha (green
weight); annual pod production from 20-year-old trees can average 177 to 211 kg/tree.
Live fenceposts. In Colombia, live fenceposts are established from stakes at 2-m intervals and
allowed to grow for 30 months before pruning or attaching barbed wire. Stakes should be at least 4
to 6 cm in diameter and 2 m long. Pruned at four-month intervals, leafy branches from 1 km of
fencing can provide up to 30 tons of fodder per year; unpruned, the same fenceposts can provide up
to 85 tons of fruit (Vargas and Ocampo, 1991).
Medicine. In Colombia, a soap made from the bark, branches and leaves of E. edulis is used to
wash dogs with skin disease. In Peru, the seed is mixed in a liquid concoction to treat inflammation
of the bladder. The flowers are used to treat eye irritations (Acero, 1989).
Silviculture
Seed treatment. Erythrina edulis is easily propagated from seed or cuttings, but seedlings tend to
root deeper and live longer than cuttings. Seed should be removed from pods immediately and
stored in paper bags in a cool, dark place. They lose viability quickly and should be planted within
eight days of harvesting. Viability can be extended up to 20 days by dipping seeds for a moment in
molten paraffin so that a thin layer of paraffin coats the entire seed. Seed size varies widely: Acero
(1989) reports 60 fresh seeds per kg in Colombia, while Martel (1989) reports 146 fresh seeds per
kg in Peru.
Establishment. Larger seeds tend to produce more vigorous seedlings. Plant seeds in 1-kg
polyethylene bags with the convex side facing upwards and slightly exposed. Leave room between
5

planting bags to allow space for leaf development (Vargas and Ocampo, 1991). Germination begins
in 5 to10 days. Shade the seedlings in the nursery and reduce shade partially in the last two weeks
before outplanting. At 60 days, seedlings may be planted out in holes 30 cm deep.
Erythrina edulis can also be direct seeded.Cultivate the soil thoroughly to a depth of 30 cm and
plant two seeds per hole. Thin to one seedling after four or five weeks. Weed periodically in a 1-m
circle around the plants. Seedlings grow rapidly (2.5 m in the first year) and begin producing fruit in
approximately 24 to 27 months.
Cuttings of 4 to 6 cm diameter, and usually 1 m in length, should be planted to a depth of 30 to 50
cm within three days of harvesting (Vargas and Ocampo, 1991). Cuts should be made with
well-sharpened tools to avoid damage that can lead to rotting; the top cut should be at a 45 angle.
Sealing the cuts with paraffin, plastic, mud or other material can increase survival rates. Cuttings
begin producing fruit about 18 months after planting.
Erythrina edulis forms a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with Rhizobium in the cowpea miscellany
(Acero, 1989). Large nodules form in the upper soil surface and decrease in size with increasing soil
depth.
Limitations
Erythrina edulis does not tolerate long periods of drought, especially during early stages of
establishment. It does not grow well in strongly acidic soils (pH below 4.5). Stem borers damage
terminal shoots and cause lateral branching. Butterfly larvae (Terastia meticulosalis) bore into
seeds. Trees are also susceptible to nematodes (Helicotylenchus sp., Hoplotylus sp. and
Meloidogyne sp.) (Francia Varon de Agudelo, personal communication).
Future research needs
The large differences observed in seed size suggest the existence of genetic variation. Rangewide
provenance collection and testing is needed to determine differences in fruit yield, biomass
production, nutrient content and adaptability. Research would also be useful on improved methods
to increase seed viability. Symbiotic relationships need to be explored and quantified. Finally,
traditional agroforestry uses of E. edulis and pest and ,disease management need further
documentation.
References
Acero, E. 1989. Informe final silvicultura y productividad del chachafruto Erythrina edulis. Part
1. Bogot: Universidad Distrital-CIID-CONIF.
Krukoff, B.A. and Barneby, R.C. 1974. Conspectus of species of the genus Erythrina. LLOYDIA
(Journal of Natural Products). 37:359.
Martel, A. 1989. Erythrina edulis Triana, especie de gran potencial para asociaciones
agrofrestales; advances de su propagacin. Technical Note 01. FAO/Holland/DGFF Project, 30
pp.
Martn, D. and Falla, J.A. 1991. Evaluacin de los efectos biolgicos de la sustitucin de
concentrado por harina de chachafruto Erythrina edulis (15 y 30%) en la alimentacin de
pollos de engorde bajo un esquema de produccin de economa campesina. Thesis in
Zootechnology. Valle (Colombia): Universidad Nacional de Colombia-Palmira.
Patio, J.E. 1992. Suplementacin de cabras con chachafruto Erythrina edulis.Thesis in
Zootechnology. Valle (Colombia): Universidad Nacional de Colombia-Palmira.
Prez, G., de Martnez, C. and Daz, E. 1979. Evaluacin de la calidad de la protena del
chachafruto Erythrina edulis. Bogot: Universidad Nacional de Colombia.
Ruskin, F.R. 1989. Basul. In Lost crops of the Incas. Washington, DC: National Academy Press,
pp. 16471.
6

Surco, J. 1987. Evaluacin de minerales nutricios en las semilla de Erythrina edulis. Cuzco
(Peru): Universidad Nacional San Antonio Abad del Cuzco.
Vargas, L.R. and Ocampo, M.P., eds. 1991. El chachafruto o balprotector de aguas y
suelos superalimento humano, forraje para el ganado. Extension Bulletin 7. Bogot: Federacin
Nacional de Cafeteros de Colombia, p. 22.
Written by Nancy Barrera, Universidad Nacional de Colombia-Palmira, A.A. 237 Palmira, Valle,
Colombia, with material added by NFTA staff.
A publication of the Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Network (FACT Net)
(formerly the Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association)
Winrock International
38 Winrock Drive
Morrilton, AR 72110-9370 USA
Tel: 501-727-5435
Fax: 501-727-5417
Email: forestry@winrock.org
www.winrock.org/forestry/factnet.htm

http://www.worldagroforestrycentre.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/af/asp/SpeciesInfo.asp?SpID=179
1
Species identity
Taxonomy
C urre nt nam e : Erythrina e dulis
Authority: Triana e x M. Miche li
Fam ily: Fabace ae - Papilionoide ae
Synonym(s)
Erythrina e scule nta Sprague
Erythrina lore noi Macbr.
Common names
(Spanish) : bal, basul, basul sachaporoto, basul/bal, chachafruto, guat, pajuro, pashuro, sacha purutu,
sachaporoto
Botanic description
Erythrina e dulis is a le afy tre e growing up to 14 m tall with ste m diam e te r up to 37 cm and crown diam e te r
up to 7 m . The ste m and branche s are cove re d with stout prick le s. Le ave s alte rnate , trifoliate with long
pe tiole s and two ne ctar-producing glands at the base of e ach le afle t. Flowe r cluste r (race m e ), supporte d on
a stout stalk , consists of 180-200 short-stalk e d flowe rs arrange d in thre e s around the ax is. The flowe rs
have a re ddish-gre e n calyx and a crim son corolla with an uppe r pe tal (standard) and two late ral pe tals
form ing the k e e l. The pistil is surrounde d by 10 stam e ns. The two-pe tale d flowe rs face upward, form ing a
large cup in which ne ctar gathe rs. Fruits hang in bunche s of 9 and 18 cylindrical pods. Pod size varie s
wide ly, but ave rage s 32 cm long and 3 cm in diam e te r with six se e ds. The se e d coat is ge ne rally
brownish-re d but is som e tim e s ye llow or black . Erythrina com e s from the Gre e k word e ruthros-re d, alluding
to the showy re d flowe rs of the Erythrina spe cie s.

Ecology and distribution

History of cultivation
C ultivate d for ce nturie s, E. e dulis is an im portant food source for hum ans and anim als in the tropical
highlands of South Am e rica.
Natural Habitat
E. e dulis is a pione e r spe cie s that grows be st in full sunlight, but tre e s can tole rate som e shade in the e arly
stage s of growth. In C olom bia, the spe cie s occurs from e le vations of 1 200-2 600 m , with an optim um

range from 1 600-2 200 m . In Pe ru, E. e dulis grows from 900-3 200 m . In the spe cie s's native range ,
annual rainfall varie s from 450-1 800 m m and te m pe rature s are be twe e n 5-25 de g C . The tre e s grow we ll
in loose -te x ture d sandy loam s and in he avy clay soils but not in strongly acidic soils (pH be low 4.5). E.
e dulis doe s not tole rate long pe riods of drought, e spe cially during e arly stage s of e stablishm e nt and doe s
not tole rate fre que nt frosts.
Geographic distribution
Native : Arge ntina, Bolivia, C olom bia, Ecuador, Pe ru, Ve ne zue la
Biophysical limits
Altitude : 900-3 200 m Me an annual te m pe rature : 5-25 de g C Me an annual rainfall: 450-1 800 m m Soil
type : The tre e s grow we ll in loose -te x ture d sandy loam s and in he avy clay soils.
Reproductive Biology
E. e dulis is cross pollinate d by suck ing inse cts, be e s, wasps and birds. Se e ds m ature in about 3 m onths
afte r flowe ring.

Propagation and management


Propagation methods
E. e dulis is e asily propagate d from se e d or cuttings, but se e dlings te nd to root de e pe r and live longe r than
cuttings. Large r se e ds te nd to produce m ore vigorous se e dlings. Se e ds should be plante d in 1-k g
polye thyle ne bags with the conve x side facing upwards and slightly e x pose d. Ge rm ination be gins in 5-10
days. Se e dlings should be shade d in the nurse ry and shade partially re duce d in the last two we e k s be fore
out planting. At 60 days, se e dlings m ay be plante d out in hole s 30 cm de e p. E. e dulis can also be dire ct
se e de d. C uttings of 4-6 cm diam e te r, and usually 1 m in le ngth, should be plante d to a de pth of 30-50 cm
within 3 days of cutting. C uts should be m ade with we ll-sharpe ne d tools to avoid dam age that can le ad to
rotting; the top cut should be at a 45 angle . Se aling the cuts with paraffin, plastic, m ud or othe r m ate rial
can incre ase survival rate s.
Tree Management
E. e dulis has a norm al life span of 30-40 ye ars, its se e dlings grow rapidly (2.5 m in the 1st ye ar) and be gin
producing fruit in approx im ate ly 24-27 m onths. C uttings be gin producing fruit about 18 m onths afte r
planting. For m ax im um fodde r production, the tre e s can be plante d in prote in bank s at a close spacing (1 x
0.5 m ). The y are first prune d at 10 m onths and the n at 6- or 4-m onth inte rvals. A 2-ye ar-old prote in bank
can produce up to 80 tons of le ave s and te nde r branche s pe r ha, or the le ave s can be drie d and ground to
produce 6 tons of chick e n fe e d rich in carote ne . In C olom bia, live fe nce posts are e stablishe d from stak e s
at 2 m inte rvals and allowe d to grow for 30 m onths be fore pruning or attaching barbe d wire . Prune d at
four-m onth inte rvals, le afy branche s from 1 k m of fe ncing can provide up to 30 tons of fodde r pe r ye ar;
unprune d, the sam e fe nce posts can provide up to 85 tons of fruit.
Germplasm Management
Se e d should be re m ove d from pods im m e diate ly and store d in pape r bags in a cool, dark place . Se e ds
lose viability quick ly and should be plante d within 8 days of harve sting. Viability can be e x te nde d up to 20
days by dipping se e ds in m olte n paraffin so that a thin laye r of paraffin coats the e ntire se e d. Se e d size
varie s wide ly and the re are 60-146 fre sh se e ds/k g.

Functional uses
Products
Food: The se e d is a com pone nt of m any die ts and contains 23% prote in, 1% fat, 8% crude fibe r and 84%
m oisture . Se e ds have a good balance of am ino acids and a dige stibility of about 50% afte r cook ing. Se e ds
m ust be boile d for at le ast 45 m inute s or frie d thoroughly be fore be ing e ate n. As a paste , the y provide a
nutritious base for tortillas, de sse rts, pie s, soups and food for infants. The y are also boile d, sun drie d,
ground and adde d to flour. R e se arch indicate s that uncook e d E. e dulis se e ds can be tox ic if consum e d ove r
a long pe riod. Fodde r: The le ave s and te nde r branche s can be fe d to cattle , goats, horse s, pigs, guine a
pigs and rabbits. Le ave s contain 24% prote in, 29% crude fibe r (dry we ight) and 21% total carbohydrate s.
The y are rich in potassium but low in calcium . Se e ds and pods can be fe d fre sh to cattle and goats, but
should be cook e d be fore fe e ding to pigs, chick e ns, rabbits or fish. The pods contain 21% prote in, 23%
crude fibe r (dry we ight), 24% carbohydrate s and 91% m oisture . C ook e d se e d can re place up to 60% of the
conce ntrate fe d to chick e ns and fish. Fue l: The tre e is use d as fire wood. Tim be r: The wood is use d for
construction. Me dicine : In C olom bia, a soap m ade from the bark , branche s and le ave s of E. e dulis is use d
to wash dogs with sk in dise ase . In Pe ru, the se e d is m ix e d in a liquid concoction to tre at inflam m ation of
the bladde r. The flowe rs are use d to tre at e ye irritations.
Services
Shade or she lte r: The tre e s also provide shade in coffe e and cacao plantations. Nitroge n fix ing: E. e dulis
form s a nitroge n-fix ing sym biosis with R hizobium in the cowpe a m isce llany. Large nodule s form in the
uppe r soil surface and de cre ase in size with incre asing soil de pth. Soil im prove r: The falle n le ave s provide
le af litte r. Boundary or barrie r or support: Live fe nce posts are e stablishe d from stak e s as support for vine
crops.
Pests and diseases
Ste m bore rs dam age te rm inal shoots and cause late ral branching. Butte rfly larvae (Te rastia m e ticulosalis)
bore into se e ds. Tre e s are also susce ptible to ne m atode s (He licotyle nchus sp., Hoplotylus sp. and
Me loidogyne sp.).

Bibliography

Argue llo Arias H. 1995. Bioche m ical change s and the ir application for gre e n m anure use , as organic m atte r
and nutrie nt source , in agrofore stry syste m s. Agronom ia C olom biana. 12(2): 169-181.
Kruk off BA and Barne by R C . 1974. C onspe ctus of spe cie s of the ge nus Erythrina. LLO YDIA (Journal of
Natural Products). 37:359.
NFTA. 1994. Erythrina e dulis: m ultipurpose tre e for tropical highlands. NFTA 94-01. W aim analo.
R usk in FR . 1989. Basul. In: Lost crops of the Incas. W ashington, DC : National Acade m y Pre ss, pp. 164-71.
Zim sk y M. 1990. Using nitroge n fix ing tre e s for hum an food. NFTA-Ne ws. 11: 1-2, 6. Nitroge n Fix ing Tre e
Association. W aim analo.

Fruit

Catalogue number:
Botanical classification:

60340
LEGUMINOSAE-PAPILIONOIDEAE Erythrina edulis
Wood Kidney Bean, Frijol del Monte, Junchua Sacha
Common name(s):
Porota
Geographical description: Ecuador, Andes
Collector number:
Collection date:
Donor:
Spruce, Richard Donation date:
20/02/1865
Dimensions (cm):
Length:
Width:
Depth:
Diameter:
17.2
1.8
Specimen label:
Pods with edible seeds, Andes of Ecuador where it is called Frijol del Monte or in in
Junchua Sacha-porota, both names signifying Wood Kidney Bean Erythrina sp. Spruce
(5005) Feb 20/65.

See also:
Uses:
Taxa: LEGUMINOSAE-PAPILIONOIDEAE
Geography: Ecuador

FRJOL GIGANTE PERUANO


9

EL PAJURO

Texto y Fotos

Perunatural.net

Mientras en las ciudades peruanas se sufre


por el pan con qumicos en los Andes y la
Selva tenemos alternativas altamente
nutritivas y naturales.

10

El pajuro es un frejol peruano que llega a medir cinco


centmetros y se produce desde hace miles de aos
sobretodo en el Per (Cajamarca, La Libertad, Ancash,
Huanuco, Cerro de Pasco, Junn, Cusco y Ayacucho) . En
la imagen vemos que el pajuro alcanza el tamao de un
dedo meique y es diez veces mas grande que un frejol
comn.
En la siguiente nota Perunatural.net da a conocer
los puntos de vista del Magister en Microbiologa
ngel Vargas Mosqueira sobre el pajuro, el pijuallo
y otras opciones nutritivas nacionales para
enriquecer la dieta diaria. El Mg Vargas ha sido
catedrtico en varias Universidades peruanas en las
reas de post grado.
Es nuestra intencin recuperar la estima de los
peruanos a travs de la mirada a nuestro pasado y a
la puesta en valor de estos alimentos que por falta
de consumo estn al borde la extincin.

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FAVOR MENCIONAR LA FUENTE WEB EN CASO DE USO EN UN MEDIO DE COMUNICACIN.


ENVI LA DIRECCIN DE ESTA REVISTA DIGITAL A QUIEN LA NECESITE. SI DESEA
COLABORAR CON PER NATURAL O RECIBIR INFORMACIN SOBRE MEDICINA ALTERNATIVA
EN SU E-MAIL PUEDE COMUNICARSE CON DEITER LINARES GUERRERO

Para

(www.deiterlinares.com ) DIRECTOR, AL 4872242, 98577979 o ESCRIBIR A:


deiter@perunatural.net
chatear pueden agregar al msn de hotmail las direcciones: perunatural@hotmail.com,
perunaturalweb@hotmail.com, o naturismoperuano@hotmail.com

Hoy en da, lamentablemente; los hbitos y costumbres alimenticias de


nuestros antepasados, se han perdido y nos hemos convertido en
consumidores de alimentos refinados, mas agradables pero menos
nutritivos y con muy poca fibra o si ella.
Un alimento que merece una especial mencin, es el pajuro llamado
tambin basul o poroto. Este es un frejol de 3 a 4 cm de tamao, de
forma ovoide que est recubierto por una cscara gruesa, brillante y
lustrosa de color marrn oscuro.
El pajuro con su alto porcentaje de protenas (25 gr. x 100) y su fcil
digestibilidad, podra ser una alternativa para combatir la desnutricin en la
poblacin infantil y las madres gestantes.
La planta que produce el pajuro es un rbol de la familia Fabaceae
(Leguminosae) que no obstante ser oriundo de los andes centrales del
Per es casi desconocida en las grandes ciudades como Lima por la misma
razn, no se consume. Su nombre cientfico es Erythrina edulis.
Alimentos tuberosos andinos como la mashua, racacha, maca, y frijoles
como el pajuro, tarwi (chocho) son slo unos ejemplos de la gran variedad
de alimentos que cumplieron un valioso papel en la nutricin de los
habitantes antiguo Per dndoles vigor y longevidad. La existencia de
estos alimentos en pocas pasadas, ha quedado registrada en los
cermicos de diversas culturas pre-hispnicas que son fiel testimonio de su
existencia en dichas pocas. La longevidad que se podra alcanzar con
estos alimentos autoctonos se deja ver en pueblos como Acora en Puno,
donde se ha censado a personas como el Sr. Clemente Alanoca con 110
aos y la Sra. Eugenia Vilca con 116 aos de edad.
El investigador Santiago Antnez de Mayolo en su obra "LA NUTRICIN
EN EL ANTIGUO PERU" dice textualmente lo siguiente "las principales
menestras cultivadas en el antiguo Per fueron la cazza o parca (Canavalia
12

sp.), los pallares (Phaseolus lunatus L.), los porotos (Phaseolus vulgaris
L.), el pajuro (Erythrina edulis L.) y el tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet)".

El pajuro (semillas maduras), constituye un alimento importante por su


alto contenido de protenas cuyos valores porcentuales realizados en
distintos Laboratorios de Investigacin fluctan entre las siguientes
cantidades (x 100 gr.) que mostramos en el siguiente cuadro:
Promedios porcentuales
Pajuro (Basul) :
Arvejas
:
21 %

25 %

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Frejol bayo
Garbanzo :
Lentejas :
Pallares :

:
19 %
22 %
20 %

20 %

El contenido de grasa es bajo, lo que favorece su conservacin; el


extracto etreo que contiene la grasa, no alcanza al1 %. Este valor es
menor al encontrado en otras leguminosas como las arvejas (3.2 %),
frijol bayo (1.5 %), garbanzo (6.1 %), habas (1.5 %), pallares (1.2 %) y
tarwi (17.5 %). En cuanto al contenido de carbohidratos, flucta entre 42
y 55 %, siendo el almidn el principal componente.
Se han encontrado los siguientes aminocidos: treonina, alanina y
fenilalanina en cantidad abundante; valina, prolina, cido asprtico, lisina
e histidina en cantidad moderada; poca cantidad de tirosina, triptfano;
y adems trazas de metionina.
Las semillas del pajuro contienen fsforo, hierro, azufre, sodio, potasio,
cobre, manganeso, magnesio y calcio. En suma, se trata pues de uno de los pocos
rboles que provee al hombre de un nivel alimentara bsico. Es nuestro deber dar a
conocer estos alimentos y fomentar su consumo.

Si las cualidades del Pajuro le han parecido pocas aqu le presentamos una
imagen del PIJUALLO un alimento amaznico de similares bondades.
Un regalo mas del Per maravilloso.

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Mayor Informacin:

PER NATURAL
Revista Digital de Medicina Natural y Alternativa

Telfonos en Lima, Per:


511-4872242, 511-98577979
E-mails:
informes@perunatural.net
deiter@perunatural.net
Web Site:

www.perunatural.net
RECOMIENDE ESTA REVISTA DIGITAL A SUS AMIGOS

EN PER NATURAL TAMBIN CREEMOS QUE EL


PER ES SPER
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http://food-security.info/food-security.info/

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