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Design Loads

Dead Loads
An engineered design approach involves calculating
a demand due to loads, and comparing the demand
with the capacity of the member or element under
consideration.
o Gravity (dead) loads are a natural starting point
dead load is an ever-present load
o

It is necessary to determine the magnitude of


the vertical loads before the design seismic loads
can be estimated.
2 /45

Dead Loads
Weights of all materials permanently attached to the
structure including the following:
o weight of the roof or wood floor system
o sheathing
o framing
o Insulation
o ceiling
o piping, automatic fire sprinkler, ducts
o fixed equipment
o etc.
3 /45

Table 204-2 Minimum Design Dead Loads (kPa)


[use actual when available]
CEILINGS
Acoustical Fiber Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.05
Gypsum Board (per mm thickness) . . . . . . . 0.008
Mechanical duct allowance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.20
Plaster on tile or concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.24
Plaster on wood lath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.38
Suspended steel channel system . . . . . . . . . . 0.10
Suspended metal lath and cement plaster . . 0.72
Suspended metal lath and gypsum plaster . . .0.48
Wood furring suspension system . . . . . . . . . . 0.12

COVERINGS, Roof and Wall


Asphalt singles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.10
Cement tile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.77
Clay tile (for mortar add 0.48 kPa)
Book tile, 50 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.52
Book tile, 75 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.96
Ladowici . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.48
Roman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.57
Spanish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.91
Composition
Three-ply ready roofing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.05
Four-ply felt and gravel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.26
Five-ply felt and gravel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.29
Copper or tin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.05
Corrugated asbestos-cement roofing . . . . . . .0.19
Deck, metal 20 gage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.12
Deck, metal 18 gage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.14
Fiberboard, 13 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.04
Gypsum sheathing, 13 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.10

Sample Dead Load Calculation


Roof Dead loads

D in psf

Roofing (5ply with gravel)

6.5

Reroofing

2.5

- in. plywood (3 psf x .)

1.5

Framing (estimate 2 x 12 @ 16 o.c.)

2.9

Insulation

0.5

Suspended ceiling (acoustical tile)

1.0
Roof dead load D 14.9 ~ 15.0 psf

5 /45

Sample Dead Load Calculation


Floor Dead loads

D in psf

Floor covering (lightweight concrete 1 at 100 pcf)

12.5

1-1/8 plywood (3 psf x 1-1/8 )

3.4

Framing (4 x 12 @ 4 o.c.)

2.5

Ceiling supports (2 x 4 @ 24 o.c.)

0.6

Ceiling ( drywall, 5 psf x )

2.5
Floor dead load D 21.5 ~ 22.0 psf

6 /45

Live Loads
o

Lr roof live load, including any permitted live load


reduction

L live load, including any permitted live load reduction

For the reduction of both Lr and L, the area contribution


load to the member under design consideration is taken
into account.
for roof live load (Lr), the tributary area is used

for floor live load (L), the influence area is used


7 /45

NSCP Live Loads


Table 205-1 Minimum Uniform and Concentrated Live Loads
Uniform Load2

Concentrated Load

Description

KPa

KN

Call Centers and BPO

2.9

9.0

Lobbies and ground floor corridors

4.8

9.0

Offices

2.4

9.02

Building corridors above ground floor

3.8

9.0

Press rooms

7.2

11.02

Composing and linotype rooms

4.8

9.02

Basic floor area

1.9

06

Exterior balconies

2.94

Decks

1.94

Storage

1.9

Use or Occupancy
Category

13. Office

14. Printing plants

15. Residential8

8 /45

NSCP Live Loads


Table 205-2 Special Loads
Use or Occupancy

Vertical
Load (kPa)

Lateral
Load (kPa)

Walkway

7.2

Canopy

7.2

Seats and footboards

1.75

Catwalks

1.9

Follow spot, projection and control rooms

2.4

Over stages

1.0

All uses except over stages

0.5

Category
1. Construction, public access at site (live load)
2. Grandstands, reviewing, stands bleachers, and
folding and telescoping seating (live load0
3. Stage accessories (live load)

4. Ceiling framing (live load)

Description

9 /45

Tributary Area, AT
o

Tributary area - the area assumed to load a given member

generally measured from midway between members on one side of


the member under consideration to midway between members on
the other side.

for members spaced a uniform distance apart, the tributary width is


equivalent to the spacing between members

since tributary areas for adjacent members do not overlap, all


distributed loads are assumed to be supported by the nearest
structural member
Note: tributary area approach should only be used when the loading is uniform

10 /45

Influence Area, KLLAT


o

In contrast to the tributary approach, the influence area


recognizes that the total load experience by a structural
member maybe influenced by loads applied outside the
tributary area of the member

NSCP 205.6 Alternate Floor Live Load Reduction


o The influence area is four times the tributary area for a
column
o

Two times the tributary area for a beam, equal to the panel
area for a two-way slab
11 /45

Tributary Area

12 /45

Tributary Area Calculations


AT (ft2)

KLLAT (ft2)

Joist J1

2 x 12 = 24

2 x 24 = 48

Joist J2

2 x 14 = 28

2 x 28 = 56

Girder G1

(12/2 + 14/2)20 = 260

2 x 260 = 520

Girder G2

(12/2 + 14/2) 24 = 312

2 x 312 = 624

Interior col. C1

(12/2 + 14/2) (20/2 + 24/2) = 286

4 x 286 = 1144

Exterior col. C2

(20/2 + 24/2) 12/2)= 132

4 x 132 = 528

Corner col. C3

(14/2)(20/2) = 70

4 x 70 = 280

13 /45

Reduction of Floor Live Loads


[NSCP 205.6 ] Alternate Floor Live Load Reduction
The unit live loads maybe reduced in accordance with
the equation shown on any member, including flat
slabs, having an influence area of 40 m2 or more
= 0.25 + 4.57

Ai = Influence area, m2
L = reduced design live load per square meter of
area supported by the member
Lo = unreduced design live load per square meter of
area supported by the member (Table 205-1)

Note: The reduced live load shall not be less than 50% of the unit live load for
members receiving load from one level only, nor less that 40 percent of the unit live
load for other members.
14 /45

Seatwork
Determine the following:
(a) tributary and influence areas are for J1, J2, G1, G2, C1 and C2
(b) axial force required for the design of the interior column C1
due to a dead load of 0.2 kPa and a floor live load L = 1.9 kPa.

15 /45

Roof Live Loads


o

The live load on a roof is usually applied for a relatively


short period of time during the life of the structure

This is normally of no concern in the design of structures


other than wood

However in wood structures, the length of time for which


a load is applied does have an effect on the capacity
(resistance) of the member.

The standard roof live load for small tributary areas on flat
roofs is 20 psf (1 kPa)

16 /45

Reduction of Roof Live Loads


= 0 1 2

and 12 20

200 2
1
1 = 1.2 0.001 200 < < 600 2
0.6
600 2
4
1
2 = 1.2 0.05 4 < < 12
12
0.6
AT = tributary area supported by structural member, ft2
F = the number of inches or rise per foot for a sloped roof
Lo = minimum uniform live load per ASCE 7-10 Table 4-1

NSCP Roof Live Loads


Table 205-3 Minimum Roof Live Loads
Method 1

Method 2

Tributary Area (m2)

ROOF SLOPE

0 to 20

20 to 60

> 60

Uniform
Load
(kPa)

Rate of
Reduction,
r

Maximum
Reduction R
(percentage)

Uniform Load (kPa)


1. Flat or rise less than 4 units vertical in 12 units
horizontal (33.3% slope). Arch and dome with rise
less than one-eight of span.

1.00

0.75

0.60

1.00

0.08

40

0.75

0.70

0.60

0.75

0.06

25

3. Rise 12 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (100%


slope) and greater. Arch of dome with rise threeeights of span or greater.

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.60

4. Awnings except cloth covered.

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

5. Greenhouses, lath houses and agricultural building.

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

2. Rise 4 units vertical to less than 12 units vertical in


12 units horizontal (33.3% to less than 100% slope).
Arch and dome with rise one-eight of span to less
than three-eights of span.

No reduction permitted

Example Problem
Determine
the
uniformly
distributed roof loads (including
dead load and roof live load) for
the purlins and girders in the
building shown.
Also determine the total load on
column C1.
Assume that the roof is flat
(except for a minimum slope of
in/ft for drainage).
Roof dead load D = 8 psf.
19 /45

Combined Dead and Live


on Sloping Roof
Lr from NSCP

L2

Equivalent total roof loads (D + Lr):


Load on horizontal plane:

Horizontal

Roof D along
roof slope

1
+
2

Load along roof slope:

= +

Combined D + Lr on sloping roof

2
1
20 /45

Example Problem
The building is a standard
residential
occupancy.
The
rafters are sloped at 6 in./ft, and
the roof covering consists of
cement asbestos shingles.
Determine the shear and
moment for the rafters under
dead plus live load if they are
spaced 4 ft o.c.
Roof dead load D has been
estimated as 14 psf along the
roof surface.

Lr = 62 psf
18

18

12

D = 14 psf

Rafters @ 4 o.c.

Ridge beam

Other Loads
o

Soil Loads and Hydrostatic Pressure (H)


soil lateral loading most commonly occurs at retaining
walls

where retaining walls are provided, it is possible to


develop hydrostatic pressure

it is also possible to have upward hydrostatic pressures on


adjacent floor slabs

pressure can also be due to storage of grain, aggregates,


or other bulk solids that can exert lateral pressures
22 /45

Other Loads
o

Loads due to Fluids (F)


not intended to address flood loads or hydrostatic
pressure
when fluids are contained in non-building structures or
nonstructural components, other standards might be
applicable and can provide guidance in the design

Rain Loads (R)


primarily applicable to low slope roofs that are
surrounded by parapets
need not be considered for sloped roofs that cannot
develop water buildup
23 /45

Other Loads
o

o
o

Flood Loads (F)


Section 211 of the NSCP
applies to buildings and other structures located in areas
prone to flooding as defined on a flood hazard map
Snow Loads (not applicable)
Self-straining Loads
loads arising from temperature change, moisture change,
creep, movement due to differential settlement or
combinations thereof
Earthquake Loads
NSCP Section 208
will not be considered in this course
24 /45

Other Loads
o

Wind Loads (NSCP Section 207)


Method 1 simplified procedure
can be used for the large majority of wood frame buildings

Method 2 analytical procedure


can be used for determining wind loads on structures of all
sizes, configurations and exposure conditions
requires defining more variables than Method 1

Method 3 wind tunnel procedure


for complex buildings that might be anticipated to have
unusual dynamic behavior
Limited to a small group of buildings for which the time and
expense of a detailed study can be justified

25 /45

Method 1 Simplified Method


o

Main wind-force-resisting system (MWFRS) - is a system


providing wind resistance for the overall structure.

In wood frame buildings, the MWFRS most commonly


consists of
Shearwalls sheathed walls that resist in-plane loads

Roof and floor diaphragms sheath floor and roof


assemblies that transmit in-plane loads to the
shearwalls
26 /45

Method 1 conditions
(NSCP 207.4.1.1)

conditions for the MWFRS to be designed using Method 1


o simple diaphragm building
Both windward and leeward loads are transmitted
through the floor and roof diaphragms to the same
MWFRS
o

building is low rise


has a mean roof height h less than or equal to 18 m

mean roof height h does not exceed least horizontal


dimension
27 /45

Method 1 conditions
(NSCP 207.4.1.1)

conditions for the MWFRS to be designed using Method 1


o building is enclosed
meets requirements for wind-borne debris protection,
if applicable
o

building is regular
has no unusual geometrical irregularity in spatial form

building is not classified as a flexible building


has a fundamental frequency greater than 1 hertz
(fundamental period less than 1 second)
28 /45

Method 1 conditions
(NSCP 207.4.1.1)

conditions for the MWFRS to be designed using Method 1


o building does not have response characteristics that create
unusual loading (such as galloping or vortex shedding)
o

not sited in a location where unusual wind load effects might


occur

building has an approximately symmetrical cross section in


each direction

has a flat roof or a gable or hip roof with slope less than or
equal to 45 degrees (12 in 12 pitch)
29 /45

Method 1 conditions
(NSCP 207.4.1.1)

conditions for the MWFRS to be designed using Method 1


o has a flat roof or a gable or hip roof with slope less than or
equal to 45 degree
o

Building is exempted from the torsional load cases as indicated


in Note 5 of Figure 207-10, or the torsional load cases defined
in Note 5 do not control the design of any of the MWFRSs of
the building

30 /45

NSCP 207.4.2.1
For the design of MWFRS the basic formula for calculating
design wind pressure ps is :

= 9

l = adjustment factor for building height and exposure from


Figures 207-2A and 207-3
Iw = Importance factor
Kzt = topographic factor as defined in Section 207.5.7
ps9 = simplified design wind pressure for Exposure B at h = 9m
and Iw = 1.0 from Figure 207-2 kPa

For components and cladding, the basic formula for


calculating design wind pressure pnet is

= 9

pnet9 = net design wind pressure for Exposure B at h = 9


m and Iw = 1.0 from Figure 207-3 kPa

31 /45

Adjustment Factor for


Building Height and Exposure l
Mean roof
height (m)

Exposure
B

4.5

1.00

1.21

1.47

6.0

1.00

1.29

1.55

7.5

1.00

1.35

1.61

9.0

1.00

1.40

1.66

11.0

1.05

1.45

1.70

12.0

1.09

1.49

1.74

13.7

1.12

1.53

1.78

15.2

1.16

1.56

1.81

16.8

1.19

1.59

1.84

18.0

1.22

1.62

1.87
32 /45

Design Wind Pressures on Walls


and Roofs of Enclosed Buildings
Basic
Wind
Speed
(kph)

150

Roof
Angle
(o)

Load
Case

0 to 5

Horizontal Pressures, kPa

Vertical Pressures, kPa

Overhangs

Eoh

Goh

0.66

-0.34

0.44

-0.21

-0.79

-0.45

-0.55

-0.35

-1.11

-0.87

10

0.75

-0.31

0.50

-0.18

-0.79

-0.48

-0.55

-0.37

-1.11

-0.87

15

0.83

-0.28

0.55

-0.16

-0.79

-0.52

-0.55

-0.40

-1.11

-0.87

20

0.92

-0.24

0.61

-0.13

-0.79

-0.55

-0.55

-0.42

-1.11

-0.87

0.83

0.13

0.60

0.14

-0.37

-0.50

-0.27

-0.40

-0.69

-0.59

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

-0.14

-0.27

-0.04

-0.18

0.00

0.00

0.74

0.51

0.59

0.41

0.06

-0.45

0.02

-0.39

-0.26

-0.30

0.74

-0.08

0.59

0.41

0.29

-0.22

0.25

-0.16

-0.26

-0.30

25

30 to 45

33 /45

Design Wind Pressures on Walls


and Roofs of Enclosed Buildings
Basic
Wind
Speed
(kph)

200

Roof
Angle
(o)

Load
Case

0 to 5

Horizontal Pressures, kPa

Vertical Pressures, kPa

Overhangs

Eoh

Goh

1.18

-0.62

0.79

-0.36

-1.42

-0.81

-0.99

-0.63

-2.00

-1.57

10

1.34

-0.56

0.89

-0.32

-1.42

-0.87

-0.99

-0.67

-2.00

-1.57

15

1.49

-0.49

0.99

-0.28

-1.42

-0.93

-0.99

-0.71

-2.00

-1.57

20

1.64

-0.43

1.10

-0.24

-1.42

-0.99

-0.99

-0.75

-2.00

-1.57

1.48

0.24

1.08

0.24

-0.66

-0.90

-0.48

-0.72

-1.23

-1.05

-0.25

-0.49

-0.07

-0.31

1.34

0.91

1.06

0.73

0.11

-0.81

0.04

-0.69

-0.47

-0.54

1.34

0.91

1.06

0.73

0.51

-0.40

0.45

-0.29

-0.47

-0.54

25

30 to 45

34 /45

Design Wind Pressures on Walls


and Roofs of Enclosed Buildings
Basic
Wind
Speed
(kph)

250

Roof
Angle
(o)

Load
Case

0 to 5

Horizontal Pressures, kPa

Vertical Pressures, kPa

Overhangs

Eoh

Goh

1.84

-0.95

1.22

-0.57

-2.21

-1.26

-1.54

-0.97

-3.09

-2.42

10

2.07

-0.86

1.38

-0.50

-2.21

-1.35

-1.54

-1.04

-3.09

-2.42

15

2.31

-0.77

1.54

-0.44

-2.21

-1.44

-1.54

-1.10

-3.09

-2.42

20

2.54

-0.67

1.70

-0.37

-2.21

-1.54

-1.54

-1.17

-3.09

-2.42

2.31

0.37

1.67

0.38

-1.03

-1.40

-0.74

-1.12

-1.91

-1.63

-0.39

-0.76

-0.11

-0.49

2.07

1.41

1.65

1.13

0.16

-1.26

0.05

-1.08

-0.73

-0.83

2.07

1.41

1.65

1.13

0.79

-0.62

0.69

-0.44

-0.73

-0.83

25

30 to 45

35 /45

Notes
207.1.4.1. Main Wind-Force Resisting System
The wind load to be used in the design of the MWFRS for an
enclosed or partially enclosed building or other structure shall
not be less than 0.5 kPa multiplied by the area of the building or
structure projected onto a vertical plane normal to the assumed
wind direction.
207.4.2.1.1 Minimum pressures
The load effects of the design wind pressures from Section
207.4.2.1 shall not be less than the minimum load case from
Section 207.1.4.1 assuming the pressures, ps, for zones A, B, C
and D are all equal to +0.50 kPa, while assuming zones E, F, G
and H all equal to 0 kPa.
36 /45

notes
o

The dimension is a defined as


10% of least horizontal dimension
0.4hmean
whichever is smaller.
However a may not be taken less than 0.9m (3) or
less than 4% of least horizontal dimension.

37 /45

Referenced Wind Zone Map


and Importance Factor
Table 207-3 Importance Factor, Iw (Wind Loads)

Occupancy
Category2

Description

Iw

Essential

1.15

II

Hazardous

1.15

III

Special Occupancy

1.15

IV

Standard Occupancy

1.00

Miscellaneous

0.87

1see

Table 103-1 for types of occupancy under each category

Figure 207-24 Referenced Wind Zone


Map of the Philippines

Topographical Factor Kzt


207.5.7 Topographic Effects
o accounts for significantly higher wind speeds at sites
located on the upper half of an exposed hill, ridge or
escarpment
o

Kzt = 1.0 except for very exposed sites

NSCP provides a series of five (5) criteria, all of which


must be met in order to require evaluation for a Kzt
of other than 1.0
39 /45

Topographical Factor Kzt


207.5.7.2 Topographic Factor
o The wind speed-up effect shall be included in the
calculation of design wind loads by using the factor Kzt

= 1 + 1 2 3

where K1, K2 and K3 are given in Figure 207-4.


o

If site conditions and locations of structures do not meet


all the conditions specified in Section 207.5.7.1 the Kzt =
1.0.
40 /45

Topographical Factor Kzt

41 /45

Example Problem
Wind Forces for MWRFS
Determine the design wind pressures based
on the simplified method for the primary
Lateral Force Resisting System (LRFS).
This is a gable structure that uses a system
of diaphragms and shear walls for resisting
lateral forces.
The building is a standard occupancy
enclosed structure located in Zone 2.
Exposure C is to be used, Kzt is 1.0.
Wind forces for designing MWFRS are
obtained based on ps9 from NSCP. End zone
and interior zone locations to be considered
for horizontal pressures on the vertical
projection of the building surface

Wind pressure zones on vertical and horizontal


projections of building surfaces for MWFRS; wind
direction parallel to transverse walls (end walls).
Zone A (wall end zone)
Zone B (roof end zone)
Zone C (wall interior zone)
Zone D (roof interior zone)

42 /45

Example Problem
Wind Forces for MWRFS
Determine the design wind pressures based
on the simplified method for the primary
Lateral Force Resisting System (LRFS).
This is a gable structure that uses a system
of diaphragms and shear walls for resisting
lateral forces.
The building is a standard occupancy
enclosed structure located in Zone 2.
Exposure C is to be used, Kzt is 1.0.
Wind forces for designing MWFRS are
obtained based on ps9 from NSCP. End zone
and interior zone locations to be considered
for horizontal pressures on the vertical
projection of the building surface

Wind pressure zones on vertical and horizontal


projections of building surfaces for MWFRS; wind
direction perpendicular to transverse walls (end
walls).
Zone E (windward roof end zone)
Zone F (leeward roof end zone)
Zone G (windward roof interior zone)
Zone H (leeward roof interior zone)

Wind Forces for MWRFS


wind Speed = 200 kph (zone 2, p. 2-72)
o Exposure C (No overhangs)
o total height of building = 5.8 m
o eave height = 3.6 m
o

-1.73 kPa
-1.21 kPa

Wind pressures on vertical and horizontal projections of


building surfaces; wind direction parallel to transverse walls
(end walls).

End zone
-1.21 kPa

-0.92 kPa

Interior zone
a = 2.56 m
-0.29 kPa

2.2 m

3.6 m

-0.52 kPa

Wind
Leeward

Windward

direction
1.34 kPa

12.8 m

2.00 kPa

Wind Forces for MWRFS


wind Speed = 200 kph (zone 2, p. 2-72)
o Exposure C (No overhangs)
o total height of building = 5.8 m
o eave height = 3.6 m
o

Wind pressure on vertical and horizontal


projections of building surfaces; wind direction
perpendicular to transverse walls (end walls).

-1.73 kPa

-1.21 kPa

End zone
-1.21 kPa

-0.92 kPa

Interior zone
2.00 kPa

1.34 kPa

a = 2.56
m

2.2 m

Wind
direction

3.6 m
12.8 m