Anda di halaman 1dari 2

SCR is a silicon based semiconductor device with four layers of alternating P and N-type

material, which is used in electrical circuits for switching operation.


It can change alternating current into direct current and at the same time can control the amount
of powerfed to the load
SCR is consist on four layer of semiconductor which forms PNPN or NPNP
structure, it has tree junction J1, J2 and J3 and also three terminals, the anode
terminal of Silicon Control Rectifier SCR is connected to the P-Type of material
of PNPN structure and the cathode terminal is connected to the N-Type layer
of the Silicon Control Rectifier while the gate of the Silicon Control Rectifier
SCR is connected to the P-Type of material near to the cathode. An SCR is
turned on by applying a pulse to its gate terminal. Gate terminal for a
controlling input signal.
To turn ON the Silicon Control Rectifier SCR we apply clock pulse at the gate
terminal which called triggering of Silicon Control Rectifier, but when the
Silicon Control Rectifier SCR turned ON, now if we remove the triggering
voltage, the Silicon Control Rectifier SCR will remain in ON state. This voltage
is called Firing voltage
The Silicon Control Rectifier SCR start conduction when it is forward biased.
For this purpose the cathode is kept at negative and anode at positive. When
positive clock pulse is applied at the gate the SCR turns ON.When forward
bias voltage is applied to the Silicon Control Rectifier SCR, the junction J1 and
J3 become forward bias while the junction J2 become reverse bias. When we
apply a clock pulse at the gate terminal, the junction J2 become forward bias
and the Silicon Control Rectifier SCR start conduction.The Silicon Control
Rectifier SCR turn ON and OFF very quickly, At the OFF state the Silicon
Control Rectifier SCR provide infinity resistance and in ON state, it offers very
low resistance, which is in the range of 0.01O to 1O.
Reverse blocking: In this state the thyristor blocks the current in the same
way as that of a reverse biased diode.
Forward blocking: In this state the thyristor operation is such that it blocks
forward current conduction that would normally be carried by a forward
biased diode.
Forward conducting: In this state the thyristor has been triggered into
conduction. It will remain conducting until the forward current drops below a
threshold value known as the holding current.
Gate connected directly to its own anode through a diode; nearly complete
half-wave current through load.
We can delay the triggering of the SCR, however, by inserting some
resistance into the gate circuit, thus increasing the amount of voltage drop
required before enough gate current triggers the SCR. In other words, if we
make it harder for electrons to flow through the gate by adding a resistance,
the AC voltage will have to reach a higher point in its cycle before there will
be enough gate current to turn the SCR on.
Resistance inserted in gate circuit; less than half-wave current through load.

By making the series gate resistor variable, we can make adjustments to the
time-proportioned power: Increasing the resistance raises the threshold level,
causing less power to be delivered to the load. Decreasing the resistance
lowers the threshold level, causing more power to be delivered to the load.