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BASAL METABOLISME RATE

Basal energy expenditure (BEE) or basal metabolic rate (BMR) as it is


sometimes called, is the energy requirement to maintain life. It is measured at
rest, but not asleep in a thermo-neutral environment in the post-absorptive state.
It can be measured directly or indirectly, or it can be estimated as we are doing
here. We are using the equations of Harris & Benedict (1919).
The Harris-Benedict Equation for estimating one's BEE accounts for gender,
age, height and weight. As the abstract below indicates, the BEE derived using this
equation for obese people are somewhat overestimated. That is, the equation
appears to be reasonably accurate for normal people with normal body fat (see
research abstract below). Given that there were far fewer obese people around
back in the early 1900s than there are today, you should be aware of this
weakness.
To partially offset this inherent weakness, the calorie charts below are
based on one's lean body weight (LBW means fat-free weight). The simple logic for
doing this is that for any given body weight, the person with the lowest percentage
of body fat is going to burn more calories. Bigger muscles burn more calories than
do little ones. Thus, the assumption is made that for any given LBW in the tables
below, the BEE is based on an average person with an average percentage of body
fat. Since the Harris-Benedict equation uses total body weight, we are assuming
that (for example) a woman with 100 pounds of lean body weight, and is 20% body
fat, actually weighs 125 pounds. And a man with 170 pounds of lean body weight,
and
is
15%
body
fat,
actually
weighs
200
pounds.
For men, the B.E.E. = 66.5 + (13.75 x W) + (5.003 x H) - (6.775 x A)
For women, the B.E.E. = 655.1 + (9.563 x W) + (1.850 x H) - (4.676 x A)
Where:
W = actual weight in kilograms (1 kg = 2.2046 pounds)
H = height in centimeters (2.54 cm per inch)
A = age in years
Reproduced with Permission:
Journal of the American Dietetic Association -- April 1998 Abstract -- The HarrisBenedict studies of human basal metabolism: History and limitations
1

David C. Frankenfield, MS, RD, Eric R. Muth, MS, and William A. Rowe, MD
ABSTRACT
In the early part of the 20th century, numerous studies of human basal metabolism
were conducted at the Nutrition Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution of
Washington in Boston, Mass, under the direction of Francis G. Benedict. Prediction
equations for basal energy expenditure (BEE) were developed from these studies.
The expressed purpose of these equations was to establish normal standards to
serve as a benchmark for comparison with BEE of persons with various disease
states such as diabetes, thyroid, and other febrile diseases. The Harris-Benedict
equations remain the most common method for calculating BEE for clinical and
research purposes. The widespread use of the equations and the relative
inaccessibility of the original work highlights the importance of reviewing the data
from which the standards were developed. A review of the data reveals that the
methods and conclusions of Harris and Benedict appear valid and reasonable, albeit
not error free. All of the variables used in the equations have sound physiologic
basis for use in predicting BEE. Supplemental data from the Nutrition Laboratory
indicates that the original equations can be applied over a wide range of age and
body types. The commonly held assumption that the Harris-Benedict equations
overestimate BEE in obese persons may not be true for persons who are
moderately obese.
(J Am Diet Assoc. 1998;98:439-445.)
Based on data contain in: Harris J, Benedict F. A biometric study of basal
metabolism in man. Washington D.C. Carnegie Institute of Washington. 1919.

Obviously, there is more to life than just resting in that temperature-neutral environment.
You must also have energy from your diet to support your activities above basal. Once you have
determined your BMR, you must estimate your actual metabolic rate. You do this by computing
how many minutes you spend in your various activities each day, and adding the total caloric
cost of these activities to your BMR.
To simplify this task, we have divided calorie burning activities into five levels from very
light to very heavy. The results you derive are only an estimate, but should nonetheless give you
an idea of your daily caloric needs.

Physical Activity And Its Caloric Cost


Average
Average
Average
Hard
Couch Potato
Fitness Buff
Training Athlete
Very Light Light
Moderate Heavy
Very Heavy*
1.2 - 1.3 X1.4-1.5
BEE
BEE

Reading
Sitting
Driving
Eating

X1.6-1.7
X1.8-1.9
X
2.0+ X BEE
BEE
BEE
.
Fast walk
Walking
Boxing
Dancing
Sweeping
Swimming Rowing
Ping-Pong
Playing
Running
Mountain
Skating
Piano
Bicycle Raceclimbing
Light
Bicycling
Basketball Intense weight
weight
(easy)
training
training
.

* The caloric cost of highly intense activities such as Nordic skiing or marathon
running may be more than double your BMR.
The higher your body fat percentage, the fewer calories you'll burn (lower activity level,
and less muscle to burn calories). The lower your body fat percentage, the more calories you'll
burn (bigger muscles burn more calories than little ones). Thus, it becomes much easier to get rid
of fat permanently by increasing your metabolic rate. You do this by increasing both your muscle
mass and your activity level. You can (and SHOULD) gain muscle mass and lose fat at the same
time. Never sacrifice muscle tissue during the fat loss process. Instead, build more muscle to
burn more calories. You'll lose more fat faster, and you'll be more likely to keep it off. The KEY
is to control your calories!
Average Daily Activity Level
To estimate your average activity level for a 24 hour period, read the INSTRUCTIONS
below. You will easily be able to approximate the percentage that most closely describes your
lifestyle. This percentage is used in the daily caloric expenditure charts below.
Instructions
For each of the 24 hours in one of your "average" days, determine your energy
expenditure by reading the descriptions below. Then, multiply your hourly BEE (BEE divided by
24) times your energy expenditure. For example, if your hourly BEE equals 85 calories, and your
activity level during that hour was light (1.3), then you simply multiply 85 times 1.3. Your hourly
caloric expenditure equals 110.5 calories.
3

Do this for each hour of the day, add all of them together, and that is your daily caloric
requirement (your metabolic rate). Be SURE to apportion your daily calories over at least five
meals, with each meal reflective of your UPCOMING caloric needs. For example, if you expect
to train, eat more; if you expect to take a nap, eat less.

ENERGY EXPENDITURE GUIDE


Multiply
this
Activity Description
number by
BEE
.8
Sleeping
1.0
1.2
1.3
1.4 -1.6
1.7 -1.8
1.9 - 2.0

2.1 - 2.2
2.3 - 2.4
2.5

Lying down totally relaxed but not sleeping (this is


your "basal metabolic rate" or "basal energy
expenditure)
Very Light: Sitting, studying, talking, little walking
or other activities.
Light: Typing, teaching, lab/shop work, some
walking.
Moderate: Walking, jogging, gardening type job.
Heavy: Heavy manual labor such as digging, tree
felling, climbing.
Exceptionally Heavy: Fitness-oriented cycling or
similar vigorous activities, weight training, aerobic
dance.
Sports: Vigorous sports competition such as
football, racquetball, tennis or other extended-play
sports activities.
All-Out Training: Extremely high intensity weight
training with little rest between sets or exercises.
Extended Maximum Effort: Extremely high
intensity and high duration sports competition such
as triathlon, cross country skiing or marathon.
4

The caloric expenditures listed in the table below are for people with about
a 20 percent body fat level. The smaller your muscles are, the fewer calories you'll
burn; the bigger your muscles are, the more calories you'll burn. That means that
the higher your proportion of fat is to your total body weight, the fewer calories
you'll burn. On the flip side of the coin, the greater your proportion of muscle to
your total body weight, the more calories you'll burn. Remember that strenuous
exercises with weights (including, but not limited to, dumbbells and barbells,
Nautilus-type machines, your own body weight, and other forms of resistance
exercises) is the best way to increase your muscle size, thereby increasing your
metabolic rate. This will result in far more calories being burned all day long -even at night while you're sleeping. This, in turn, makes it easier to keep your body
fat level in check.

Activities
And
Their
Approximate
Hourly
Caloric Cost For Different Body Weights
If You Weigh...
100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300
Light Aerobics
Walking 2.5 Mph
Gardening
Golf
Lawn
Mowing
Light Calisthenics
Light
Weight
Training
House
Cleaning
Walking 3.75 Mph
Swimming 2.5 Mph
Medium
Aerobics
Badminton
Wood Chopping
Medium
Weight
Training
Slow
Jogging
Heavy Calisthenics

104
104
118
145
145
172
172
172
199
199
240
247
294
342
376
444
444
512

154
154
168
195
195
222
222
222
249
249
290
297
344
392
426
494
494
562

204
204
218
245
245
272
272
272
299
299
340
347
394
442
476
544
544
612

254
254
268
295
295
322
322
322
349
349
390
397
444
492
526
594
594
662

304
304
318
345
345
372
372
372
399
399
440
447
494
542
576
644
644
712

354
354
368
395
395
422
422
422
449
449
490
497
544
592
626
694
694
762

404
404
418
445
445
472
472
472
499
499
540
547
594
642
676
744
744
812

454
454
468
505
505
522
522
522
549
549
590
597
644
692
726
794
794
862

504
504
518
545
545
572
572
572
599
599
640
647
694
742
776
844
844
912
5

Heavy Aerobics
512 562 612 662 712 762 812 862 912
Heavy
Weight 560 610 660 710 760 810 860 910 960
Training
580 630 680 730 780 830 880 910 960
Medium
Jogging
Cycling 13 Mph
Fast Jogging
Basal

metabolic

rate

in

children

with

solid

tumour.

OBJECTIVE: To study the level of and changes in basal metabolic rate


(BMR) in children with a solid tumour at diagnosis and during treatment in order to
provide a more accurate estimate of energy requirements for nutritional support.
DESIGN: An observational study. SETTING: Tertiary care at the Centre for
Paediatric Oncology, University Hospital Nijmegen. SUBJECTS: Thirteen patients
were recruited from a population of patients visiting the University Hospital
Nijmegen for treatment. All patients asked to participate took part in and
completed the study. INTERVENTION: BMR was measured by indirect
calorimetry, under stringent, standardised conditions, for 20 min and on three
different occasions in all patients. Continuous breath gas analysis using a
mouthpiece was performed. Weight, height and skinfold measurements were
performed before each measurement. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: BMR was
expressed as percentage of the estimated reference value, according to the
Schofield formulas based on age, weight and sex, and in kJ (kcal) per kg of fatfree mass. RESULTS: At diagnosis, the BMR was higher than the estimated
reference BMR in all patients and 44% of the patients were considered
hypermetabolic. Mean BMR (as percentage of reference) was significantly
increased (11.6% (s.d. 6.7%); P=0.001), but decreased during treatment in 12 of the
13 patients (mean decrease 12.7% (s.d. 3.9%); P<0.0001). Furthermore, a significant
negative correlation (P=-0.67; P=0.01) was found between the change in BMR and
tumour response. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the BMR of children
with a solid tumour is increased at diagnosis and possibly during the first phase of
oncologic treatment. This may be important when determining energy requirements
for
nutritional
support.
The basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the energy output of a person under
standard conditions (e.g. 12-18 hours after a meal, at a comfortable temperature).
6

Under these conditions, some of the energy is used to maintain the activities of
vital organs like the brain, and the liver but the majority is used to heat the body.
There are a number of factors which influence the BMR some of which are
genetically linked and others which are environmentally controlled. For example,
what you eat, how much you exercise, how old you are etc.. are environmental. How
much hormone your glands make and how tall you are is influenced both by genetics
and the environment. So although body weight appears to be genetic as it tends to
run in families, I imagine that growing up in a particular family will influence what
foods you eat and how often you exercise as well as what your genetic make-up is.
1. The body surface area: the BMR is most closely related to the body surface
area and is less directly related to height or weight. The surface are can be
calculated
from
the
following
equation.
A (area cm2)= W (weight kg) x H (height cm) x 71.84. Body height is
genetically controlled but weight is controlled by environment and genetics.
2. Age: The BMR is much higher per square centimetre of surface for children
than it is for adults. Furthermore, as adults age there is a gradual decrease
in
BMR.
For
instance
for
a
male
the
BMR
for
a
:
2
6
10
20
40
50
60

year

year

year
year
year
year
year

old
old
old
old
old
old

old

=57.0
=
=
=
=
=

=53.0
48.5
41.4
38.0
36.7
35.5

3. Starvation: Prolonged under nutrition results in a dramatic decrease in the


BMR. For example, in a man who has fasted 31 days, the BMR went form 958
kcal/m2 of surface area to 737 kcal/m2. The body reduces the BMR in order
to
try
to
maintain
itself
under
starvation
conditions.
4. Body Temperature: For every increase of 0.5C in internal temperature of
the body, the BMR increases by 7 percent. The chemical reactions in the
body actually occur more quickly at higher temperatures. So a patient with a
fever of 42C (about 4C above normal) would have an increase of 50 percent
7

in

his

BMR.

5. External Temperature: Exposure to cold temperature causes an increase in


the BMR, so as to create the extra heat needed to maintain the body's
internal temperature. A short exposure to heat has little effect on the
body's metabolism as it is compensated mainly by increased heat loss. But
prolonged exposure to heat results in a gradual decrease in the BMR.
6. Ductless Glands: The thyroid gland produces thyroxin which acts like a
general catalyst speeding up the metabolic activity of the body. With severe
thyrotoxicosis, too much thyroxin is made and the BMR can actually double.
With myxoedema, in which too little thyroxin is made, the BMR may be
depressed
up
to
70
percent
of
normal.
Adrenaline also increases the BMR but to a lesser extent than thyroxin.
The anterior pituitary also influences the BMR indirectly through its
thyrotropic
hormone.
7. Effect of Food: Eating food stimulates metabolism as it takes energy to
digest and metabolise food. With an ordinary mixed diet, the metabolism is
increased
by
50-150
kcal
per
day.
8. Exercise: With muscular work, metabolism increases. During very violent
exercise, the metabolism can increase 16 fold.
BMR is determined by weight, sex and to a lesser extent age and height. The
formulas below are the most accurate method of determining your BMR without
resorting to expensive medical analysis. It must be noted that your BMR is merely
a guideline and could be a little high or low depending on your unique situation e.g.
some people have an inherently fast metabolism and others a slow metabolism.
Women: 655 + 4.36 X Weight (lbs) + 4.32 X Height (inches) 4.7 X Age =
BMR
Nikki weighs 140lbs is 5ft8ins tall and 30 years old. Her BMR would be:
9. 655 +
10. 610 (4.36 X 140 lbs) +
11. 294 (4.32 X 68 inches) - 4. 141 (4.70 X 30 years)
12. Nikki's Basal Metabolic Rate is 1,418 kcals.
8

Men:
Jake
1.
2.
3.
4.

66 + 6.22 X Weight (lbs) + 12.7 X Height (inches) 6.8 X Age = BMR


weighs 200lbs is 5ft11ins tall and 30 years old. His BMR would be:
66 +
1,244 (6.22 X 200 lbs) +
902 (12.7 X 71 inches) 4. 204 (6.8 X 30 years)
Jake's Basal Metabolic Rate is 2,008 kcals.

It becomes apparent that ones BMR does not equate to the total amount of
calories burned during any 24 hour period. This is because it does not take into
account any activity that may be undertaken during your daily routine. To ensure
that one can get the most accurate guide to his/her actual BMR researchers have
devised occupational allowances for the average man or womans daily activity:
1. Quiet sitting = BMR +30%
2. Office work (light activity) = BMR +50%
3. Housework (moderate activity) = BMR +70%
4. Heavy manual labour (i.e. construction, landscaping) = BMR +100%
In our examples given above, lets assume that both are employed and work in an
office:
1. Nikkis BMR is 1,418 kcals plus a 50% occupational allowance = 2,127 kcals.
2. Jakes BMR is 2,008 kcals plus a 50% occupational allowance = 3,012 kcals.
Now it does not end here. We still have not taken into account the energy
expenditure as a direct result of weights or aerobic training. Both Nikki and Jake
lead a healthy lifestyle and exercise 4 5 days per week.
Nikki does 2 * 45 minute weights sessions and 2 * 60 minute step aerobic sessions
and 1 * 45 minute circuit training session. I estimate that Nikki would burn about
450 550 kcals in each her 5 training sessions per week. She could safely consume
an extra 673 kcals on her training days.
Jake does 3 * 65 minute weights sessions and 1 * 30 minute cycling session (flat
out). I estimate that Jake would burn about 500 650 kcals in each of his training
sessions. He could safely consume an extra 888kcals on his training days.
When you workout you increase your metabolism significantly and even though you
may have worked out for only 60 minutes your metabolism will work at the higher
level for roughly an additional 2 hours after your exercise has stopped. This is why
professional athletes training 2 or 3 times a day can consume enormous quantities
of food without being in any danger of putting on fat.
9

Nikki & Jake's weekly schedule:

Tr
B OTr T
Wh BM
TotDa
OA aini
MAain ot Who
o R
al y
ng
R ing al
1
2
Mo 7
20 10 88 39
4 67 8
J
nda 0
N
08 04 8 00
1 3 0
y
9
8
0
J

20 10 88 39
08 04 8 00

20 10 00 30
08 04 0 12

20 10 88 39
08 04 8 00

20 10 00 30
08 04 0 12

20 10 88 39
08 04 8 00

20 10 00 30
08 04 0 12

1
2
Tu 7
4 67 8
esd 0
N
1 3 0
ay 9
8
0
We 1
2
7
dne 4 67 8
0
N
sda 1 3 0
9
y 8
0
1
2
Th 7
4 67 8
urs 0
N
1 3 0
day 9
8
0
1
2
7
Fri 4 00 1
0
N
day1 0 2
9
8
7
1
2
Sat 7
4 67 8
urd 0
N
1 3 0
ay 9
8
0
1
2
Su 7
4 00 1
nda 0
N
1 0 2
y
9
8
7
10

One pound of fat or muscle equates to 3500 kcals. If either Nikki or Jake
wishes to gain 1lb per week they would need to increase their daily intake by
500kcals alternatively if they wish to lose 1lb per week they would need to
decrease their daily intake by 500 kcals. To gain or lose 2lbs per week their daily
requirements would need to be adjusted up or down by 1000 kcals. It is my strong
opinion that losing or gaining any more than 2lbs per week means that muscle is
being sacrificed.
Example 1: Jake wants to increase his weight from 200lbs to 220lbs without
putting on much fat. I would suggest that he increase his calorie intake on training
days by 1000 and by 420 on non-training days. This should allow Jake to reach his
goal in 14 weeks gaining on average 1.5 lbs a week.
Example 2: Nikki wants to lose 10lbs going from 140lbs to 130lbs without
sacrificing muscle. I would suggest that she decrease her calorie intake on her
aerobic and non-training days by 350. This would reduce her weekly intake by 1,750
kcals allowing her to lose a pound per week. She will reach her goal in 20 weeks
but will not have sacrificed muscle.
The rules to sound nutrition:
1.
Try and derive your calories via the 1-2-3 principle i.e. your
total daily calories will consist of 15% Fat, 35% Protein and 50%
Carbohydrates
1.
Eat for what you are about to do and not for what you have just
done.
2.
Try to eat a balanced meal every 3 hours.
3.
Drink 20ml of water per pound of bodyweight per day i.e. Jake
@ 200lbs would need 7 pints of water daily.
4.
Ensure that you eat a variety of foods including vegetables,
fruits, meat, fish etc.
5.
Choose the healthy option more often than not.
6.
Avoid refined foods where possible i.e. chose brown bread
instead of white and an apple instead of apple pie etc.
7.
Remember eating a sensible diet does not mean eating a boring
diet. Good healthy food usually costs considerably less than the prepackaged alternative and tastes better as well.
8.
Take nutritional supplements as an addition to your daily diet.
9.
Be consistent; stay focused and best of luck!
11

How many calories are there in what I eat?


1.
1 gram of Protein contains 4kcals
1.
1 gram of carbohydrate contains 4kcals
2.
1 gram of fat contains 9.1kcals

Metabolic go-slow
There's a tendency, as you get older, for your daily energy (calorie)
requirement to go down. There are three main components which make up the total
daily calories you require. The largest (65-70 per cent) is resting energy
expenditure (REE), the amount of calories required to keep your body ticking over
and at a constant temperature when you're not active - this includes when you're
asleep. You may also come across this referred to as basal metabolic rate (BMR).
The effects of physical activity account for another 20-35 per cent, with the
remaining 10-15 per cent of energy used up in digesting food.
It has become accepted by nutritionists that the basal metabolic rate slows down
as people get older - this has been standardised by a reduction of 4 per cent for
every 10 years over 25. Thus, many people will tend to gain weight if they continue
to eat the same amounts as they always did. However, regular exercise may help to
offset this insidious trend. Apart from the extra calories used up in exercise
itself, there is pretty good evidence that regular activity increases the basal
metabolic
rate
too.
In a study where men who were involved in endurance exercise were compared with
men who did not take part in any regular activity, it was clearly demonstrated that
active older adults had a higher resting energy expenditure than sedentary ones
('Influence of age and endurance training on metabolic rate and hormones in older
men', Poehlman et al, American Journal of Physiology 1990; 259, ppE66-E2). A
number of other researchers have found that involvement in aerobic exercise
offsets the age-related decline in REE. Resistive weight training has also been
suggested as a way of maintaining resting energy expenditure, as REE goes up the
higher
your
lean
body
mass.
Ultimately, you are the only one who will know whether you need fewer calories now
than you used to. If you're putting on weight without being aware that you're
actually eating more food, a slower metabolic rate may be the culprit. Exercise
which is regular (as opposed to infrequent mega-sessions) is likely to boost your
12

daily calorie requirement. The exercise doesn't need to be aerobic or endurancerelated to have an effect, either - resistance exercise (eg, weight training, yoga)
can
also
work.
If you still find that you need to cut down on what you eat to keep to a desired
weight, you will need to take more care over the quality of what you eat. If you're
an endurance cyclist packing away 5,000 calories a day, you can get away with
eating some foods that provide calories and not a lot else (eg, food rich in refined
sugars), because you'll still have room to eat foods that will bring in the required
amounts of vitamins and minerals. However, if you're dipping below the 2,000
calories a day mark, as an athlete you need to make sure that everything you eat is
'nutrient-rich'. There's another reason too for paying attention to the quality of
your food as you get older. Changes in the gut as you age mean that you become
less
efficient
at
absorbing
nutrients
from
food.
Foods tend to be higher in vitamins and minerals the nearer they are to their
natural state. This is particularly true for fruit, vegetables and cereal-derived
foods. For example, the refining process which strips away the outer husk of wheat
grain to make white flour also strips away significant amounts of B vitamins (these
play a crucial part in converting carbohydrates into energy in the body), vitamin E,
iron and zinc. Thus, choose whole-food varieties of foods when you can (see table
above for comparisons). When cooking, vegetables fare best with minimal cooking prolonged soaking and boiling lets vitamins (B 1 and C in particular) seep away. It's
good practice to make a habit of eating raw fruit or vegetables at least once a day.

Protein - no need to panic


Lean body mass (which includes muscle) tends to decrease as we get older,
which has led to the notion that older people need relatively more protein. In fact,
the evidence seems to indicate that the decrease in lean body mass is largely due
to decreased activity. If you spend most of your time sitting down, no amount of
protein stuffing is going to make your muscles bulge. The only way to increase your
lean body mass is to take more exercise, then your body will be able to use what
protein there is in your diet to make muscle rather than fat.

Iron
13

Iron deficiency anaemia is common among older adults. Risk factors for iron
deficiency include a low-calorie diet, low protein consumption, impaired iron
absorption, or blood loss due to injury or disease. Iron deficiency among older
adults is often caused by gastrointestinal haemorrhage and/or poor iron intake.
The best dietary sources of iron are organ meat (eg, liver) and red meat. There are
vegetable sources of iron too (green vegetables, whole grains, pulses), but these
are absorbed less easily. Absorption from these sources increases if you eat them
at the same time as meat. But if you don't eat meat, or are trying to cut down,
there is another way to raise vegetable iron absorption - that's by eating
something rich in vitamin C at the same time, such as raw or lightly cooked
vegetables,
or
fresh
fruit
juice.
Calcium and osteoporosis
Inadequate calcium intake is linked with a number of disease states more
common in older adults, such as osteoporosis, hypertension, and colon cancer. It's
well-documented that the incidence of osteoporosis (thinning of the bones which
leads to higher risk of bone breakages) increases with age, postmenopausal women
being at particular risk. Bone mass begins to decrease between 20 and 40 years of
age, and this loss may continue at a rate of 6 per cent to 10 per cent per decade.
Exercise and calcium intake are two key factors which can thwart the incidence
and progress of osteoporosis. For both older men and women, it's been found that
those with stronger muscles also have greater bone mineral density ('Exercise,
nutrition and aging', Evans WJ in Journal of Nutrition, 1992, vol 22: pp796-801).
Several studies have shown that bone mineral density is improved by exercise
programmes
that
increase
muscular
strength
and/or
endurance.
Although there's good evidence that a high calcium intake can help to maintain
bone mineral density, a number of nutritional surveys have found that older people
have calcium intakes below recommended amounts. In addition, as you get older,
you will be at risk of absorbing less calcium from your food; this is an effect of the
stomach
production
of
acid
tending
to
decrease
with
age.
So, if you're taking part in regular exercise, you're taking good care of one side of
the
equation.
Don't
blow
it
with
a
poor
calcium
intake.

14

Ways to boost calcium:


1
Use
powdered
milk
in
place
of
coffee
whiteners
2
Make
yoghurt-based
salad
dressings
3 Eat your greens! Green leafy vegetables are a rich calcium source
4
Drink
low-fat
milk
with
lunch,
snacks,
or
dinner.
5 Fish with edible bones (sardines, pilchards) make calcium-packed lunch snacks in
sandwiches,
or
on
toast
6
Look
for
tofu
made
using
calcium
sulphate
7 Low-fat dairy products (eg, cottage cheese, lowfat yoghurt) will supply calcium
without
a
fat
load
8 Don't worry about the calcium content of skimmed milk - calcium isn't lost in the
skimming process, and skimmed milk actually has a slightly higher relative calcium
content.
In most cases, calcium supplements are a poor choice compared to calcium-rich milk
products because the calcium from the supplements is absorbed less effectively
than that from milk. People who have trouble digesting milk because they can't
digest milk sugar (lactose) need to find alternate calcium sources. Some people who
are milk-intolerant can tolerate yoghurt, hard cheeses, or even small amounts of
milk. Non-dairy calcium sources include soya milk enriched with calcium, green
vegetables,
nuts
and
seeds.

Fluid requirements: drink before you're thirsty


Dehydration is an enemy that athletes need to be wary of at any age. Even
moderate losses can mean operating at less than 80 per cent of your potential. The
fluid in sweat is borrowed from a number of sources within the body, the most
critical of which is the fluid lost from blood plasma. The result is a smaller and
more sluggish blood volume, which gets increasingly treacle-like the more
dehydrated you get. The blood circulation carries out the essential task of
supplying oxygen and fuel to your muscles. If this vital supply slows down, so will
you. The heart will be put under pressure, and in serious cases of dehydration,
medical
complications
can
occur.
What you may not be aware of is that, as you get older, your thirst sensitivity is
likely to diminish. Therefore, if you're involved in any activity where dehydration
could pose a problem, you need to drink to a schedule rather than relying on your
15

thirst to alert you to danger. Here are some tips on how to do this if you're taking
part
in
a
competitive
event:
1 Ensure a high fluid intake for the last few days before competition. A useful
check for adequate hydration is to ensure that your urine is pale in colour.
2 Don't drink alcohol the night before a competition - it will dehydrate you.
3 Before competing, try to drink between l/2 and 3/4 pint 15 minutes beforehand.
4 If your sport allows, drink little and often. Ideally, aim for about l/4 pint every
15 minutes.
5 For quick rehydration, water or a dilute drink (including isotonics) are best
6 If you decide to use a sports drink, try out several during training to find out
which works best for you. This includes deciding if you like the taste after an hour
or
so's
activity!

Remedies for aches and pains


As you get older you tend to become more prone to aches and pains - from
non-specific twinges in the joints to conditions such as arthritis. If you have a
medical condition causing you muscular and/or joint pain, take advice from your
doctor as to how much and what type of exercise is best for you.
Some joint pain has been shown to respond well to dietary treatment. One of the
most promising is the use of fish oil. A number of trials have indicated that
symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis can be relieved in some people by taking fish oil
supplements. Fish rich in the specific type of oil include mackerel, salmon, sardines,
pilchards, herrings, kippers and (uncanned) tuna. The liver of white fish is also rich
in
oil
hence
cod
liver
oil.
There is a potential biochemical explanation for this - fish oil contains a special
type of fat (omega3 fatty acids) which when metabolised by the body interacts
with the system responsible for inflammation, damping it down. Since some joint
pain is caused by inappropriate inflammation, relief is brought about by decreasing
the
inflammation
response.
Another bonus of fish oil is that it seems to decrease the 'clottability' of the
blood, thereby decreasing the risk of heart disease and strokes.
In conclusion, as a veteran athlete you need to follow general guidelines for
16

sensible sports nutrition - ensuring that you have a good carbohydrate intake and
eating plenty of fresh foods. If you're eating less than you used to, try to make
sure that the food you do eat is pulling its weight in terms of its nutrient content and
in
particular,
watch
out
for
calcium
and
iron.
Mega CCG - 557.5mg per capsule
Recommended dosage: One to two capsules first thing in morning & mid-afternoon
Ingredients: Choline Bitartrate - 410mg, Levocarnitine - 85mg, Dry Guarana seed if
5:1 ratio being 62.5mg
at 1.75mg of caffeine, which equals 14% of the extract
Benefits:
* Fat Burner
* Increased basal metabolic rate
* (Guarana) Metabolism of fatty acids
* (L-Carnitine) Transports fatty acids across cell membranes into the mitochondria
where they can be
burnt up for energy
* (Choline) Delivery of fats to areas where they can be converted to energy.
Your body's metabolism can often be compared to the workings of a car engine.
Musasih's Mega CCG is THE formula that will assist your engine to burn fat more
easily.
The main question we often have about our bodies is: how do we get them to
operate more efficiently? There is a general rate at which your body idles when we
are not particularly active, this is called our basal metabolic rate. Much like what
your car engine does when you've just started it, or when you are stuck in one
of those traffic jams or just sitting at the lights. When we push down the
accelerator our engine revs and we start to increase in speed. At this point we
start burning up more fat for fuel. This can be likened to exercise which for that
hour we are training burns up a lot more fuel, and incidentally continues to burn
more fuel for a while after as well. Now it is easy to under estimate the effects of
increasing basal metabolic rate, because we do still burn up quite a lot of fuel just
idling. You only have to look at the effects of sitting in peak hour traffic on yuor
fuel bill each week to be convinced of this! If we could just increase our basal
metabolic rate we could burn a lot more fuel. Now Guarana can increase your basal
17

metabolic rate or idle speed, which means that your general rate of burning fat will
also increase. Guarana will also assist the mobilisation of fatty acids from their
deposits.
The next question we have to ask is how are we actually going to get those fats
into the cells of the body to be burnt for energy? The answer to this is LCarnitine, a long time favourite of Musashi's, now included into this new
combination formula. Carnitine transports fatty acids across cell membranes into
the mitochondria or energy factories of your cells where they can be burnt up for
energy. It's almost like they are the fuel injectors of fats into the cells. The good
news is that this mechanism works even better during exercise sessions. When we
are accelerating and our engines a-revving away we are burning up more fuel.
Our final question is how do we get the fats to the cells? Choline is an important
component of lipoproteins, which are primary carriers of fats in the blood. Without
Choline it would be like having no fuel lines to deliver those fats to the areas where
they could be converted to energy. Choline is also a wonder nutrient and has vast
applications in the body. It is a nutrient essential for the health of the liver,
kidneys, brain and for normal tissue growth. Choline is very important to the health
of the liver. There has been a long association between a low Choline diet and fatty
accumulation of the liver. Choline is needed to synthesise phosphatidycholine that
is essential in the transport of triglycerides. Lack of Choline results in lower
levels of HDL the 'good cholesterol' we often here about. HDL allows fat to be
taken away from arteries.
This combination has proved very successful in weight loss programs. This formula
is likely to be very valuable, especially when we are dieting of feeling tired due to
that low carb diet.
Iodine is a good example of a trace mineral whose deficiency creates a
disease that is easily corrected by resupplying it in the diet. Goiter, an
enlargement of the thyroid gland, develops when this important metabolic gland
does not have enough iodine to manufacture hormones. As it increases its cell size
to try to trap more iodine, the whole gland increases in size, creating a swelling in
the neck. Without supplemental iodine, a hypothyroid condition results, likely
leading to fatigue and sluggishness, weight gain, and coldness of the body; at this
stage, the condition may be harder to treat with iodine alone and thyroid hormone
supplementation may be needed.
18

Goiter was first noted in the Great Lakes region; the "goiter belt" included
that area and the midwestern and Plains states. In the 1930s, approximately 40
percent of the people in Michigan had goiter, due mainly to iodine-deficient soil;
glacier melting had washed away the iodine. Areas by oceans or in the vicinity of
ocean breezes usually contain enough iodine to prevent goiters. In 1924, iodine was
added to table salt, a substance that was already in wide use (our salt problem has
been going on for a long time). Iodized salt was first introduced in Michigan; by
1940, it was in general use. Even today, iodine deficiency is still a problem, and
many people in the United States have goiter. Cretinism, another condition caused
by iodine deficiency, is characterized by mental retardation and other problems. It
may be present in iodine-deficient babies or children born to women who are
lacking iodine. It is a serious and nonreversible problem that should be avoided by
proper iodine intake.
Iodine itself is a poisonous gas, as are the related halogens chlorine,
fluorine, and bromine. However, as with chlorine, the salts or negatively charged
ions of iodine (iodides) are soluble in water, and iodine is essential to life in trace
amounts. Plants do not need iodine, but humans require it for the production of
thyroid hormones that regulate the metabolic energy of the body and set the basal
metabolic rate (BMR).
The body contains about 25 mg. of iodine. A small percentage of this is in
the muscles, 20 percent is in the thyroid, and the rest is in the skin and bones.
Only 1 percent is present in the blood. The concentration of iodine in the thyroid
gland is very high, more than 1,000 times that in the muscles. Approximately onefourth of thyroid iodine is in the two main thyroid hormones, T4 (thyroxine) and
T3 (triiodothyronine). Thyroxine itself is nearly two-thirds iodine. The remainder
is in the precursor molecules of these two important hormones.
Iodine is well absorbed from the stomach into the blood. About 30 percent
goes to the thyroid gland, depending on the need. Iodine is eliminated rapidly. Most
of the remaining 70 percent is filtered by the kidneys into the urine. Our bodies
do not conserve iodine as they do iron, and we must obtain it regularly from the
diet. There is recent concern that perhaps iodine is being overconsumed, especially
in iodized salt. The incidence of goiter has been rising again, however, so there may
be factors other than iodine involved in this problem.
Sources: The life from ocean waters provides the best source of iodine.
Fish, shellfish, and sea vegetables (seaweed) are dependably rich sources. Cod, sea
bass, haddock, and perch are a few examples of iodine-rich sea animals consumed
by humans; kelp is the most common, high-iodine sea vegetable. Kelp in particular is
19

rich in other minerals and low in sodium and thus is a good seasoning substitute for
salt.
The use of iodized salt has certainly reduced most iodine deficiency. It
contains about 76 mcg. of iodine per gram of salt. The average person consumes at
least 3 grams of salt daily, exceeding the RDA for iodine of 150 mcg. Many
authorities feel (and I believe) that commercial iodized salt is overused and has
other drawbacks. It contains aluminum and other unneeded chemicals and may
contribute to other problems. Fast foods may be very high in iodine because of the
added salt. Adding iodine to salt is part of the paternalistic thinking of the
industrial age, not counting on people to learn or adapt, "just put it in their food or
water and save them from their own ignorance." There are healthier ways to obtain
iodine than in table salt; eating fish, especially fresh ocean fish, is probably the
best, as it also may help reduce cholesterol and cardiovascular disease risk. Sea
salt from the ocean water is a natural source of iodine, although it is not nearly as
high in this mineral as "iodized" salt.
Dietary iodine content may vary widely, depending on the iodine content in
the soil in which food grows. Plants grown in or animals grazed on iodine-rich soil
will contain substantial amounts of iodine. Milk and its products may be sources of
iodine when the cows have an iodized salt lick in their pasture. Eggs may also be a
good source when iodine is in the chicken feed. Bakers may add iodine to dough, so
some may be present in bread. Other foods that may contain iodine, especially
when the soil is good, are onions, mushrooms, lettuce, spinach, green peppers,
pineapple, peanuts, cheddar cheese, and whole wheat bread. More and more, people
are eating wholesome, natural foods, avoiding iodized salt, so they must eat more
of the iodine-rich foods, such as the sea vegetables, or obtain iodine from a
general vitamin-mineral supplement to make sure they are getting adequate
amounts.
Functions: Iodine is an essential nutrient for production of the body's
thyroid hormones and therefore is required for normal thyroid function. The
thyroid hormones, particularly thyroxine, which is 65 percent iodine, are
responsible for our basal metabolic rate (BMR)-that is, the body's use of energy.
Thyroid is required for cell respiration and the production of energy as ATP and
further increases oxygen consumption and general metabolism.
The thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine, are also needed for
normal growth and development, protein synthesis, and energy metabolism. As
thyroid stimulates the energy production of the cellular mitochondria and affects
our BMR, it literally influences all body functions. Nerve and bone formation,
reproduction, the condition of the skin, hair, nails, and teeth, and our speech and
20

mental state are all influenced by thyroid as well. Thyroid and, thus, iodine also
affect the conversion of carotene to vitamin A and of ribonucleic acids to protein;
cholesterol synthesis; and carbohydrate absorption.
Iodine is picked up by the thyroid and combines with the thyroid hormones
and amino acid tyrosine to make the thyroid hormone precursors diiodotyrosine,
diiodothyronine, and monoiodotyrosine and, then, the hormones T3 and T4. These
hormones are then carried through the body by a protein called thyroid binding
globulin (TBG).
Uses: Supplemental iodine may be helpful in correcting hypothyroidism and
goiter caused by deficient iodine intake, and it may reverse many of the symptoms
of cretinism if given soon after birth. Thus, iodine's main use is really in the
prevention or early treatment of its deficiency diseases.
Iodine has also been used to help increase energy level and utilization in
cases of fatigue, mental sluggishness, and weight gain caused by hypothyroidism.
Iodine itself will not help with weight loss if there is normal thyroid function. If
weight gain results from iodine deficiency causing decreased thyroid activity, this
hypothyroid condition may be improved with iodine followed by thyroid
supplementation. Iodine solutions, such as iodine tincture or Betadine, are
commonly used as antiseptics and can actually kill bacteria and fungi.
Because of the thyroid's role in fat and cholesterol metabolism, sufficient
iodine and thus normal thyroid levels are thought to help reduce atherosclerosis
potential. Also, iodine and thyroid may help maintain healthy hair, skin, and nails. It
is possible that iodine deficiency increases the risk of certain cancers, such as
breast, ovary, and uterus. Iodine levels may be low in people with fibrocystic
breast disease; in this case, supplementation may improve this condition.
Potassium iodide has been used medicinally for problems of the skin and as
an expectorant for bronchial congestion. Silver iodide has been used to seed clouds
to bring rain, but this practice is considered ecologically unsound. Iodine
supplements may help prevent uptake of radioactive iodine if that is present in the
environment or in medical diagnostic procedures. If the thyroid were saturated
with normal iodine, it would eliminate the radioactive molecules more rapidly.
Deficiency and toxicity: There is no significant danger of toxicity of iodine
from a natural diet, though some care must be taken when supplementing iodine or
using it in drug therapy. High iodine intake, however, may actually reduce thyroxine
production and thyroid function. Excessive quantities of iodized salt, taking too
many kelp tablets, or overuse of potassium iodide expectorants such as SSKI can
cause some problems, but regular elevated intake of iodine is needed to produce
21

toxicity. Some people have allergic reactions, mainly as skin rashes, to iodine
products. Iodine supplementation may also worsen acne in some cases.
Deficiencies of iodine have been very common, especially in areas where the
soil is depleted, as discussed earlier. Several months of iodine deficiency can lead
to goiter and/or hypothyroidism. With decreased iodine, the thyroid cells and
gland enlarge, creating a goiter, which may be noticed mainly by the swelling it
causes in the base of the neck.
Goiter is usually associated with hypothyroidism, which is decreased thyroid
function that leads to slower metabolism, fatigue, weight gain, sluggishness, dry
hair, thick skin, poor mental functioning, decreased resistance to infection, a
feeling of coldness, and a decrease in sexual energy. More advanced
hypothyroidism may worsen these symptoms as well as create a hyperactive, manic
state and hypertension, which is paradoxical because this may occur with an
overactive thyroid as well. Iodine by itself usually will not cure goiter and
hypothyroidism but often will slow their progression.
Goitrogens are substances that can induce goiter, primarily by interfering
with the formation and function of thyroglobulin. Some natural goitrogens are
soybeans, cabbage, cauliflower, and peanuts, especially when they come from
iodine-deficient soils. Millet has recently been described as having goitrogenic
tendencies. Certain drugs, such as thiouracil and sulfonamides, also act as
goitrogens.
RDASs
(in mcg.)

for
Infants
Ages 13
Ages 46
Ages 710
Age 11 older
Pregnant women
Lactating women

Iodine

4050
70
90
120
150
175
200

Some early studies correlate low iodine levels with an increased risk of
breast cancer. These low levels usually correlate with low selenium levels as well,
more classically associated with cancer. A higher incidence of breast cancer has
22

been shown to occur in the goiter belt, whereas areas with high soil levels of iodine
and selenium show a lower incidence.
Requirements: The RDA for iodine in adults is 150 mcg. The amount
necessary to prevent goiter is about 1 mcg./kg.-that is, about 50-75 mcg. for most
adults. Average intake from diet ranges from 65 mcg. to about 650 mcg. Much of
that may come from iodized salt, which is not highly recommended; however, it is
very difficult to avoid salt completely in our culture because it is added to so many
prepared foods and by restaurants and mothers everywhere. A 6-ounce portion of
ocean fish contains about 500 mcg. of iodine, more than is contained in one
teaspoon of salt but without the extra 2 grams of sodium. Ideally, we can meet our
iodine requirements by eating seafood, seaweed, and vegetables grown in iodinerich soil. A typical mineral or complete vitamin supplement will contain the RDA,
150 mcg., of iodine per day. More iodine is needed during pregnancy and lactation.
People on low-salt diets may need supplemental iodine.
Walking time estimates for trails
The walking speed on trails depends both on the distance to be covered and
on the altitude at which one walks.
Distance
The walking times for trails shown in these pages are based on the walking
time table published by the Schweizer Wanderwege, Fderation suisse de tourisme
pdestre, Ente svizzero pro sentieri, CH-4125 Riehen. This table gives isochrones
as function of horizontal and vertical distances to be covered.
For the usual Alpine trails in good state, and with an inclination of 10-20 %,
they assume a mean elevation speed of 300-350 m/h and a mean descent speed of
450-600 m/h. The fastest climbing rate is for trails at 25 % (370 m/h). For nearly
horizontal trails, they assume a speed of 4.2 km/h. Maximum horizontal speed is
achieved for trails going down at a rate of 5 % (4.5 km/h).
Altitude
The above time estimates are valid for normally trained people living at
moderate altitudes, and apply to walks at an average altitude of 1500-2500 m. The
amount of oxygen per cubic metre in the atmosphere drops by a factor of 2
approximately every 5500 m, the red line in the graph. (The actual rate at which
the air pressure falls is a bit faster according to the Stanford standard
atmosphere computation shown in yellow in the graph below, but there is also some
evidence that the air pressure at high altitudes is slightly higher.)
23

The human body tries to compensate in a variety of ways for the lack of oxygen.
The level of adaptation varies enormously from one individual to another, lack of
oxygen can also lead to mountain illness. Taking altitude effects properly into
account is therefore way outside the scope of these modest estimates. For the
sake of simplicity, it is assumed here that the walking speed is proportional to the
oxygen level as of an altitude of 2000 m, below which the uncorrected time is The
graph on the right shows the boiling temperature of water as function of altitude
computed from the vapour pressure (Robert H. Perry & Cecil H. Chilton, Chemical
Engineers' Handbook, 5th Ed, McGraw-Hill). The vapour pressure of water as
function of temperature shows a behaviour very similar to that of the atmospheric
pressure as function of altitude. As a result, the relation between boiling point and
altitude is almost linear. Hence the practical rule that the boiling temperature of
water falls by aproximately 1 C every 300 m, good to better than 1 C up to
Sagarmatha.
Walking time estimates for Alpine routes
Time estimates outside the trails are usually taken from the Swiss Alpine
Club guide books, the Vallot guide book, or other similar sources. These estimates
assume the route is in good condition. They are the "normal" times needed by
trained climbers and guides with clients, having a fair knowledge of the route and
securing only when necessary - the estimates need to be interpreted accordingly.
How much energy and work does it take ?
Potential energy
Walking up requires the body to supply a potential energy of <height>
<mass> g, or approximately 1 MJ for a person of 100 kg (clothing and rucksack
included) doing 1000 m uphill. A bar of chocolate or 2 fruit yoghurts provide about
this much energy. Walking up this distance takes approximately 3 h, or 10000
seconds. Thus, the body has to do work at a rate of approximately 100 W merely to
compensate the potential energy difference resulting from the gain in altitude.
Basal metabolic rate
One may be tempted to believe the body must be terribly inefficient and
that the body actually does much more work ...
The basal metabolic rate of the body, i.e. for the body fully at rest, is
approximately 80 W, 20 % of which is consumed by the brain. The energy required
for walking up the 1000 m is to be added to this. Walking has been measured to
increase the basal metabolic rate by a factor 2, i.e. the body supplies the potential
24

energy with nearly full efficiency, to a factor of 4, which corresponds to a worst


efficiency of 30 %. This explains why one doesn't have to eat much in order to
walk - as opposed, of course, to the need to drink.
Extreme cases
In comparison, 1 horse power, i.e. the work a strong horse can sustain for a
working day, equals 746 W. One of the most energy-demanding human leasure
activities, cross country skiing, requires 1 kW for longer periods.

25