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Basic Fundamental

Course
2G vs3G Comparison Essentials
Multiwireless Sdn Bhd
Prepared by: Huzaini

BASIC CONCEPT
2G - GSM

3G - WCDMA
frequency

Frequency
FDD

Code
Time

CDMA

TDD

time

frequency

structure

For CS
time

MSC

Network Element:
iuCS

iub

RNC
For PS

SGSN

NodeB

uu
UE

NodeB
UE

iuPS
NodeB

frequency

Maxis GSM frequencies:

frequency

900MHz, 1800MHz

bandwidth

Bandwidth = 200kHz

Maxis WCDMA frequencies*:


f1 10686 (DL) / 9712 (UL) - primary
f2 10637 (DL) / 9687 (UL)
f3 10662 (DL) / 9736 (UL)

bandwidth
chip rate
frame

Bandwidth = 5MHz
Chip rate = 3.84 Mchip/s
Frame length = 10 ms

2 Different operator have different frequencies and different strategy advice by Vendor (Huawei/Ericsson/NSN)
* Note:

Multiwireless Sdn Bhd


22 May 2010

SCRAMBLING CODES (SC)


SC: 9, Service: CS Call
DL Channelization code: C128,5
Spreading factor: 128
User bit rate: 12.2 kbps

SC: 418
SC: 1
SC: 9
SC: 17

SC

SC: 9, Service: PS Download


DL Channelization code: C8,2
Spreading Factor: 8
User bit rate: 384 kbps

SF

Scrambling Code:
Using pseudo noise (PN) codes
Used to differentiate cells in the downlink (DL)
Range is 0 - 512

Channelization Code:
Using Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor
(OVSF) codes
Fully orthogonal, i.e. do not interfere with
each other
Used to separate different users/cell
Limited codes per cell
Once a code is chosen, any codes on the
same branch above or below the used code
cannot be used (refer diagram below)

Spreading Factor

User DL Bit Rate (kbps)

User UL Bit Rate (kbps)

384

128

16

128

64

C64,9

32

64

32

C64,10

64

32

16

C64,11

128

16

C64,11

C32,5
C16,3
used

C8,2

C32,6
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22 May 2010

HANDOVER (1)

SOFT HANDOVER

SOFT HANDOVER
Intra-frequency HO

Idle (reselection)

Dedicated or idle (reselection)

HARD HANDOVER

IRAT

Active Set:
Up to 3 cells in soft handover (sHO), i.e. 3 AS. This means
a UE can be served by up to 3 cells at the same time.
Note that 3 AS equals to using 3 cells resources at the
same time.

MN/DN
Inter-frequency HO

IRAT

Dedicated

2G
Cell1

Parameter

AS

3G
Cell2
f1

Dedicated

HARD HANDOVER

3G
Cell1
f1

Monitored Neigbour / Detected Neighbour


Monitored Neighbour (MN): Neighbour already
defined2, can be added as an AS if criterion is met
Detected Neighbour (DN): Neighbour not defined in the
neighbour list, need to be added TWO-WAY if it is a
valid missing neighbour. A DN whose RSCP is too
close to the strongest server and not added as a
neighbour will become an interferer.

3G
Cell3
f2
Add
Dont Add

Things to define
Motorola: inter_rat_enabled, 2g>3g neighbours1
Ericsson: qsi, 2g>3g neighbours

TEMS Snapshot

2G vs 3G

RxLev = Signal strength = RSCP


RxQual = Signal Quality = Ec/Io
BCCH/ARFCN = Frequency Channel / Code = Scrambling Code (SC)

Multiwireless Sdn Bhd


22 May 2010

HANDOVER(2)

e1a
e1b

Event 1a - A Primary CPICH enters


the Reporting Range

e1d

Event 1d - Change of Best Cell

Event 1b -A Primary CPICH leaves


the Reporting Range

Event 2d - The estimated quality of


the currently used frequency is
below a certain Threshold

Event 3a - The Estimated Quality of


the Currently Used UTRAN
Frequency is below a Certain
Threshold and the Estimated
Quality of the Other System is
above a Certain Threshold

e2d

e1c

e3a

Event 1c - A non-active primary


CPICH becomes better than an
Active Primary CPICH

e2f

Parameter

Meas. Q

Eric

NSN

e1a

Ec/No

e1b

Ec/No

e1c

Ec/No

e1d

Ec/No

7.5

e2d

rscp

-104

-102

e2f

rscp

-101

-97

e3a

rscp

-95

-100

Maxis default values

Event 2f - The estimated quality of


the currently used frequency is
above a certain threshold

Multiwireless Sdn Bhd


22 May 2010

OPTIMIZATION
Coverage

RSCP = COVERAGE
It is equivalent to RxLev in GSM

Quality

Ec/No = QUALITY
It is equivalent to RxQual in GSM. Very important to
optimize network to have good quality (>-12dB)

TEMS Snapshot

CPICH

Common Pilot Channel


Use for channel estimation reference at the terminal;
scrambled with cell specific primary SC; DL channel with a
fixed rate of 30 kbps or SF256

3G Opti

OPTIMIZATION CONCEPT

To have best Ec/No (not necessarily RSCP) by


minimizing other cells interference. This means
optimizing a cells coverage with balancing between
RSCP and Ec/No.
Ideally, at one point in time, you should have only 1AS
only. But for practicality, it should be less than 3 cells
(including best server) within 6dB of the best servers
RSCP (above example would have 4 cells)

Methods

METHODS OF OPTIMIZATION

Tilting of overshooting site


Power down of overshooting site with max tilts
Neighbour addition of DNs
Reengineering, e.g. antenna swing

Multiwireless Sdn Bhd


22 May 2010

RESOURCES & CAPACITY

RNC
POWER

POWER
Type: Cell-level
Note: Output power on
the downlink is shared
between UEs.for their
respective traffic
Congestion Resolution:
Power upgrade or 2nd
Carrier

CODE

E1 CAPACITY
Type: Site-level
Note: This resource is for
signaling and traffic between
Node B and RNC (highest priority
among all resources mentioned
here).
Congestion Resolution: E1
upgrade

CE/CHC

CODE
Type: Cell-level
Note: This is referring to the
channelization/OVSF code
resource which is one per
service (more codes for
HSDPA)
Congestion Resolution: 2nd
Carrier

IUB

NODE B

CHANNEL ELEMENT
Type: Site-level
Note: This resource shared between
sectors within one NodeB. It is used to
process different type of services, e.g.
CS, PS, HSDPA, 1 CE = 1 Voice Call
Congestion Resolution: Channel card
activation or addition

Multiwireless Sdn Bhd


22 May 2010

RF Tools
TEMS Investigation

ROMES
Rodge & Schwarz

NEMO

SwissQual

Genex

Couei

Multiwireless Sdn Bhd


22 May 2010

Basic Tems Investigation 7.1.3 Overview


What to focus on 3G tems?
Line Chart WCDMA/GSM
Radio Parameters WCDMA
Serving/ Active SetNeighbours WCDMA
Map
Layer 3
Layer 2
Radio Parameters GSM
Current Channel GSM
Serving Neighbors By
Band GSM

Line Chart WCDMA/GSM


IRAT from UMTS to
GSM network
CPICH RSCP

RxLevSub

UE Tx Power/
SIR/ SIR
Target/ Ec/No

RxQualSub

SQI

UM
TS

GS
M

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Radio Parameters WCDMA

This window presents a collection of information elements describing the status of the radio link and some
more general radio conditions.
Tx Power- UE
transmit power in
dBm. Valid only in
connected mode.
UTRA Carrier RSSITotal energy
measured by the
UE in the 5 MHz
frequency band.
SIR-Signal-tointerference ratio
measured by a UE
on the DPCH.
SQI- Speech Quality Index for
WCDMA. The range is different
depending on the AMR speech
codec mode. The maximum SQI
values are as follows:

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12.2 kbit/s: 30 dBQ


10.2 kbit/s: 28 dBQ
7.95 kbit/s: 28 dBQ
7.40 kbit/s: 27 dBQ
6.70 kbit/s: 27 dBQ
5.90 kbit/s: 24 dBQ
5.15 kbit/s: 21 dBQ
4.75 kbit/s: 19 dBQ

!!Target SIR should lower


than SIR- UE will power down

!!RSSI =

RSCP
Ec/No

Serving/ Active Set- Neighbours WCDMA

Active Set

Monitored
Neighbours

Detected
Neighbours

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Layer 3/ Layer 2
Layer 3 messages
Indicates the system information & check the health of the call.

Layer 2 messages

Indicate the basic call event.


Example: Call setup, Handover, Dropped Call, Cell Reselection
etc.

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Case Studies

1.

Voice Call

IRAT

Coverage (Low RF)

Missing Neighbour (Detected Neighbour)/ Overshooting Cell

2G-3G Idle Mode Reselection

3G-2G Idle mode Reselection

2.

Video Call

What different between Voice call and Video call?

What is MOC and MTC?

3.

Packet Service (PS)

What is PS?

PS vs Car speed during drive test?

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IRAT

The IRAT threshold:

Base on Ec/No= -12


OR
Base on RSCP= -104 dBm

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Coverage (Low RF)

Low RF in 3G?

AS/ MN with average RSCP < -100 dBm for


outdoor & with average Ec/No <-10

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Missing Neighbour (DN)/ Overshooting Cell

DN/ Overshooting Cell?

It will be captured as DN with good RSCP


& Ec/No.
Based on local knowledge, the RF is
needed or it is an overshooting cell.

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3G-2G Idle Mode Reselection

How?

Based on Ec/No threshold.

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2G-3G Idle Mode Reselection

How?

Inter_rat parameter has to be enabled in 2G


cell.
A few parameters to be changed in 2G
system in order for reselection.

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Video Call

How to differentiate between Voice Call/


Video Call?

DL Spreading Factor= 32 [ DL 64 kbps]


On video call, no IRAT.
Why? It is utilizing the CS64 RAB bearer.

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