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ADAMSON UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE

COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT

ASSIGNMENT NO.1

PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS
Submission Date: January 6, 2015

Submitted by:
LALUNIO, XYZER CORPUZ
201011158

Submitted to:
ARCH. MAUNDELITO FLORENDO
Professor

PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS
Social Acceptability
Social acceptance affects people of all sorts and includes children, teenagers, and
adults. It is the fact that most people, in order to fit in with the others, look and act like
them. It stops (mostly) everyone from truly being themselves. It's is also the reason most
people look painfully average.
Feelings of acceptance come from being acknowledged as someone who is
intrinsically worthwhile and/or having characteristics that are seen as worthwhile. This
could be as big as being in a role that allows someone to contribute to society, or it could
be as small (yet no less important) as being admired for ones way of being in the world.
Belonging is such a fundamental human need, and being accepted brings a sense of
belonging. The majority of people need and want to belong to all sorts of groups and
places such as families, friends, neighborhoods, workplaces, clubs, and interest groups.
Belonging and feelings of deep acceptance are like being home in a relationship. There
is a sense of comfort within the relationship, and a sense of being safe and secure.
Way of Life
It denotes the interests, opinions, behaviors, and behavioral orientations of an
individual, group, or culture. The typical pattern of behavior of a person or group. A rural
environment has different lifestyles compared to an urban metropolis. Location is
important even within an urban scope. A particular neighborhood affects lifestyle due to
varying degrees of affluence and proximity to open spaces. For example, in areas within
a close proximity to the sea, a surf culture or lifestyle is often present. The concept of
Lifestyle Management has developed as a result of the growing focus on lifestyle.
Cultural Heritage
Culture is how people in a community live. It includes their ideas, language,
religion, and history. Culture is a strong part of people's lives. It influences their views,
their values, their humor, their hopes, their loyalties, and their worries and fears. It is the
legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited
from past generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future
generations. All cultures are alike in some ways because all people have the same needs.
All people communicate. How they communicate depends on their culture. People in
different cultures use different languages. All people need shelter. The kind of shelter they
build depends on their culture.
It is becoming clear that in order to build communities that are successful at
improving conditions and resolving problems, we need to understand and appreciate
many cultures, establish relationships with people from cultures other than our own, and
build strong alliances with different cultural group.

People Needs and Wants


People needs is defined as lack of the means of subsistence, it is something you
have to have for example food while people wants is defined as having a strong desire
for something.
We all know what needs are--things that are necessary, that are required for some
reason. They are similar to wants, and in fact, for those of us doing community work,
there's quite a bit of overlap. If we want someone to do something for us, for example,
they may say that they need something in return. A secretary might need extra cash if
you want him to work overtime. A reporter might need your word that she will be given
the "inside scoop" on future goings-on if she gives you good press this week. And so,
while this sections is properly titled "Understanding people's needs," it's important to
realize that a good leader will understand what people just really want, too.
Religion and Beliefs
Religion means any religion, it is a particular system of faith and worship while
belief means any religious or philosophical belief, it is an acceptance that a statement is
true or that something exists.
Communities come to have a feeling all their own, and that sense of what makes
one community different than another comes from the collective beliefs, values and
expectations of all members of that community
Population
Population is about people, and the dwellings, locations, and environments that
people live in. A population can be defined in many ways, for example by age, ethnicity,
family and household composition, birthplace, or location. It is a particular section, group,
or type of people or animals living in an area or country. The size and composition of a
countrys population can have a powerful influence on a countrys development. For
instance, population size, composition, and distribution influence:

the range of industries a country can support


the pool of talent that can be called on
the potential of communities
the demand for and supply of government services.

Politics and Governance


Politics is the activities associated with the governance of a country or other area,
especially the debate or conflict among individuals or parties having or hoping to achieve
power while governance is the action or manner of governing.
It refers to the processes for making all the decisions and plans that affect life in
the community, whether made by public or private organizations or by citizens. For
community governance to be effective, it must be about more than process, it also must
be about getting things done in the community. And what gets done must make a

difference. So, it is crucial to measure results. But what should be done, and what results
should be measured? There is no standard answer. The most important results vary from
one community to another, and different people within a community have different
perceptions about what the community should try to improve and how success should be
measured. So, it is vital to engage citizens in deciding what to do and to engage them in
deciding what results to measure or what performance goals or targets to measure
against. Then, when targeted results are achieved, they will be results that matter to the
people of the community.
Availability of Utilities
Services include education, public safety and emergency response, health care,
public water and sewer, trash and recycling, and government administration. Coordination
of these services is complicated by the fact that services are provided by a range of public,
quasi-public and private sector entities.
Growth Potential
It is the future ability to generate larger profits, expand its workforce and ramp up
its production. It is often a barometer for investment interest from public and private
investors, venture capitalists and other stakeholders. Community Planner should unlock
potential, accelerate growth and shape communities through economic development.
Resources
It is a stock or supply of money, materials, staff, and other assets that can be drawn
on by a person or organization in order to function effectively.
Many community organizations, not surprisingly, focus on the needs or deficits of
the community. Every community has needs and deficits that ought to be attended to.
But it is also possible to focus on assets and strengths -- emphasizing what the
community does have, not what it doesn't. Those assets and strengths can be used to
meet those same community needs; they can improve community life.
Economics
The goal of community sustainability is to establish local economies that are
economically viable, environmentally sound and socially responsible. Achieving this goal
requires participation from all sectors of the community, both to determine community
needs and to identify and implement innovative and appropriate solutions. This section
presents information from a variety of sources on approaches and techniques used
successfully in different communities to develop key aspects of their local economies on
a sustainable basis.

ADAMSON UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE

COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT

ASSIGNMENT NO.2
Submission Date: January 6, 2015

Submitted by:
LALUNIO, XYZER CORPUZ
201011158

Submitted to:
ARCH. MAUNDELITO FLORENDO
Professor

I. Identify the following:


1. HUDCC (Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council)
The government agency under the Office of the
President created by virtue of Executive Order No. 90
(s.1986), which serves as the oversight, the over-all
coordinator, initiator and facilitator of all government
policies, plans and programs for the housing sector, sets
the overall direction and targets for the sector; determines
strategies, formulates appropriate policies, monitors, and
evaluates the programs, projects and performance of the implementing shelter agencies.
The HUDCC has four major key result areas which include the formulation of plans
and policies on housing and urban development, development and supervision of
innovative programs and projects for tenure security, urban renewal and other support
services, provision of overall administration and supervision to Key Shelter Agencies
(KSAs), and provision of technical assistance to the Local Government Units (LGUs) on
the delivery of housing services to their constituents and support to the general public on
appropriate information on housing and referral of specific concerns for action of
appropriate agencies.
The HUDCC together with its attached Key Shelter Agencies addresses various
issues in the areas of housing finance, housing regulation, housing production and
institutional development.
2. HLURB (Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board)
The HLURB, as the lead agency in the provision of
technical assistance to local government units in the
preparation of comprehensive land use plans; regulation of
housing, land development and homeowners association; and
adjudications of disputes related thereto, is committed to
deliver its services with competence and integrity in order to
satisfy its stakeholder.
Twin roles of enhancing and reinforcing rational
housing and real estate service delivery via a triad of Strategies namely; policy, planning
and regulation. The HLURB pursues activities to attain rational land use as specified in a
number of directives.
1. Extend planning assistance to Local Government Units (LGUs) (LOI No. 729, EO
No. 648);

2. Review and ratify land use plans of Metro Manila cities and municipalities,
provinces, highly urbanized
3. cities and independent component cities (EO No. 72);
4. Enforce zoning regulations (EO No. 648);
5. Investigate and adjudicate complaints (EO No. 648);
6. Assist local government units assume devolved functions via training and
consultation;
7. Coordinate land reclassification clearance system (MC No. 54);
8. Update and revise rules, guidelines and standards on land use (EO No. 648);
3. NHA (National Housing Authority)
Established by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 757
dated July 31, 1975, is a government-owned and controlled
corporation operating under the policy and administrative
supervision of the Housing and Urban Development
Coordinating Council (HUDCC). The NHA is mandated by
Executive Order No. 90 as the sole government agency to
engage in shelter production, focusing its efforts to provide
to homeless, low-income Filipino families.
4. HGC (Home Guaranty Corporation)
HGC supports homeownership among Filipinos by
encouraging banks and financial institutions to lend to
individual home buyers and housing developers. It assures
lenders and investors in housing by issuing loan and
securitization guarantees. The HMDF/Pag-IBIG Fund and
NHMFC, however, directly lend money to housing developers
and individual/group borrowers.
Processing
of
guaranty
line
application,
interchangeably known as guaranty facility, under RA No. 8763 involves the
determination of the eligibility of a financial institution for the guaranty and incentives
provided under the law. The Guaranty line extended to the financial institution by the HGC
is a facility whereby the housing-related loans and financial transactions may be enrolled
for guaranty coverage. Mandates
To guarantee the payment of any and all forms of mortgages, loans and other
forms of credit facilities and receivables arising from financial contracts exclusively
for residential purposes and the necessary support facilities, (provided they have
been issued HGC Guarantees);

To assist private developers to undertake socialized, low and medium cost mass
housing projects by encouraging private funds to finance such housing projects
through a viable system of long-term mortgages, guaranties and other incentives.
To promote homebuilding and landownership, giving primary preference to the
homeless and underprivileged sectors of the society.
To promote housing by the aided self-help method;
To pursue the development and sustainability of a secondary mortgage market for
housing.

5. NHMFC (National Home Mortgage Finance Corporation)


The National Home Mortgage Finance Corporation
was created in 1977 by virtue of Presidential Decree 1267,
with the mandate of increasing the availability of affordable
housing loans to finance the Filipino homebuyer acquisition of
housing units through the development and operation of a
secondary market for home mortgages. Consistent with this
mandate NHMFC bought mortgages originated by private
financial institutions, and eventually sold them back to the
public through the issuance of mortgage backed financial
instruments.
Serves as the legal Counsel of the Corporation and provides secretariat services
the Board meetings and the furnishings thereof to the Chairman and members of the
Board.
Develops, monitors, evaluates and appraises corporate internal control system
concerning organizational structure, operational procedures, records and standards of
performance to ensure an orderly, efficient and effective conduct of business and
operations of the NHMFC.
Performs the general policy and strategic decision-making functions of the
Corporation and the provision of directions that will guide NHMFC's day to day operations.
Functions included under the Office of the President are media services that will serve as
public relations and information arm of the Corporation, and the special projects office incharge of the implementation of the Social Housing Development Loan Program
(SHDLP).
6. HDMF (Home Development Mutual Fund)
Presidential Decree No. 1530 was enacted on 11 June 1978, creating a voluntary
provident fund primarily for savings generation and mobilization, as well as for financing
decent and affordable housing to Filipino workers.

7. PAG-IBIG (Pagtutulungan sa Kinabukasan: Ikaw, Bangko, Industria at


Gobyerno)
Pag-IBIG harnesses these four sectors of our society to
provide its members with adequate housing through as
effective savings scheme.
The birth of the Home Development Mutual Fund
(HDMF), more popularly known as the Pag-IBIG Fund, was an
answer to the need for a national savings program and an
affordable shelter financing for the Filipino worker. The Fund
was established on 11 June 1978 by virtue of Presidential
Decree No. 1530 primarily to address these two basic yet
equally important needs. Under the said law, there were two agencies that administered
the Fund. The Social Security System handled the funds of private employees, while the
Government Service Insurance System handled the savings of government workers.
Coverage
These guidelines shall cover the development and construction of low cost housing
units inMetro Manila and highly urbanized cities, and socialized housing units in the
provinces by Pag-IBIG Fund.
Objectives
a. To provide low-cost and socialized house and lot packages/condominium
units either for rent
or for sale to low income Pag-IBIG members who
cannot afford the housing packages available in the market.
b. To enable Pag-IBIG Fund to perform its mandate by using its funds to
provide decent and affordable condominium units as well as house and lot
packages for sale to eligible Pag-IBIG Fund members nationwide.
c. To stimulate competition that will bring about better housing packages in
terms of price and development that will redound to the benefit not only of
Pag-IBIG Fund members but also of the public in general.
d. To help solve the housing backlog by generating further demand for housing
through the provision of affordable condominium units and house and lot
packages.
e. To equitably distribute nationwide economic opportunities generated from
housing production, and in the process, stimulate stability brought about by
economic development.
f. To provide an opportunity for Local Government Units (LGUs) to comply
with R.A. 7279 by identifying and providing land for socialized housing.

g. To simplify and facilitate the processing of end-user financing for eligible


Pag-IBIG Fund members, given that the projects are owned by Pag-IBIG
Fund.
h. To develop further sense of ownership, pride and confidence among
members of the Fund, knowing fully well that the projects being constructed
are direct investments made from their savings with the institution.
i. To generate more membership to Pag-IBIG Fund.
j. To develop and dispose acquired properties of the Fund.

8. BLISS (Bagong Lipunan Improvement of Sites and Services)


To demonstrate the integrative benefits and to bring forth the essential services of
the government in the service of man." The emphasis on man as the center of all forms
of social and economic development calls for the provision of basic social services
needed by man, including, among others, water facilities, power, adequate shelter,
medical services ,sports and recreation, and livelihood opportunities.
9. CLUP (Comprehensive Land Use Plan)
The Comprehensive Land Use Plan or CLUP is a long term plan for the
management of local territories. When enacted into a Zoning Ordinance, the CLUP
becomes a statutory plan whose provisions are not merely indicative but are legally
enforceable.
FUNCTIONS OF THE CLUP

Policy guide for zoning and other regulatory measures


Properly locates all land-using activities
Protects and conserves resources to last for all time

A document designed to guide the future actions of a community. It presents a


vision for the future; with long-range goals and objectives for all activities that affect the
local government.
10. PUD (Planned unit development)
The term Planned Unit Development (PUD) is used to describe a type of
development and the regulatory process that permits a developer to meet overall
community density and land use goals without being bound by existing zoning
requirements. PUD is a special type of floating overlay district which generally does not
appear on the municipal zoning map until a designation is requested. This is applied at

the time a project is approved and may include provisions to encourage clustering of
buildings, designation of common open space, and incorporation of a variety of building
types and mixed land uses. A PUD is planned and built as a unit thus fixing the type and
location of uses and buildings over the entire project. Potential benefits of a PUD include
more efficient site design, preservation of amenities such as open space, lower costs for
street construction and utility extension for the developer and lower maintenance costs
for the municipality.
A type of building development and also a regulatory process. As a building
development, it is a designed grouping of both varied and compatible land uses, such as
housing, recreation, commercial centers, and industrial parks, all within one contained
development or subdivision.

II. Bagong Lipunan


Marcos claimed that martial law was the prelude to creating his Bagong Lipunan,
a "New Society" basedon new social and political values. Marcos had a vision of a Bagong
Lipunan (New Society) similar to Indonesian President Suharto's "New Order
administration". He used the years of martial law to implement this vision. According to
Marcos' book Notes on the New Society, it was a movement urging the poor and the
privileged to work as one for the common goals of society and to achieve the liberation of
the Filipino people through selfrealization. During his martial law regime, Marcos
confiscated and appropriated by force and duress many businesses and institutions, both
private and public, and redistributed them to his own family members and close personal
friends. These relatives and associates of Marcos then used these as fronts to launder
proceeds from institutionalized graft and corruption in the different national governmental
agencies as "crony capitalism" for personal benefit. Graft and corruption via bribery,
racketeering, and embezzlement became more prevalent during this era. Marcos also
silenced the free press, making the state press the only legal one.

III. Mandates of National Housing Authority


Mandates:
Under PD 757 dated 31 July 1975. NHA was tasked to develop and implement a
comprehensive and integrated housing program which shall embrace, among
others, housing development and resettlement, sources and schemes of financing,
and delineation of government and private sector participation.
Under EO 90 dated 17 December 1986. NHA was mandated as the sole national
government
agency to engage in shelter production focusing on the housing needs of the
lowest 30% of the urban population.
Under RA 7279 (UDHA) dated 24 March 1992. NHA was tasked to provide
technical and other

forms of assistance to local government units (LGUs) in the implementation of their


housing
programs; to undertake identification, acquisition and disposition of lands for
socialized housing; and to undertake relocation and resettlement of families with
local government units.
Under RA 7835 (CISFA) dated 08 December 1994. NHA was tasked with the
implementation of
the following components of the National Shelter Program - the Resettlement
Program, Medium
Rise Public and Private Housing, Cost Recoverable Programs and the Local
Housing Program.
Mandate and Functions
NHA Charter : Presidential Decree 757 (31 July 1975)
Develop and implement a comprehensive and integrated housing
development and resettlement program.
Formulate and enforce general and specific policies for housing
development and resettlement.
Prescribe guidelines and standards for the reservation, conservation and
utilization of public lands identified for housing and resettlement.
Exercise the right of eminent domain or acquire by purchase privatelyowned lands forpurposes of housing development, resettlement and related
services and facilities.
Develop and undertake housing development and/or settlement projects
through jointventures or other arrangements with public and private entities.
Promote housing development by providing technical assistance.
Executive Order 90 (17 December 1986)
Sole government agency engaged in direct shelter production. It shall focus
its efforts in providing housing assistance to the lowest 30% of urban incomeearners through slum upgrading, squatter relocation, development of sites and
services and construction of core housing units.
Undertake programs for the improvement of blighted urban areas and
provide technical assistance to private developers undertaking low-cost housing
projects.

May continue development of housing projects for income-earners above


the lowest 30% provided that funds generated thereon are utilized for the
attainment of its primary mandate.
Republic Act No. 7279 (24 March 1992).
The Urban Development and Housing Act (UDHA) of 1992
Identification, Acquisition and Disposition of Lands for Socialized Housing
Identify lands for socialized housing and resettlement areas for immediate and
future needs of the underprivileged and the homeless in the urban areas, in
coordination with Local Government Units (LGUs), Housing and Land Use
Regulatory Board (HLURB), National Mapping Resource Information Authority
(NAMRIA), and Land Management Bureau (LMB)
Acquire government-owned and foreclosed properties for socialized housing
through negotiated purchase Acquire and dispose government-owned lands which
have not been used for the purpose for which they have been reserved or set aside
for the past ten (10) years from effectivity of this Act and identified as suitable for
socialized housing
Carry-out programs of land acquisition for resettlement purposes
Formulate and make available various alternative schemes for the disposition of
lands to the beneficiaries of the Program in coordination with concerned National
Government agencies and LGU

IV. Usufruct
Usufruct gives a right to enjoy the property of another with the obligation of preserving
its form and substance, unless the title constituting it or the law otherwise provides.
Usufruct is constituted by law, by the will of private persons expressed in acts inter
vivos or in a last will and testament, and by prescription.
Usufruct may be constituted on the whole or a part of the fruits of the thing, in favor of
one more persons, simultaneously or successively, and in every case from or to a certain
day, purely or conditionally. It may also be constituted on a right, provided it is not strictly
personal or in transmissible.
The rights and obligations of the usufructuary shall be those provided in the title
constituting the usufruct; in default of such title, or in case it is deficient, the provisions
contained in the two following Chapters shall be observed.

V. Reblocking
Reblocking is a more organized way of improving the infrastructure and physical
conditions in existing communities by making some adjustments to the layout of houses
and roads. Communities can then gradually develop their houses at their own plots.
Reblocking is often undertaken in cases where communities are succeeded to buy or get
a long term lease for the land theyve already occupied.
Re-blocking refers to the on-site repair, rehabilitation, or upgrading of a specific
place or area. Re-blocking is a term often used for road repairs which are essentially done
as to where the problem area is. However, re-blocking may also be defined as the
rehabilitation of communities say a town or a city as a part of massive physical
redevelopment. Re-blocking may also refer to the demolition or rebuilding of human
settlements which are considered as hazardous, illegal, or devastated.

ADAMSON UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE

COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT

ASSIGNMENT NO.1
8 Millennium Goals of the United Nations &
United Nations Sustainable Development Agenda
Submission Date: January 6, 2015

Submitted by:
LALUNIO, XYZER CORPUZ
201011158

Submitted to:
ARCH. MAUNDELITO FLORENDO
Professor

8 Millennium Goals of the United Nations


The eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which range from halving
extreme poverty to halting the spread of HIV/AIDS and providing universal primary
education, all by the target date of 2015 form a blueprint agreed to by all the worlds
countries and all the worlds leading development institutions. They have galvanized
unprecedented efforts to meet the needs of the worlds poorest.
Goal 1
Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. Extreme poverty
rates have fallen in every developing region. The target of halving
the percentage of people suffering from hunger is within reach.
South-eastern Asia is the first developing region to reach the hunger
reduction target ahead of 2015.The slowing of economic growth
spells continued job losses, with young people bearing the brunt of
the crisis.

Goal 2
Achieve universal primary education. Developing regions
have made impressive strides in expanding access to primary
education. Even after 4 years of primary schooling, as many as 250
million children cannot read and write, worldwide. Early school
leaving remains persistent. Among the 137 million children who
entered first grade in 2011, 34 million are likely to leave before
reaching the last grade of primary school. Literacy rates are rising.
Poverty, gender and place of residence are key factors keeping
children out of school. Progress in reducing the number of out-of-school children has
come to a standstill as international aid to basic education in 2011 fell for the first time
since 2002.

Goal 3
Promote gender equality and empower women. Gender gaps
in access to education have narrowed, but disparities remain
among regions in all levels of education, particularly for the most
excluded and marginalized. Women are gaining more power in the
worlds parliaments, boosted by quota systems. Women are gaining
ground in the labour market, but in every developing region still tend
to hold less secure jobs.

Goal 4
Reduce child mortality. Gains have been made in child
survival since 1990, making it possible to increase child survival for
future generations. Despite challenges, many countries with very
high child death rates in 1990 are beating the odds and lowering
under-five mortality rates, showing progress for all children is
achievable.

Goal 5
Improve maternal health. Maternal mortality has declined by
nearly half since 1990. Births attended by skilled health personnel
have increased; however, disparities in progress within countries
and populations groups persist. African countries show wide
disparities in maternal and reproductive health.

Goal 6
Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases The incidence
of HIV is declining in most regions. The MDG target of halting and
beginning to reverse the spread of HIV has been met. Global
malaria deaths fell by an estimated 26 per cent from 2000 to 2010.

Goal 7
Ensure environmental sustainability. More than 240,000
people a day1.9 billion people gained access to a latrine, toilet
or other improved sanitation facilities from 1990 to 2011. An
estimated 863 million people reside in slums in the developing
world. Although more land and marine areas are under protection,
many species of birds, mammals and others are heading for
extinction at a fast pace. Forests are disappearing at a rapid pace,
despite the establishment of forest policies and laws supporting
sustainable forest management in many countries. Marine fish stocks globally are now
below the level at which they can produce maximum sustainable yields. The Montreal
Protocol has led to a 98 per cent reduction in the consumption of ozone-depleting

substances since 1986. Global carbon dioxide emissions have increased by more than
46 per cent since 1990, with a five per cent increase between 2009 and 2010.

Goal 8
Develop a global partnership for development. The trade
climate continues to improve for developing and least developed
countries. Debt service ratios are one-quarter less from their 2000
level, lessening the financial burden on developing countries. The
global financial crisis and Euro-zone turmoil continue to take a toll
on official development assistance (ODA).Aid is being increasingly
concentrated in a small number of countries. Mobile-cellular
subscriptions are moving towards saturation levels. The growth in
the number of individuals using the Internet in developing countries continues to outpace
that in developed countries, Prices for essential medicines in low and lower middleincome countries were, on average, 3.3 times higher than international reference prices
in public sector facilities and 5.7 times higher in private sector facilities.

UNITED NATIONS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AGENDA

Agenda 21 is a comprehensive plan of action to be taken globally, nationally and


locally by organizations of the United Nations System, Governments, and Major Groups
in every area in which human impacts on the environment.
Agenda 21, the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, and the
Statement of principles for the Sustainable Management of Forests were adopted by
more than 178 Governments at the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janerio, Brazil, 3 to 14 June 1992.
The Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) was created in December
1992 to ensure effective follow-up of UNCED, to monitor and report on implementation of
the agreements at the local, national, regional and international levels. It was agreed that
a five year review of Earth Summit progress would be made in 1997 by the United Nations
General Assembly meeting in special session.
The full implementation of Agenda 21, the Programme for Further Implementation
of Agenda 21 and the Commitments to the Rio principles, were strongly reaffirmed at the
World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) held in Johannesburg, South Africa
from 26 August to 4 September 2002.

Sustainable Development Goals

Goal 1 End poverty in all its forms everywhere

Goal 2 End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote
sustainable agriculture

Goal 3 Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages

Goal 4 Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong
learning opportunities for all

Goal 5 Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls

Goal 6 Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation


for all
Goal 7 Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for
all
Goal 8 Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and
productive employment and decent work for all

Goal 9 Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable


industrialization and foster innovation

Goal 10 Reduce inequality within and among countries

Goal 11 Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and
sustainable

Goal 12 Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

Goal 13 Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts*

Goal 14 Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources
for sustainable development

Goal 15 Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems,


sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land
degradation and halt biodiversity loss

Goal 16 Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development,


provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive
institutions at all levels

Goal 17 Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global


partnership for sustainable development