IEEE 1243 Metodo Estadistico Para Descargas Atmosfericas

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c 2009 SAIEE, Innes House, Johannesburg

Copyright

CALCULATIONS IN TRANSMISSION LINES

P. N. Mikropoulos* and Th. E. Tsovilis

High Voltage Laboratory, School of Electrical & Computer Engineering,

Faculty of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki,

Building D, Egnatia St., 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece

*Email: <pnm@eng.auth.gr>

Abstract: Lightning is the main cause of transmission line outages affecting reliability of power

supply thus, consequently, resulting in economic losses. A statistical method for lightning

incidence calculations in transmission lines is introduced. Simple expressions for the estimation of

an expected range of lightning strikes to a transmission line depending on interception probability

distribution have been obtained, based on a recently proposed statistical lightning attachment

model derived from scale model experiments. The expected number of lightning strikes depends,

besides transmission line geometry, on lightning stroke current distribution and interception

probability. The results of the statistical method have been compared with those obtained by

employing other models from literature, including that suggested by the IEEE Std. 1243:1997, in

lightning incidence calculations, and with field observation data; a satisfactory agreement has been

shown to exist. Results on lightning incidence calculations are further discussed through an

application to typical 150 kV and 400 kV lines of the Hellenic transmission system.

1.

Results on lightning incidence calculations are

discussed also through an application to typical 150 kV

and 400 kV lines of the Hellenic transmission system.

INTRODUCTION

affecting reliability of power supply thus, consequently,

resulting in economic losses. Therefore, shielding

against direct lightning strokes to phase conductors of

transmission lines is provided by shield wires, which are

metallic elements that are able to, by physical means,

launch a connecting upward discharge that intercepts

the descending lightning leader from a distance termed

striking distance within a capture radius commonly

termed attractive radius or lateral distance.

2.

MODEL

total probability for a certain lightning stroke current

and a connecting upward discharge initiated at the air

terminal. Thus, lightning incidence calculations or

shielding analysis in overhead transmission lines should

take into account, besides lightning stroke current

distribution, the interception probability distribution by

considering the striking distance and attractive radius of

a conductor as statistical quantities. However, the IEEE

Standard [1], suggesting for lightning incidence

calculations the use of Erikssons method [2], does not

consider interception probability.

to analyse it statistically knowledge of the lightning

stroke current and interception probability distributions

is required. Although, the former distribution is

available in [12] the latter, being dependent upon

several geometrical and physical parameters, is almost

impossible to be estimated in practice. However, this

becomes feasible when simplifying the real case into

laboratory investigation on the discharge interception

efficiency of a simple earthed rod inserted in a rodplane gap (Figure 1). Although such scale model

experiments can be considered as a rough

approximation of the natural lightning flash, they were

proved useful in investigating the relation between

striking distance, interception radius and interception

probability, and to extend this experimental work to the

lightning environment [3-6].

incidence calculations in transmission lines is

introduced, which yields an expected range of lightning

strikes depending on interception probability

distribution. This task is accomplished by simple

expressions, which have been derived on the basis of

scale model experiments [3-6], and take into account

besides transmission line geometry, the lightning stroke

current and interception probability distributions. The

results according to the statistical method are compared

with those obtained from the IEEE Standard [1],

previously reported models [2, 7-10] and with field

arrangement shown in Figure 1, at applied voltages

always causing breakdown interception probability

distributions were obtained, for several electrode

configurations differing in D and h, by varying R;

typical such distributions are shown in Figure 2. The

interception probability distributions were found to be

well approximated with the normal distribution, thus

both striking distance and interception radius can be

treated as statistical quantities with their distribution

described by a mean value and a corresponding standard

deviation [4]. Actually, the interception radius R is

Pg. 1

Paper G-5

c 2009 SAIEE, Innes House, Johannesburg

Copyright

ISBN 978-0-620-44584-9

140

Attractive

Critical

Failure

[2]

120

[10]

100

[9]

80

60

40

20

arrangement; D striking distance to earth surface; S

striking distance to earthed rod; R interception radius; h

height of the earthed rod.

0

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

terminal height; negative lightning peak current 30 kA.

be deduced that all models yield an increase of

interception radius with increasing air terminal height;

however, the variation of interception radius with

interception probability, yielded by the statistical model,

indicates that the expected lightning strikes to an air

terminal should vary with interception probability.

earthed rod when inserted in a 75 cm rod-plane gap;

fitting curves are drawn according to normal

distribution; (a) positive polarity, (b) negative polarity.

3.

3.1.

[10], the equivalent interception radius Req of a

conductor with height h is defined as:

following expression:

k

Rci

h

, = c2 [6]

D

h

Req = R ( I , h ) f ( I ) dI

(1)

lightning stroke current distribution and R is the

interception radius.

According to [12] the probability density function of the

stroke current is lognormally distributed as:

( ln I ln I )2

f (I ) =

exp

2

2 i

2 i I

[13]

(4)

deviation of the natural logarithm of the current

amplitudes.

literature for the striking distance to earth surface D is:

0.65

(3)

coefficients c2, k and for , in formula form, are given in

Table I [6]. Equation (1) is valid for 0<h/D 1. For

h/D >1 the asymptotic values of (1) at h/D unity i.e. the

equal coefficient c2 may be adopted [6].

D = 10 I

equations (1)-(4) the variation of the equivalent

interception radius with interception probability for

negative lightning can be estimated by:

(2)

hereafter in (1) for interception radius calculations.

Figure 3 shows the variation of interception radius with

air terminal height at 2.5% (failure), 50% (critical) and

97.5% (attractive) interception probabilities obtained by

using the statistical lightning attachment model. Figure

3 also shows the interception radii obtained from those

lightning attachment models suggested by [1] and [14]

to be applied for lightning incidence calculations. It can

Reqc

ln 2 I

= 6.21h exp

2

2 i

0.3

(%) = 13.3e

Pg. 2

0.18 i

ln I

0.455 + 2 (5a)

i

0.27 0.43

(5b)

Paper G-5

c 2009 SAIEE, Innes House, Johannesburg

Copyright

ISBN 978-0-620-44584-9

from [7], all models agree well with the data points TL

from [2], which is regarded as the most reliable

according to Eriksson [2], and PA which was derived

from [11] where direct flashes were recorded together

with the local ground flash density.

has been obtained by solving equation (3) with the aid

of a mathematical software package by considering the

distribution of interception radius. For the lightning

crest current distribution with I = 30.1 kA and

i = 0.76, suggested in [12], (5a) and (5b) become:

Reqc

= 31h

0.3

, (%) = 38.2h

0.43

take into account the variation of equivalent interception

radius with lightning stroke current distribution. This is

considered in expressions (5a) and (5b) and the result of

their application for three different lightning stroke

current lognormal distributions (Table 3) is shown in

Figure 5. From Figure 5 it is obvious that with

increasing I the equivalent interception radius

increases, however this is more evident for lower

interception probabilities and higher conductors.

(6)

estimation of the equivalent interception radius

according to the lightning attachment models suggested

for lightning incidence calculations in [14]:

Req

= rh

(7)

Table 2:

180

Attractive

[2]

160

Critical

[11]

Failure

100

Critical

Attractive

80

60

40

20

120

Critical

100

Attractive

80

60

40

Median current 39kA, = 0.76

20

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

conductor height calculated according to (5a) and (5b)

for different lightning stroke current distributions.

3.2.

140

per 100 km of a transmission line, NS, is given as:

[10]

100

N S = 0.1N g 2R eq +b

[9]

80

Failure

Failure

[7], [8]

[1], [2]

120

.

Equivalent Interception radius (m)

conductor height, obtained by using (6) as well as (7)

and Table 2 is shown in Figure 4 together with field

data reported in [2] and derived from [11]. There is a

large variability in equivalent interception radius among

lightning attachment models, however all of them yield

an increase of Req with increasing conductor height.

140

3

3

120

140

TL

(8)

60

PA

(strikes km-2yr-1) and b is the separation distance

between the outer shield wires.

40

20

0

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

shield wires of typical 150 kV and 400 kV lines of the

Hellenic transmission system, tower geometries are

shown in Figure 6, according to different models

employed in lightning incidence calculations is shown

in Tables 4 and 5, respectively. In these calculations Req

has been estimated by putting the average height of

shield wires over the span in equations (6) and (7) and

assuming Ng = 4 km-2yr-1. From Tables 4 and 5 it can be

deduced that there is variability in NS among models,

however all of them yield an increase of NS with

increasing transmission line height. The range of NS

yielded by the statistical method depending on

conductor height; points depict field data.

In all models, the equivalent interception radius tends to

saturate with increasing conductor height; an exception

to this is model [7], which, as noted in [14], tends to

concave upwards and seems to underestimate the

equivalent interception radius at lower conductor

heights. In general, there is satisfactory agreement

between the present work and previously reported

models with the field data in [2] considering also that

the latter are relatively uncertain and have a statistical

Pg. 3

Paper G-5

ISBN 978-0-620-44584-9

c 2009 SAIEE, Innes House, Johannesburg

Copyright

4.

DISCUSSION

shield wires of a transmission line depends upon the

ground flash density and equivalent interception radius

of the shield wires. From (3) it can be deduced that the

equivalent interception radius of a conductor varies with

the lightning attachment model used for interception

radius calculation, as also shown in Figure 4, and

depends on the conductor height (Figure 4) and

lightning stroke current distribution. Both IEEE Std [1]

and [14] suggest for lightning incidence calculations in

transmission lines the use of height dependent

expressions for NS, which do not consider the variation

of the latter with lightning stroke current distribution;

this is important when considering that the lightning

stroke current distribution varies seasonally and

geographically [12].

Figure 6: Typical towers of the 150 kV (a), (b) and

400 kV (c), (d) lines of the Hellenic transmission

system.

to the present statistical method, that is by putting in (8)

the equivalent interception radius given by (5a), take

into account, besides transmission line height, the

lightning stroke current distribution, as shown in Figure

5 and Table 6. In addition, employing also (5b)

according to the statistical method the variation of

equivalent interception radius with interception

probability may be considered; this results, rather than

in a deterministic value, in an expected range of NS

(Tables 4-6), which seems more realistic when

considering the stochastic nature of lightning

interception phenomenon. Actually, the expected range

of NS of a transmission line calculated according to the

present statistical method, agrees well with the values of

NS obtained from other lightning attachment models

[2, 7-10], when considering also that there is variability

in NS among models (Tables 4 and 5). It must be noted

that the Erikssons method [2], which is suggested by

the IEEE Std [1] for lightning incidence calculations,

yields generally the highest values of NS among models

(Tables 4 and 5).

the values of NS obtained from the models suggested by

[1], [14] for lightning incidence calculations.

backflashover rate of a transmission line [17]. The latter

together with the shielding failure flashover rate

determine the lightning performance of the transmission

line, hence also its expected outage rate due to lightning

strokes. Thus, careful selection of the lightning

attachment model and of the lightning stroke current

distribution necessitates when evaluating the lightning

performance of overhead transmission lines.

current distribution obtained by using in the set of

equations (5a), (5b) and (8) the lightning stroke current

distribution parameters shown in Table 3. There is a

variability in NS with lightning stroke current

distribution; a maximum increase of about 30% is found

at the lowest interception probability.

Pg. 4

Paper G-5

ISBN 978-0-620-44584-9

5.

c 2009 SAIEE, Innes House, Johannesburg

Copyright

[6]

CONCLUSIONS

has been introduced which takes into account besides

transmission line geometry, lightning stroke current

distribution and interception probability. Simple

expressions are proposed to estimate the distribution of

the equivalent interception radius of a conductor with

interception probability. Hence, rather than in a

deterministic value, an expected range of annual number

of lightning strikes to shield wires of a transmission line

is calculated; this seems more realistic when

considering the stochastic nature of lightning

interception phenomenon.

[7]

[8]

[9]

compared with those obtained by employing other

models from literature, including that suggested by the

IEEE Std. 1243:1997, in lightning incidence

calculations, and with field observation data; a

satisfactory agreement has been shown to exist. Results

on lightning incidence calculations are further discussed

through an application to typical 150 kV and 400 kV

lines of the Hellenic transmission system.

6.

[10]

[11]

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

[12]

of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki for the support

provided by a merit scholarship.

7.

REFERENCES

[1]

performance of Transmission Lines, IEEE Std.

1243-1997, Dec. 1997.

A. J. Eriksson, The Incidence of lightning strikes

to power lines, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol.

PWRD-2, no. 3, pp. 859-870, Jul. 1987.

P. N. Mikropoulos and Th. E. Tsovilis,

Experimental investigation of the Franklin rod

protection zone, in Proc. 15th International

Symposium on High Voltage Engineering,

Ljubljana, Slovenia, paper 461, pp.1-5.

P. N. Mikropoulos and Th. E. Tsovilis, Striking

distance and interception probability, IEEE

Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 15711580, Jul. 2008.

P. N. Mikropoulos and Th. E. Tsovilis,

Interception radius and shielding against

lightning, 29th Int. Conf. Lightning Protection,

Uppsala, Sweden, 2008, paper 4-10, pp. 1-11.

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[13]

[14]

[15]

[16]

[17]

Pg. 5

Interception probability and shielding against

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no. 2, pp. 863-873, Apr. 2009.

A. G. Anderson, Transmission line reference

book 345 kV and above, Second Edition, 1982,

chapter 12, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo

Alto, California.

IEEE Working Group, A simplified method for

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Apr. 1985.

A. M. Mousa and K. D. Srivastava, Modelling of

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303-310, Jan. 1990.

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Power Delivery, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 1983-1997, Oct.

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Lightning and Insulator Subcommittee of the T&D

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E. R. Love, Improvements in lightning stroke

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implications of the electrogeometric model

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IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 4, no. 2, pp.

1450-1460, Apr. 1989.

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performance of transmission lines, Technical

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Paper G-5

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