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8/6/2015

SafeExerciseOrthoInfoAAOS

Safe Exercise
Whenpeoplebeginanewexerciseprogram,theyoftenpushtheirbodiestoofarandputthemselvesatriskfor
injury.Thecommonnotionthatexercisemustbereallyhardorpainfultobebeneficialissimplywrong.
Moderationisthekeytosafeexercise.Safeexerciseprogramsstartslowlyandgraduallybuildupinintensity,
frequency,andduration.
Inaddition,ifyouhaveanexistinghealthproblem,suchashighbloodpressure,diabetes,ahistoryofheart
disease,orareasmoker,youshouldcontactyourdoctorbeforebeginninganyvigorousphysicalactivity.

Safe Exercise Guidelines


UseProperEquipment.Replaceyourathleticshoesastheywearout.Wearcomfortable,loosefitting
clothesthatletyoumovefreelyandarelightenoughtoreleasebodyheat.Whenexercisingincold
weather,dressinremovablelayers.
Balancedfitness.Developabalancedfitnessprogramthatincorporatescardiovascularexercise,
strengthtraining,andflexibility.Inadditiontoprovidingatotalbodyworkout,abalancedprogramwill
keepyoufromgettingboredandlessenyourchancesofinjury.
WarmUp.Warmuptopreparetoexercise,evenbeforestretching.Runinplaceforafewminutes,
breatheslowlyanddeeply,orgentlyrehearsethemotionsoftheexercisetofollow.Warmingup
increasesyourheartandbloodflowratesandloosensupothermuscles,tendons,ligaments,andjoints.
Stretch.Beginstretchesslowlyandcarefullyuntilreachingapointofmuscletension.Holdeachstretch
for10to20seconds,thenslowlyandcarefullyreleaseit.Inhalebeforeeachstretchandexhaleasyou
release.Doeachstretchonlyonce.Neverstretchtothepointofpain,alwaysmaintaincontrol,andnever
bounceonamusclethatisfullystretched.
TakeYourTime.Duringstrengthtraining,movethroughthefullrangeofmotionwitheachrepetition.
Breatheregularlytohelploweryourbloodpressureandincreasebloodsupplytothebrain.
DrinkWater.Drinkenoughwatertopreventdehydration,heatexhaustion,andheatstroke.Drink1pint
ofwater15minutesbeforeyoustartexercisingandanotherpintafteryoucooldown.Haveadrinkof
waterevery20minutesorsowhileyouexercise.
CoolDown.Makecoolingdownthefinalphaseofyourexerciseroutine.Itshouldtaketwiceaslongas
yourwarmup.Slowyourmotionsandlessentheintensityofyourmovementsforatleast10minutes
beforeyoustopcompletely.Thisphaseofasafeexerciseprogramshouldconcludewhenyourskinis
dryandyouhavecooleddown.
Rest.Scheduleregulardaysofffromexerciseandrestwhentired.Fatigueandpainaregoodreasonsto
notexercise.

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SafeExerciseOrthoInfoAAOS

Common Sports Injuries


OveruseInjuries
Exerciseputsrepetitivestressonmanypartsofthebodysuchasmuscles,tendons,bursae,cartilage,
bones,andnerves.Repetitivestresscanleadstomicrotraumasminorinjuriesthatwouldtypicallyheal
withenoughrest.Whenyouexercisetoofrequently,yourbodyneverhasachancetorepairthese
microtraumas.Asmicrotraumasbuildupovertime,youbecomepronetooveruseinjuries,suchas:
Damagetoelbowcartilageinathleteswhothrow
Heelbursitisandstressfracturesinrunners
Nerveentrapmentinrowers
Kneecap(patellar)tendinitisinvolleyballplayers
TraumaticInjuries
Tobuildstrengthandendurancefromexercise,youmustslowlyandgraduallypushyourbodybeyond
itslimits.Whenyoupushtoofartoofast,thebodyispronetotraumaticinjuriessuchassprainsand
fractures.Manyseasonalsportsinjurieshappenwhenathletesrushtheirreconditioninganddotoomuch
toosoonwithbones,joints,tendons,ligaments,andmusclestheyignoredintheoffseason.

Risk Factors
Therearemanyriskfactorsthatmakeinjuryduringexercisemorelikely.
Theduration,intensityorfrequencyofanexerciseisexcessiveorrapidlyincreasing.
Theterrainorweatherconditionsareextremeorirregular.
Youuseincorrectequipment,suchasathleticshoesthatarenotdesignedforyouractivity.
Youhavebeeninjuredinthepast.
Yousmokeorhaveledasedentarylifestyle.
Youhavelowaerobicormuscleendurance,loworimbalancedstrength,orabnormalorimbalanced
flexibility.
Youhaveunderlyingmusculoskeletalconditionsthatpredisposeyoutoinjury,suchasbowedlegsor
higharchesinyourfeet.

First Aid
Accidentscanhappendespitesafeexerciseprecautions.Ifyoupullamuscle(orworse)duringexercise,apply
aprotectivedevicesuchasasling,splint,orbrace.Thenusethefirstaidstandardformusculoskeletalinjures:
rest,ice,compression,andelevation(RICE).
Resttheinjury.
Iceittolessenswelling,bleeding,andinflammation.
Applyacompressionbandagetolimitswelling.
Elevatetheinjuryaboveheartleveltoreduceswelling.
Youmayusenonsteroidalantiinflammatorymedicationssuchasibuprofenforpain.Seeyourdoctorifyou
haveseverepain,cannotmovetheinjuredbodypart,orifsymptomspersist.
Lastreviewed:January2012

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SafeExerciseOrthoInfoAAOS

AAOSdoesnotendorseanytreatments,procedures,products,orphysiciansreferencedherein.Thisinformationisprovidedasan
educationalserviceandisnotintendedtoserveasmedicaladvice.Anyoneseekingspecificorthopaedicadviceorassistance
shouldconsulthisorherorthopaedicsurgeon,orlocateoneinyourareathroughtheAAOS"FindanOrthopaedist"programon
thiswebsite.

Copyright2012AmericanAcademyofOrthopaedicSurgeons

Related Topics
AthleticShoes(http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00318)
CrossTraining(http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00339)
SportsInjuryPreventionforBabyBoomers(http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00178)
TrainSmartandStayStrong(video)(http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=V00001)
WarmUp,CoolDown,andBeFlexible(http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00310)
OrthoInfo
TheAmericanAcademyofOrthopaedicSurgeons
9400WestHigginsRoad
Rosemont,IL60018
Phone:847.823.7186
Email:orthoinfo@aaos.org

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