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PEFN04G - CE201


The game of basketball as we know it today was created by Dr. James Naismith in 1891 to
condition young athletes during the winter. It consisted of peach baskets and a soccer style ball.
He published 13 rules for the new game.
Basketball is a sport played by two teams of five players on a rectangular court. The objective is
to shoot a ball through a hoop 18 inches in diameter and 10 feet high mounted to a backboard
at each end.

------------------- BASIC RULES OF BASKETBALL------------------The ball may be thrown in any direction with one or both hands.
Current: This rule is still true, as the ball can be thrown or passed in any direction. The only
change to this rule is the backcourt violation. Once the ball has crossed midcourt, it cannot be
passed behind the midcourt line unless touched by a defensive player first.
The ball may be batted in any direction with one or both hands.
Current: The ball can still be batted away with one or both hands. It can be batted from a
player's hands or batted away during a shot. This rule led to the evolution of the blocked shot,
as defensive players can block a shot while it is on its upward path to the basket.
A player cannot run with the ball, as he must throw it from the spot on which he catches
it, with allowance to be made for a man who catches the ball when running at a good
Current: A player cannot run with the ball, as he must dribble or pass the ball. A player running
with the ball is called for travelling.
The ball must be held in or between the hands; the arms or the body must not be used
for holding it.
Current: The ball can only be held in the hands or the arms of a player. A player cannot use his
body to hold the ball or to obstruct the ball from getting to a player or going in the net.
No shouldering, holding, pushing, tripping or striking in any way the person of an
opponent shall be allowed. The first infringement of this rule by any person shall count
as a foul, the second shall disqualify him until the next goal is made, or if there was
evident intent to injure the person, for the whole of the game, no substitute allowed.
Current: The noted offences still apply today and result in fouls or even ejections. Like the
Naismith rule, a player can be thrown out of a game for intent to injure. A flagrant foul is
unnecessary or excessive contact against an opponent that results in two shots and possession
of the ball. A player that commits a flagrant foul may be ejected from the game or suspended for
a period of time.
A foul is striking at the ball with the fist, violation of rules three and four and such
described in rule five.
Current: NBA players today are permitted to be more creative, as they use passes like the chest
pass, bounce pass, behind-the-back pass and even the occasional pass off the elbow, like the
move of guard Jason Williams in the 2000 Rookie Challenge.


If either side makes consecutive fouls it shall count a goal for the opponents.
Current: Though this rule is no longer in effect, after five fouls in a quarter a team is in the
penalty and the fouled team shoots two free throws.
A goal shall be made when the ball is thrown or batted from the grounds into the basket
and stays there, providing those defending the goal do not touch or disturb the goal. If
the ball rests on the edge and the opponent moves the basket it shall count as a goal.
Current: This rule has changed in the sense that the basket now has a hole in it and the ball
does not stay there, it goes through. However, a player cannot touch the rim when the ball has
been shot and is on its way to the basket. The goaltending violation originated from this rule.
When the ball goes out of bounds it shall be thrown into the field and played by the first
person touching it. In case of a dispute the umpire shall throw it into the field. The
thrower-in is allowed five seconds and if he holds it longer it shall go to the opponent. If
any side persists in delaying the game, the umpire shall call a foul on them.
Current: The five-second rule still exists today and if a player does not throw the ball in within
five seconds, the ball is turned over to the other team. The five-second rule also states that a
player who is in-bounds must pass, shoot or dribble within five seconds or he will lose
possession of the ball.
The umpire shall be the judge of men, and shall note the fouls, and notify the referee
when three consecutive fouls have been made. He shall have power to disqualify men
according to rule five.
Current: In the NBA today there are three referees who call fouls and determine ejections.
The referee shall be the judge of the ball and shall decide when the ball is in play, inbounds, and to which side it belongs, and shall keep the time. He shall decide when a
goal has been made and keep account of the goals with any other duties that are usually
performed by a referee.
Current: NBA referees still determine possession of the ball. However, there are separate
timekeepers who monitor the game clock and check substitute players into a game. A
scorekeeper keeps the statistics of a game such as the score, individual statistics and fouls.
The time shall be two fifteen-minute halves, with a five-minute rest between them.
Current: This has changed, as NBA games currently include two halves consisting of four 12minute quarters. Games that are tied as time expires go into a five-minute overtime period.
There is a 15-minute halftime break between the two halves.
The side making the most goals in that time shall be declared the winner. In case of a
draw the game may, by agreement of the captains, be continued until another goal is
Current: The team with the most points at the end of the game is declared the winner. If a game
is tied, it goes into overtime, which continues until one team has more points at the end of a
five-minute overtime period.


The only essential equipment in basketball is the basketball and the court: a flat,
rectangular surface with baskets at opposite ends.


A backboard is a piece of basketball equipment. It is a raised vertical board with a basket

attached. It is made of a flat, rigid piece of material, often plexi glass. It is
usually rectangular as used in NBA, NCAA and international basketball..

Size of a basketball backboard

Width: 6 feet (72 inches) - Height: 3.5 feet (42 inches)

The diameter of the rim is 18
Basket Net
The net shall be made by a white cord shall be:
1. Suspended from the ring
2. Manufactured so they check the ball momentarily as it pass through the basket.
3. No less than 400 mm. and no more 450 in length
4. Manufactured with 12 loops to attach it to the ring.

5. The upper section of the net shall be semi-rigid to prevent:

The net from rebounding up through over the ring, creating possible entanglement.
The ball from becoming trapped in the net or rebounding back out of the net.

The Ball
The ball is round and the outer casing should be either Leather, Rubber or other suitable
Synthetic materials.

CIRCUMFERENCE between 75 and 78 cm. (29.5 and 30.25 inches)

WEIGHT 600 and 650 grams. (20 and 22 oz).
AIR PRESSURE around 8 lbs.

Game Clock
This is a clock that runs whenever the ball is in play, and stops whenever
the ball goes out of bounds or when a fool is committed.
Goal Tending .
Game Clock Operation Last Minutes of Play/Field Goal. The clock stops after a
successful field goal.
Shows how much time remains in the game.
Give-and-go: A fundamental offensive play in which a player passes to a teammate, then
cuts to the basket and receive a quasi-immediate return pass for an open layup or dunk.
Tracks remaining game time. Regulation play in the NBA is divided into 12 minute
quarters (10 minutes in the WNBA. College games are split into 20 minute halves
Give and Go.

> is a large board for publicly displaying the score in a game or match. Most levels of sport from
high school and above use at least one scoreboard for keeping score, measuring time, and
displaying statistics.

Common Basketball Violations and Fouls

Out of Bounds this violation occurs when the ball goes out of bounds, touches the
boundary line, or touches a player who is out of bounds. In basketball, it's a violation for the
ball to touch any part of the boundary line, which is in stark contrast to football where the ball
remains in play if it's touching the line.
Carrying The Ball this occurs when the ball-handler has a hand underneath the ball,
essentially carrying it rather than dribbling it. Players must use caution when dribbling to
avoid placing any part of their hand underneath the ball; otherwise, they could receive a
violation for carrying the ball.
Traveling another all-too-common violation in basketball is known as traveling. This occurs
when the ball-handler steps forward (or backwards) three steps or more without dribbling the
ball. Rules state that the ball-handler must continue dribbling the ball to prevent violations.
Double Dribbling as the name suggests, double dribbling occurs when the ball-handler
stops dribbling for a brief period of time and starts again. Double dribbling also includes
instances when the ball-handler dribbles using both hands simultaneously.
Kicking or Hitting The Ball a lesser-known basketball violation occurs when a player
either kicks the ball with his or her foot or strikes it with his or her fist. This violation results in
forfeiture of ball ownership when performed by a player on offense or a shot clock reset
when performed by a player on defense.
Foul the single most common violation in basketball is the foul. This occurs when a player
uses physical force/content to gain an unfair advantage. Fouls are typically committed by
defensive players, but refs may call them on offensive players as well. If an offensive player
is fouled while attempting to shoot, he or she will receive three free throws from the foul line
(worth one point each).
Technical Foul a more serious violation in the sport of basketball is the technical foul.
Technical fouls consist of poor sportsmanship, on-the-court fights, and arguing with a