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BIOC 305 Final Exam Winter 2015

***PRACTICE EXAM ***

Multiple Choice (45 questions, 1 point each)



1. Which of the following statements about DNA methylation is TRUE?
I.
II.
III.
IV.

Methylation plays a role in genomic imprinting.


Methylation can influence gene regulation.
Methylation plays a role in restriction modification systems.
Methylation occurs in prokaryotic cells, but not eukaryotic cells.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

I, II, III, IV
I, II, III
II, III
II, III, IV
II only


2. Histone H1 binds to ____ which allows attachment to _____.

A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

the nucleosome core particle; nucleases


linker DNA; the next nucleosome
the nucleosome core particle; the next nucleosome
linker DNA; nucleases
none of the above

3. Defects in the proteins ______, which associate with RAD-51, are correlated with
several types of cancer.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

BRCA1 and BRCA2


RecU and RecB
Pol and Pol
DSB and NHEJ
RecA and RecUGA


4. Which of the following sequences, if double stranded, would likely be a recognition site
for a restriction enzyme?
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

5' TGAGCA3'
5' TGATCA3'
5' TACGTCA3'
All of the above would bind the repressor with equal efficiency
None of the above would bind would the repressor

5. Nucleosomes
I.
II.
III.
IV.

bind specifically to palindromic DNA sequences


are bound together by linker histones.
contain a lipid bilayer
contain a histone octamer
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

I, II, IV
II, III
III, IV
I, IV
II, IV

6. The symptoms of LeschNyhan syndrome are caused by a deficiency of


A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

adenine phosphoribosyltransferase
HGPRT (hypoxanthineguanine phosphoribosyltransferase)
adenosine deaminase
dihydrofolate reductase
xanthine oxidase

7. Which of the choices correctly represents the synthesis of dTTP as represented by the
following reactions?

I.

dUMP + N5,N10-methylenetetrahydrofolate dTMP + dihydrofolate

II.

dTMP + ATP dTTP + Pi

III.

dUTP + H2O dUMP + PPi

IV.

dUTP + N5,N10-methylenetetrahydrofolate dTTP + dihydrofolate


A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

I II IV
IV only
III IV I II
III I II
III I

8. Which of the following organisms excrete uric acid?


I.
primates
II. marine invertebrates
III. insects
IV. mammals other than primates
A)
I, IV
B)
I, III
C)
IV only
D)
I only
E)
II, III

9. Which of the following statements is TRUE?


A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

AMPK generally activates pathways that consume ATP


AMPK becomes activate when [AMP] is at its lowest.
Insulin phosphorylates AMPK
AMP binding to AMPK leads to activation of AMPK
AMPK converts AMP to ADP

10. The end products of pyrimidine catabolism are


A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

uric acid and glyoxylic acid.


uric acid and allantoin.
malonyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA.
-alanine and -ketoglutarate.
none of the above


11. Addition of pyrophosphate to which of the following occurs during the first step of
purine biosynthesis?
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

5-phosphoribosyl phosphate
ribulose-5-phosphate
ribose-5-phosphate
ribose
phosphribosylamine

12. Glycine contributes to the ring at position _____.

A)
B)
C)
D)
E)



A
B
C
D
E

13.

Glucose is the preferred fuel of muscles because


A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

14.

The metabolic fate(s) of glucose-6-phosphate include


I.
II.
III.
IV.

15.

glycogen and glucose.


ribose-5-phosphate
acetyl-CoA.
DNA and RNA.
A)
I
B)
I, II
C)
I, III
D)
III, IV
E)
I, II, III, IV

Choose the FALSE statement.


A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

16.

The liver performs gluconeogenesis.


The liver produces ketone bodies when energy demand is high
The liver converts fatty acids to acetyl-CoA.
The liver consumes fatty acids for fuel when blood glucose is low.
The liver uses amino acids as fuel.

Which of the following proteins stimulates the appetite?


A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

17.

it can be metabolized under anaerobic conditions.


it can be generated from ketone bodies even during starvation.
the heart muscle uses glucose exclusively as a fuel.
it is the most efficient energy storage available.
all of the above

leptin
ghrelin
adiponectin
insulin
PYY3-36

Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the blood glucose level of noninsulin dependent diabetics compared to that of normal individuals?
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

Blood glucose levels of diabetics tend to be very stable, but at a higher


level.
Blood glucose levels of diabetics tend to be variable and higher.
Blood glucose levels decrease more rapidly following a meal, often
dropping lower than is tolerable.
Blood glucose levels average the same level in diabetics, but reach higher
peaks for short periods.
none of the above

18. In reference to the graph shown below, which of the following statements is true?

A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

Curve A represents glucokinase in liver.


Curve A represents hexokinase in liver.
Curve A represents hexokinase in muscle.
Curve B represents hexokinase in muscle.
Curve B represents glucokinase in muscle.


19. The majority of glucose in the brain
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

is used to store adequate glycogen for extended periods of starvation.


is used to produce ATP for membrane Na+-K+ ATPase required for nerve
impulse transmission.
is synthesized from fatty acids due to the need for high ATP levels.
is synthesized in the adipose tissue and transported to the brain.
is synthesized from ketone bodies under conditions of prolonged fasting.

20. Which of the following can generate glucose?


I. kidney
II. liver
III. adipose tissue
IV. muscle
A)
I, II, III, IV
B)
I, II, IV
C)
I, II
D)
II, IV
E)
II only

21. Glucose uptake


A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

in the liver is mediated by GLUT4.


in the muscle is increased in response to insulin due to increased
expression of GLUT4.
in the brain is adjusted relative to the concentration of glucose.
A and B
A, B, C

22. Activation of AMPK activity is


A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

accomplished by AMP induced conformational changes facilitating


phosphorylation.
accomplished by ATP induced conformational change facilitating
phosphorylation.
inhibited by high levels of AMP due to conformational changes burying
the phosphorylation site.
increased by high levels of ATP due to conformational changes burying
the phosphorylation site.
none of the above

23. Which of the following are characteristics of metabolic syndrome?


I.
II.
III.
IV.

insulin resistance
inflammation
increased risk for type 1 diabetes.
hypersensitivity to insulin
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

I, II
I, II, III
I, II, III, IV
I, III
I only


24. Which of the following does not use an aminotransferase in the first step of its synthesis?

A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

glutamine
alanine
aspartate
glycine
none of the above


25. Which of the following is an immediate precursor of glutamate?

A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

-ketoglutarate.
pyruvate.
ornithine.
acetyl-CoA
succinyl-CoA

26. Which of the following statements about bilirubin is FALSE?


A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

light accelerates its breakdown


it is a product of heme breakdown
it is hydrophilic
it is present only when the liver is damaged
it causes jaundice


27. The diagram represents a substrate cycle in glucose metabolism. Which of the
following statements about the cycle is true?

A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

Reactions I & II are catalyzed by the same enzyme and help establish
equilibrium between the two metabolites.
Reaction II produces ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation.
Reaction II is catalyzed by an allosteric enzyme that is inhibited by
fructose-2-6-bisphosphate.
Reaction I is involved in the biosynthesis of glucose.
Reaction II occurs under low-energy conditions when the cell needs ATP.


28. In skeletal muscle cells, oxidation of NADH generated from anaerobic glycolysis occurs
during which of the following reactions?
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

acetaldehyde ethanol
lactate pyruvate
phosphoenolpyruvate pyruvate
pyruvate lactate
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate

29. Which enzyme is involved in substrate level phosphorylation in glycolysis?


A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

hexokinase
pyruvate kinase
glyceraldehyde-3phosphate dehydrogenase
aldolase
none of the above.

30. Muscle cells are not able to supply glucose for other tissues because
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

they lack the GLUT2 transporter.


they lack pyruvate carboxylase.
they lack glucose-6-phosphatase.
they lack the malate-aspartate shuttle.
they lack glycogen phosphorylase.


31. Which of the following uses inherent length and flexibility to facilitate transfer of an
acetyl group as a swing arm in catalysis?
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

FAD
NAD+
lipoamide
thiamine pyrophosphate
coenzyme A

32. Germinating plant seeds can convert acetyl-CoA (obtained from fatty acids stored as
oils) into carbohydrates, whereas animals are incapable of converting fatty acids into
glucose. This difference is due to the fact that:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

animals have glycogen and dont need to make glucose from fatty acids.
plants use the glyoxylate cycle to convert two acetyl CoA to oxaloacetate,
a precursor for gluconeogenesis.
plant seeds use photosynthesis to make sugar.
animals use the citric acid cycle selectively for energy production,
whereas plants primarily use glycolysis.
most animal cells lack complete pathways for gluconeogenesis

33. Which of the following represents a point of regulation for the citric acid cycle?

I.
II.
III.
IV.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

pyruvate dehydrogenase complex


aconitase
enolase
lactate dehydrogenase
I, II, III, IV
I, II, IV
II, III
I
I, IV

34. One method used by newborn mammals to generate heat is referred to as nonshivering
thermogenesis. This method utilizes a protein channel called ________ which is
present in high levels inside the mitochondria of _____tissue.
A)
thermogenin; muscle
B)
UCP-1; muscle
C)
thermogenin; brown adipose
D)
UCP-1; white adipose
E)
UCP-2; brown adipose

35. Which of the following is TRUE regarding the complexes within the mitochondrial
electron transport system?
I. Complex II contributes twice as many protons to the gradient than Complex I
II. Inhibition of Complex II would decrease the total number of electrons
moving through the electron transport chain.
III. Inhibition of Complex II would not alter the amount of free energy generated
from electrons originating from NADH.
IV. Complex I passes electrons with high potential to Complex II.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

I, II, III, IV
I, II, III
II only
II, III
III, IV


36. The structure of ATP synthase changes in conformation as a result of
A)
the rotation of the and subunits.
B)
the rotation of the subunit.
C)
the rotation of ATP.
D)
the rotation of the subunit.
E)
all of the above.

37. A deficiency in the enzyme PEPCK (PEP carboxykinase) would


A) block function of the malate/aspartate shuttle.
B) block transfer of reducing equivalents across the membrane in the heart and
liver.
C) inhibit formation of ATP via oxidative phosphorylation.
D) inhibit formation of NADH.
E) decrease flux through gluconeogenesis.
38. Which statement(s) concerning the mitochondrial F0F1 ATP synthase is FALSE?
I. The F1 subunit includes rotating sets of dimers.
II. The F0 subunit includes a ring of between 9 and 12 proton-carrying polypeptides.
III. The F1 subunit undergoes a series of conformational changes throughout the course
of reaction.
A)
I, II, III
B)
II, III
C)
I only
D)
III only
E)
None of the options (I III) is false. Options I-IV are all true.


39. Which of the following is a substrate in the reaction that leads most directly to glycogen
synthesis?
A)
Glc-1-P
B)
Glc-6-P
C)
UDP-Gal
D)
UDP-Glc
E)
Glc-GTP


40. Flux through the pentose phosphate pathway is regulated by
A)
Glc-6-P kinase
B)
glucokinase
C)
Glc-6-P phosphatase
D)
glucosyltransferase
E)
Glc-6-P dehydrogenase

41. The malate-aspartate shuttle is important for transporting the equivalent of
A)
glycine
B)
oxaloacetate
C)
lactate
D)
alanaine
E)
acyl-CoA



42. What an input and output of ketogenesis?
A)
hydroxybutyrate; acetyl-CoA
B)
pyruvate; -ketoglutarate
C)
acetlyl-CoA; acetoacetate
D)
pyruvate; acetone
E)
Glc-6-P; acetoacetone

43. Chylomicrons are
A)
lipoproteins
B)
lipases
C)
apolipoproteins
D)
micelles
E)
endosomes

44. Why is ammonia toxic?
A)
it inhibits hexokinase
B)
it depletes -ketoglutarate
C)
it competes with ATP in many reactions
D)
it inhibits pyruvate kinase
E)
it denatures proteins

45. Specific proteins are targeted for degradation using
A)
lysosomes
B)
restriction enzymes
C)
endosomes
D)
lipases
E)
E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase