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CEMENT EVALUATION

CASED HOLE LOGGING COURSE

By :
LUKAS UTOJO WIHARDJO
FREELANCER

Proses Interpretasi Well Logging (Umum)


CASED HOLE WELL
LOG INTERPRETATION

OPEN HOLE
WELL LOG
INTERPRETATI
ON :

LITHOLOGY,
POROSITY &
SATURATION

Cement
Evaluation
SATURATION
PEN
HOLE WELL LOG
MONITORING
PRODUCTION
LOGGING

WATER FLOW
LOGGING

Objectives of Primary Cementing


Cement

Zonal Hydraulic-isolation

Gas Zone

Prevents

Oil
Zone
Shale
Zone

Mixing of unwanted fluids


Fluids escaping to surface
Invading fluids [crossflow]
Casing Corrosion
Casing Collapse

Water
Zone

Casing

Cement Quality Problems


No Zonal Hydraulic-isolation
Cement

Oil
Zone

It will potentially
create :
Mixing of unwanted fluids
Fluids escaping to surface

Invading fluids [crossflow]


Water
Zone

Casing

Casing Corrosion
Casing Collapse

Environment Descriptions
Fluid filled Annulus
Top of Cement

Micro-Annulus
b

Poor Cement to Formation


Bond
Formations
Two stages Cement job
Less than perfect cement job.

Double Casing

CBL-VDL Log Applications


Client Needs
Cement

To Evaluate Cement
Job
Check Integrity of Cement

Oil
Zone

To Verify Zone Isolation


To Determine Cement Quality
Is there any Channel ?
Is it necessary to Repair ?
Will be possible to Repair?

Water
Zone

Casing

[ by performing a SQUEEZE]
Where is the Top of the
Cement ?

CBL-VDL
Cement Bond Logging

Physics of Measurement

Basic Sonic Principle


Basic Tool Principle
A Transmitter fires an acoustic
signal in all directions
Surrounding Media Resonates
Receivers record resulting
sound
Sound wave is analyzed

Basic CBL Principle


Similar to a
Ringing Bell
No
Cement

Good
Bond

When Fluid is behind


Casing, pipe is free to
vibrate [ loud sound ]
When the casing is
bonded to hard cement,
casing vibrations are
attenuated proportionally to bonded
surface

CBL Measurement Principle


Tx

Basic Tool Configuration


1 Transmitter 2 Receivers

3 ft

3 ft Receiver for CBL


Measurement
5 ft Receiver for VDL Analysis
TOOL MUST BE CENTRALIZED

R3

R5

5 ft

CBL: CEMENT BOND LOG


VDL: VARIABLE DENSITY LOG

CBL-VDL Measurement Principle


Acoustic Signal
Amplitude

T0
|--- Resulting Sound--|

Time
ms

- T0 : Firing Pulse
- Resulting Sound wave : as
recorded at the Receivers

CBL Measurement Principle


CBL Definition
Amplitude of First Arrival in mV
Measured at 3 ft Receiver
It is a function of the Casing-Cement Bond

Tx

3 ft
R3

R5

Transit Time Definition


Time elapsed from T0 to First detected
Arrival (above threshold level)
T T is used as Log Quality Control
Indicator

CBL Qualitative Meaning


No
Good
Cement
Bond

HIGH CBL signal strength => pipe is free to vibrate


[no cement ]
LOW CBL signal strength => attenuated energy
[cement is present]

Sound to Signal
Magnetostrictive transducer (Tx)
A high current is passed through a coil surrounding a magnetic
material introducing a strain and causes a ticking sound (Joule effect)

DL / L
Piezoelectric transducer

(Rx)

Polarized ceramic crystals in the sonde produce voltage when


exposed to strain (Villari effect)
strain
Unstrained
crystal

voltage

CBL Amplitude Vs. Receivers


Spacing

CBL-VDL Cement Bond


Logging
Gates Settings

NMSG
CBLG

CBL Measurement Gates


WARNING
- The CBL represents one of the most common logs prone to
human error
- Incorrect setting of parameters can cause an invalid log
- The CBL values are fluid compensated if the free pipe
values are adjusted to the expected free pipe value in water
, this is done either :
1- If the FCF is known and CBLF is presented
2- If the free pipe check is performed and amplitudes are adjusted
(CBAF) to read the expected fee pipe value in water

CBL Measurement T0_Delay Mode


(Fixed Gate Mode)

NMSG
CBLG

NMSG: Near Minimum Sliding Gate


CBLG : CBL Gate
View the waveform and check the transit time value
Set NMSG at measured/viewed T T 10 ms
Opens at NMSG and lasts CBLG ms

CBL Measurement TX Mode


(Back-up for the T0_Delay Mode)
TTSL

AMSG
SGW
SGCW

SGW: Sliding-Gate Width

SGCW : Sliding-Gate Closing Width

Sliding Gate opens at SGW ms BEFORE previous detected TT and closes

SGCW ms after current TT

Amplitude is CBSL,

AMSG : Auxiliary Minimum Sliding Gate Transit Time is TTSL

The VDL Signal


VDL: VARIABLE DENSITY LOG
5 ft Receiver for VDL Analysis
Allows easy differentiation
between casing and formation arrivals

Tx

R3

R5

5 ft

VDL Algorythm Principle


Recorded Waveform at
one depth
Waveform is cut for only
Positive Peaks

Peaks are compared to a


Grey Scale
Peaks are shaded and
presented from Top View
Final Picture Vs Depth is
obtained

Propagation of the Acoustic Energy


distance
Velocity =

time

Slowness

Slowness =

time

=
velocity

distance

Time required for sound to travel 1 foot


DT Casing
DT Cement
DT Formation
DT Fluid

= 57 msec/ft
= 75 msec/ft
100 msec/ft
189 msec/ft

Propagation of the Acoustic Energy


contd
Acoustic impedance
(Z) defined as:
Z=r.v

Z1
Z2

r: density of material

Water
Steel
Cement
Sound

1. If Z1/Z2 is high ==>


low transmittance
2. If Z1/Z2 is low ==>
high transmittance

V: velocity of sound
on that material
The amount of sound transmitted between two different
materials depends on their
acoustic impedance difference

Waveform Time Analysis


2

CASING ARRIVALS
TRAVEL TIME

DT Casing = 57 msec/ft
DT Cement = 75 msec/ft
DT Formation 100 msec/ft
DT Fluid
189 msec/ft

TTC = FLUID + CASING + FLUID


= 3/12 in x 189 ms/ft + 3 ft x 57 ms/ft
+ 3/12 in x 189 ms/ft

265.5 ms

Waveform Time Analysis


2

FORMATION ARRIVALS
TRAVEL TIME
TTF

DT Casing
DT Cement
DT Formation
DT Fluid

= 57 msec/ft
= 75 msec/ft
100 msec/ft
189 msec/ft

= FLUID + CEMENT + FORMATION +


CEMENT + FLUID
= 2x (3 in / 12 x 189 ms/ft + 2 in / 12
x 75 ms/ft) + 3 ft x 100 ms/ft
=

419.5 ms

Waveform Time Analysis


2

FLUID ARRIVALS
TRAVEL TIME

DT Casing
DT Cement
DT Formation
DT Fluid

TTf = FLUID
= 3 ft x 189 ms/ft

567.0 ms

= 57 msec/ft
= 75 msec/ft
100 msec/ft
189 msec/ft

CBL-VDL Standard Outputs Presentation


Transit Time TT in micro-seconds

[ms]

CBL Amplitude in millivolts

[mV]

VDL Variable Density Log [waveform visual representation]


400

TT

200 0

[ms]

CCL

GR

CBL
[mV]

100 200

VDL
[ms]

1200

CBL-VDL Standard Outputs


Transit Time TT in micro-seconds

[ms]

Log Quality Control


CBL Amplitude in millivolts

[mV ]

Quantitative Measurement of waveform energy


VDL Variable Density Log

[wafeform visual representation]

Qualitative Analysis of sound


Qualitative indicator of the presence of solid materials
between the casing and the formation
Gamma Ray and CCL as auxiliary curves for Correlation

CBL-VDL Cement Bond


Logging

Factors affecting the Log


E1
T0

Threshold
TT TT
DT

Free Pipe Signal


Good Bond Signal

Stretching
E1
T0

Free Pipe Signal


Good Bond Signal

Threshold
TT TT

DT

In cases of Good Cement


E1 decreases and TT is detected on a non linear portion of E1
DT STRETCHING is the TT increase from its value in free
pipe

TT Cycle Skipping
E1
T0

E3

Threshold
TT

TT

E2

In cases of very Good Cement


E1 could not reach Detection Threshold Level
T T skips to 3rd Peak [E3 ]........this is known as CYCLE
SKIPPING

CBL-VDL Cement Bond Logging


Basic Interpretation

CBL Qualitative Interpretation


CONDITION

TRANSIT
TIME

CBL
AMPLITUDE

NORMAL

HIGH

Casing Arrivals
Usually No Formation
Arrivals

Good Bond to Casing &


Formation

NORMAL to
HIGH /
NOISY

LOW

No Casing Arrivals
Formation Arrivals

Good Bond to Casing


Not to Formation

NORMAL to
HIGH
CAN BE
NOISY

LOW

No Casing Arrivals
No Formation Arrivals

Poor Bond to Casing

NORMAL

MEDIUM to
HIGH

Strong Casing Arrivals


No Formation Arrivals

Microannulus

NORMAL

MEDIUM to
HIGH

Formation Arrivals
Casing Arrivals

Channeling

NORMAL

MEDIUM to
HIGH

Formation Arrivals
Casing Arrivals

Fast Formations

LOW

HIGH

Formation Arrivals
No Casing Arrivals

Eccentered Tool

LOW

LOW

DEPENDS

Free Pipe

VDL

Free Pipe Amplitude


5

If no Casing-Cement bond,

amplitude is not attenuated


This is called
3

FREE PIPE AMPLITUDE

CBL: Free Pipe

CBL AMPLITUDE VS. CASING SIZE


Values in Water

CBL Interpretation

FREE PIPE CHECK


100

100

Perfect

Chevron Patterns

Depth Match

Chevron Patterns

TT and CBL Amplitude


as expected according to Casing Size

Cement to Casing Bond


5

If casing is well bonded,

soundwave will be attenuated


The received CBL amplitude
3

will be low
CBL: Free Pipe
CBL: Good Bond

Open-Hole VDLs (Before Casing)

GR

WF1 VDL
(Standard VDL)

WF2 VDL

Cased-Hole VDLs (After Casing)

GR

CCL

WF1 VDL
(Standard VDL)

WF2 VDL

GOOD BOND TO CASING


& FORMATION

Formation Arrivals

Transit Time

Low

with some
Stretching

<----------------------------------------CBL Amplitude
X

No
Casing Arrivals

Irregular Bond
5

The more free pipe or

contaminated cement in an
interval, the poorer the bond
If cement job is not perfect,
the amplitude is less
attenuated

CBL: Poor Bond


T

POOR BOND TO CASING

Stable
Medium

Transit Time

<------------------------------CBL Amplitude
X

Strong
Casing Arrivals

GOOD BOND CASING


NOT TO FORMATION

No
Formation Arrivals
Transit Time
X

Low

with some
<----------------------------------------CBL Amplitude
Cycle
No
Skipping
Casing Arrivals
X

Micro Annulus
5

Very Tiny gap Gap between Casing and

Cement
Caused for instance by contraction of
casing after cement sets if Casing Fluid is
changed
E1 amplitude resembles a poorer bond
than actual
Only a pressure pass can be done to
eliminate the micro annulus
CBL: Poor Bond

Tool Eccentering
5

Causes for Eccentralization

Improper Equipment selection


[ Centralizers ] for Casing Size

Missing or Broken Centralizer(s)

Weak Centralizers in deviated wells

Tool Damaged and/or bent

Damaged Casing
Unbalanced sound paths

Consequences

Resulting waveform is meaningless

Eccentering Analysis
Resulting Waveform
T0

Short Path
Normal Waveform
Waveform

Threshold
TT

If the tool is eccentered

Delayed Waveform

There will be destructive interference from different sound paths


Waveform from close tool side to casing

Result is a Bad Log

Waveform from far tool side to casing

not recoverable

Resulting waveform has Dramatic lower

in Playback

amplitude

but with shorter Transit Time [ 4 ms less]

Resembling a zone of Good Cement

CBL Amplitude vs Tool Eccentering

Fast Formation
5

Fast Formation Arrivals


In cases of good cement and
formation slowness < steel slowness

formation arrival arrives first


DT Dolomite = 43.5 msec/ft
DT Limestone = 47.5 msec/ft
DT Anhydrite = 50.0 msec/ft

The transit time and CBL amplitude


T

will be affected

Fast Formation

In the presence of FF arrivals no CBL


evaluation is possible, since E1 is due to

Formation (Fast) arrivals and not from


Casing arrivals (usually with 3 to 5 ft
receivers)
3

FF arrivals travel longer distance from Tx to


RX (casing thickness + cement thickness +
formation) than casing arrivals.

Only in short spacing Tx-Rx (~ 1 ft) the


casing arrival will arrive earlier than FF

arrival.

Tools able to measure CBL in FF are: CBT,


and QSLT, SSLT-C (short Tx-Rx about 1 ft)

FAST FORMATION

Transit Time
High
Shorter than
<----------------------------------------CBL Amplitude
Casing
on areas of
arrivals
fast formation
<----------------------------------------

arrivals

CBL Quantitative Interpretation


ATTENUATION

Logarithm of E1 amplitude [first peak of CBL waveform]

BOND INDEX

Attenuation in zone of interest [dB/ft]

BI =
Attenuation in best Cemented Section [dB/ft]

Bond Index

CBL
Quantitative
Interpretation

M1 Chart
Casing Data
O.D. 7, 29 lbm/ft
Casing Thickness
[from tables] .408 in

70% Bond Index ?

CBL value for 70% Bond

Cement Compresive
Strength
3000 psi

CBL value for 100% Bond


[minimum expected amplitude]

CBL Quality Control


Is the tool normalized?

Are the CBL gate parameters set properly?


Is the measured Transit Time as expected?
Is the free pipe measured CBL value as expected?
Is the tool properly centered?
How does the lowest measured amplitude of the log compare

to the predicted amplitude of the CBL?


Does the tool response repeat itself (Repeat section)?