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ADVANCED OPEN HOLE COURSE

A NEW APPROACH :
IDENTIFYING CLAY WITH
SPECTROSCOPY
OLEH : L. U. WIHARDJO

* UNTUK KALANGAN SENDIRI, DALAM MISI PENGAJARAN

TOPIK PENGAJARAN
Traditional Petrophysical Analysis.the issues
SpectroLith processing..what is it ?
4 examples from Australia (Observations)
Conclusions

Traditional Petrophysical Analysis


Mineralogy.
Mineralogy controls Matrix Density

=>

Porosity

RHOM

b)

Clay Volume => Bound water Volume


Porosity (effective) and Resitivity(BFV) ?

=>
=> Soil

2.
76

2.
74

2.
72

2.
7

2.
68

30
28
26
24
22
20

2.
66

matrix b

matrix fluid

Porosity (PU)

a)

Clay Volume and Issues - GR


1. Gamma Ray
Feldspars , Radioactive minerals
Clay in reservoir
: GRclean
Clay above reservoir: GRclay

Vclay

GRlog GRclean
GRclay GRclean

Gamma Ray in log interpretation

Book: Well Logging for Earth Scientists by Darwin Ellis, Elsevier

Clay Volume and Issues


Density Neutron
2. Neutron Density

Neutron is sensitive to Clay minerals.


Its bound water
Eg: Kaolinite: Al4Si4O10(OH)8

Gas, Other Neutron absorbers (Cl,B,Gd..)

Density-Neutron
Xplot

DPHI=18
pu

NPHI=10 pu

Response of Neutron in Gas


SPWLA 99

Summary of Traditional Analysis


Issues
Matrix Density influenced by:
MINERALOGY
=> Porosity effected
Clay Volume can be influenced by
Feldspars , radioactive minerals (GR)
Choice of GRclean, GRclay (GR)
Gas, Light Hydrocarbon ( Neutron )

=> Vclay, Effective Porosity, Soil effected

Question for another


measurement, method
Get mineralogy directly
from a logging tool
from a processing

=> SpectroLith

TOPIK PENGAJARAN
Traditional Petrophysical Analysis.the issues
SpectroLITH processing.. what is it ?
3 Examples from Australia ( Observations )

Conclusions

Evolution of Gamma-Ray
Measurements
Total natural gamma ray
GR
Natural gamma spectroscopy (NGT & HNGS)
U, Th and K (SGR=4Th(ppm) + 8U(ppm)+ 16K(%))

4 MeV neutron interacts


with fomation:
Inelastic Interaction
(multiple gamma-rays)
Slowing down of neutron
through multiple scattering
Neutron Capture
(multiple gamma-rays)

Gamma-Ray Spectrum

Geochemical Logging Tool ( GLT )


Aluminum (Kaolinite:Al4Si4O10(OH)8
SLOW logging speed, LONG tool )
Neutron induced capture spectroscopy (ECS, RST)
Si, Ca, Fe, S, Ti, Gd, Cl, H, ... (FAST logging speed, SHORT
Tool)
=> Emulated Aluminum ( Using SpectroLith )

Energy [MeV]

Aluminum in Clay
ROCK

Chemical Formula

Traces

GR

Rhob PHI-CNL CEC

API

g/cc

(lime, PU) meq/100g

Quartz

SiO2

2.65

-2

Calcite

CaCO3

2.71

Dolomite
CLAYS

CaCO3 MgCO3

2.87

Kaolinite

Al4Si4O10(OH)8

K%:0-1.25

80-130 2.42

37

3-50

Illite

K1-1.5Al4(Si6.5-7Al1-1.5)O20(OH)4

Th(ppm)10-25,U(ppm)1-5, K 130-235 2.53


Th(ppm)6-44,U(ppm)1-21 45-356 2.12

30

10-40

44

80-150

38

10-40

52

10-40

Montmorillonite (Ca0.5,Na)0.7(Al,Mg,Fe)4[(Si,Al)8O20](OH)4(H2O)n
Glauconite
Cholorite

(K,Na,Ca)1.2-2(Fe3+,Al, Fe2+,Mg)4[Si7-7.6, Al0.4-1,O20](OH)4 Th(ppm)3-10,U(ppm)2-5


Th(ppm)3-5,K(%)0-0.3
(Mg,Fe,Al)12[(Si,Al)8O20](OH)16

155-210 2.56
0-50

2.77

Neutron Induced Gamma-Rays


(Capture)
Inelastic Scattering
Fast Neutron

Gamma Ray

g
Nucleus

Neutron Capture
Excited Nucleus
Gamma Ray

Slow Neutron

C,O,Si,Ca,Fe,S,Mg
Nucleus
Excited Nucleus

Cl,H,Si,Ca,Fe,Ti,Gd,S

What Do We Measure ?
4 MeV neutron interacts
with fomation:
Inelastic Interaction
(multiple gamma-rays)
Slowing down of neutron
through multiple scattering
Neutron Capture
(multiple gamma-rays)

Gamma-Ray Spectrum

Energy [MeV]

SpectroLith Processing Flow


Acquisition

Gamma-Ray Spectra

Spectral Stripping

Elemental Yields

Oxides Closure

SpectroLith

Dry Weight Elements

Si, Ca, Fe, S, Ti, Gd,Cl,..

Dry Weight Lithologies


Clay, Carbonate, Anhydrite, QFM,
Pyrite, Siderite, Coal

Ref: SPWLA 1996: Quantitative Lithology: An application for open and cased hole
spectroscopy ; Herron et.al.

An Example of Schlumberger tool :


ECS and RST
ECS: Elemental Capture Spectroscopy

RST:Reservoir Saturation Tool


Cartridge

1-11/16" OD
2-1/2 OD

Cartridge

5" OD

Far GSO
Detector

1800 fph
AmBe Source

Near GSO
Detector

BGO
Detector

Minitron
Cartridge

under 200 fph

Clay Versus GR and Aluminum


100
Well 5
Clay wt%

Clay versus
GR

Well 6

Well 8

50

100

200

100

200

Gamma Ray

Gamma Ray

100

200

Gamma Ray

100

200

Gamma Ray

100
Well 5
Clay wt%

Clay versus
Aluminum

Well 7

Well 6

Well 7

Well 8

50

0
10
20
Aluminum wt%

10

20

Aluminum wt%

10

20

Aluminum wt%

10

20

Aluminum wt%

Ref: SPWLA 1996: Quantitative Lithology: An application for open and


cased hole spectroscopy ; Herron et.al.

Heart of SpectroLith : Aluminum


Emulator
Aluminum wt%

20

10

50
100-SiO2

100

50
100 0
50
100
100-SiO2-CaCO3-MgCO3-1.99Fe
100-SiO2-CaCO3-MgCO3

Ref: SPWLA 1996: Quantitative Lithology: An application for open


and cased hole spectroscopy ; Herron et.al.

SpectroLith : Matrix Density

General algorithms

found
f ( Si, Ca, Fe, S)

Estimated

Well 1

Well 2

2.8

2.6
2.6

2.8

Matrix Density, mineral

2.6

2.8

Matrix Density, mineral

Ref: SPWLA 2000: Application of Nuclear Spectroscopy Logs to


the derivation of Formation Matrix Density ; Herron et.al.

TOPIK PENGAJARAN
Traditional Petrophysical Analysis.the issues
SpectroLITH processing..what is it ?
3 Examples ( Observations )
Conclusions

Example-1
8-1/2 OH
Descend thru Drillpipe
Gas in Borehole

Well shut-in
OBJECTIVE:

Sand, Coal Zones ?


Gas Zones ?
RST-A

Sigma mode (900ft/h)


C/O mode (100, 300ft/h)

Dry
Weights

Example-2
XXX field
OH 8-1/2
WBM in borehole
PEx-ECS , 1800 ft/h

OBJECTIVE:
Clay content

Example-2
Comparison of RHGA
From Complex
Analysis (ELAN)
From SpectroLith

Example-3
Double Casing (7,4-1/2_

Water in borehole,oil above


top perfs.
Well shut-in

RST-A
Sigma mode (900ft/h),
C/O mode (100ft/h)
OBJECTIVE:
Oil-Water contact NOW ?
Decision to perforate other
zones

RHOB
RT
MSFL

GR

NPHI

Evaluation using

OH

SpectroLith

SpectroLith
Results

Fast easy alternate way: Using


Spectroscopy Logs
Open Hole logs

ECS

GR
Density
Resistivity
Neutron Porosity

Short /
Long Term
DECISIONS

Clay Volume
Lithology
Matrix Properties

Elemental Capture
Spectroscopy

+
RW, CEC, HC-Vis

Porosity
Saturation

Permeability
Producibility
Ref: APPEA 2002: Applications of SpectroLith
*Mineralogy
from Neutron Capture Spectroscopy Tools for

SPE 77631: Real-Time Petrophysical Analysis


*in Ref:
Siliciclastics From the Integration of Spectroscopy

Formation Evaluation: Zachariah John et.al.

and Triple-Combo Logging ; Herron et.al.

Workflow & Typical Product

Lithology

Porosity

Permeability

Saturation

Reservoir
Summation

Producibility

APPEA 2004: GR Spectroscopy and porosity-resistivity logs combine for fast and accurate formation
* Ref:
evaluation from the wellsite Zachariah John et.al.

Simple Equations in the alternate method


Lithology
Porosity

Wclay 1.91(1 2.139WSi 2.497WCa 1.99WFe )

ma b
Nma n
maD
;maN
ma f
Nma Nf

ma 2.620 0.049WSi 0.2274WCa 1.993WFe 1.193WS


N ma 0.408 0.889WSi 1.014WCa 0.257WFe 0.675WS

m * 2
200000

Permeability k
(1 ) 2 ( ma ) 2 (6WCla 0.22WQFM 2WCar 0.1WPyr ) 2

Saturation

Waxman Smits
Equation ;

k (a ) b (

BFV
BFV

)c

Relative
Permeability

User inputs required:

Reservoir
Summation

2. CEC: Cation Exchange Capacity based on CECA

Productivity

100 2
Swi

(100 2 k
BFV

1. FSAL: formation water salinity based on FSALA


3. Hydrocarbon Viscosity for relative Permeability
* Ref: SPE 77631: Real-Time Petrophysical Analysis in Siliciclastics
From the Integration of Spectroscopy and Triple-Combo Logging
; Herron et.al.

Example
Triple combo(PEx) + ECS
Fast petrophysical evaluation

for decision reqd.


Cores present

Results:
Clay Content

From GR : 45%

From ECS: 20%

APPEA 2004: GR Spectroscopy and


* Ref:
porosity-resistivity logs combine for fast and
accurate formation evaluation from the
wellsite Zachariah John et.al.

Clay content from Point count

Example: Results
Petrophysical Results
TR-1: Net, Pay
TR-2 Lithology track
TR-3 Produccibility
TR-4 Permeability
comparison
TR-5 Porosity, Sw
TR-6 Mineralogy,clay vol
comparison
TR-7 QC track

APPEA 2004: GR Spectroscopy and porosity-resistivity logs


* Ref:
combine for fast and accurate formation evaluation from the
wellsite Zachariah John et.al.

TOPIK PENGAJARAN
Traditional Petrophysical Analysis.the issues
SpectroLITH processing..what is it ?
Examples in Australia ( Observations )
Conclusions

Conclusions
SpectroLith results can be derived from
- ECS* ( Elemental Capture Sonde)
- RST* (Reservoir Saturation Tool)
SpectroLith gives useful outputs for
immediate interpretation use: Clay,
Carbonate, Pyrite, Siderite, Anhydrite, QFM,
Coal
Offers alternative methodology for
identifying clay & mineralogy with gas in
borehole, gas in formation or feldspathic,
radioactive formations and for Interpretation
* Schlumberger tool brand for spectroscopy