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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

The RANS Equations


Maurizio Quadrio
DIA, Politecnico di Milano

2012

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

O UTLINE

RANS EQUATIONS

E QUATIONS FOR k

E DDY VISCOSITY

AND rij

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

R EYNOLDS DECOMPOSITION

Let u(xx , t) be definite and continuous in Rd , d = 1, 2, 3. Let


u(xx ) exist in the time-mean sense:
1
T T

u(xx ) = lim

R EYNOLDS

Z T

u(xx , t)dt

DECOMPOSITION

u(xx , t) = u(xx ) + u 0 (xx , t)

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

T HE FLUCTUATING FIELD

u 0 (x
x , t) is the fluctuating part
u(x
x ) is independent upon time
By definition u = u and u 0 = 0
Coupling between mean and fluctuating field (closure

problem: more unknowns than equations)

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

D ERIVATION FOR CONTINUITY EQ .


NS + R EYNOLDS S DECOMPOSITION +

TIME AVERAGE

u =0
u
2


u0 = 0
u +u
3

u = u
u0
u
4

u0 = 0
u
5

u =0
u

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

M OMENTUM EQUATION

Z T

u = lim
u0 dt
u u
u u
T 0


Z T
0
u dt
= u lim
u
T 0


Z T
0
u
u
= lim
dt
T 0

u0
= u u
=0

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

T HE FINAL FORM
u = u
u 2 = u
u 2 = u
u2
u u
u0 = u
u0 2 = u
u0 2
u 0 u

S TEADY (RANS)


1
u u ) + u 0 u 0 = p + 2u
(u

U NSTEADY (URANS)


u
1
u
u u ) + u 0 u 0 = p + 2u
+ (u
t

Closure is required!
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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

T HE R EYNOLDS STRESSES

ui0 uj0 (apparent) Reynolds stresses


Momentum diffusion due to turbulent motions (analogy

with viscous stresses)


ui0 uj0 is a symmetric tensor
k = 12 ui0 ui0
ui0 uj0 = 32 k ij + aij
aij only determines momentum trasport

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

URANS
D O THE UNSTEADY RANS MAKE SENSE ?

Two separated time scales T1 and T2  T1 must exist in the


flow
Reynoldss decomposition can be redefined as:
u (xx , t) =

1
T

Z T /2
T /2

u (xx , t + )d

T  T1

P ROBLEMS
Turbulent flows do not admit scale separation
Scale T is not clearly defined
Mathematical problem
Operative problem

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

P ROBLEMS WITH RANS


1) E FFECTS OF TIME AVERAGING

Aim: to remove unessential information


But: details are sometimes important (e.g. combustion)
Mapping physics statistics not unique!

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

P ROBLEMS WITH RANS


2) R EYNOLDS S DECOMPOSITION

Considering mean values only is limiting


Considering mean values only is simple
Advantages and disadvantages must be balanced
Existence of coherent structures emphasizes limitations

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

P ROBLEMS WITH RANS


3) S MALL - SCALE INTERACTIONS ARE MISSING

Modelling statistics (ui0 uj0 ) rather than physics (ui0 , uj0 ) hides
small-scale interactions
Scalar dissipation: RANS can only predict mean fluxes
Combustion: RANS miss peak values

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

P ROBLEMS WITH RANS


4) RANS SOLUTIONS AND AVERAGED -NS SOLUTIONS

RANS SOLUTIONS ARE EQUAL TO ( TIME - AVERAGED )


EXPERIMENTAL DATA ?
?

u0
S u 0 = S (t)u
Do averaging- and solution-operators commute?
Theorem: if and only if model for u 0 u 0 is exact!
Difference between averaged solution and RANS solution

is square root of u 0u 0 error (modelling error)

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

O UTLINE

RANS EQUATIONS

E QUATIONS FOR k

E DDY VISCOSITY

AND rij

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

E QUATION FOR E
E MEAN - FLOW KINETIC ENERGY

1
E ui ui
2
DE
T = P
+ T
Dt
T i u j ui0 uj0 + u i p/ 2u j sij
P ui0 uj0

ui
xj

2sij sij
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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

E QUATION FOR k
k TURBULENT KINETIC ENERGY

1
k ui0 ui0
2
Dk
T0 = P
+ T
Dt
1
Ti0 ui0 uj0 uj0 + ui0 p0 / 2uj0 sij0
2
P ui0 uj0

ui
xj

2sij0 sij0
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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

E QUATION FOR rij


rij R EYNOLDS

STRESS

rij ui0 uj0


Equation for rij is obtained by:
subtracting eq. for u i from that for ui to get an eq. for ui0 ;
multiplying eq. for ui0 by that for uj0 to obtain eq. for ui0 uj0 ;
time-averaging eq. for ui0 uj0 .

+ uk
t
xk



0 0 0
ui0 uj0 =
u u u + Pij + ij ij + 2 ui0 uj0
xk i j k

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

R EYNOLDS STRESSES EQUATION


Triple correlation (closure problem):

ui0 uj0 uk0


Production tensor:

Pij ui0 uk0

uj
ui
uj0 uk0
xk
xk

Velocity-pressure gradient tensor:

1
ij

p0
ui0
xj

p0
+ uj0
xi

Dissipation tensor:

ui0 uj0
ij
xk xk
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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

T URBULENT KINETIC ENERGY AND R EYNOLDS


STRESSES
Trace of ui0 uj0 eq. is 2 times the k eq.

Pii = 2P

ii =

2 0 0
up
xi i

ii = 2
Difference between dissipation and pseudo-dissipation:
2sij0 sij0

ui0 ui0
xk xk
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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

O UTLINE

RANS EQUATIONS

E QUATIONS FOR k

E DDY VISCOSITY

AND rij

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

C LASSIFICATION OF TURBULENCE MODELS

M ODELS BASED ON
EDDY- VISCOSITY
rij is given through an

eddy-viscosity

M ODELS FOR THE


R EYNOLDS - STRESS TENSOR
a model for rij is given

directly

more developed

less developed

less recent

more recent

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

T HE GRADIENT- DIFFUSION HYPOTHESIS


A N EXAMPLE FOR THE PASSIVE SCALAR

u ) + u
u 0 0 = 2
(u
Scalar flux vector u 0 0 : direction and magnitude of the

(turbulent) transport of
Hypothesis: this vector is aligned to the mean scalar

gradient
Turbulent diffusivity t (x
x ) (positive scalar quantity):

u 0 0 = t (xx )

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

T HE TURBULENT DIFFUSIVITY

Define the effective diffusivity e (x


x ):

e (xx ) = + t (xx )
The mean scalar equation is closed as:

u ) = (e (xx ))
(u
Problem: t (x
x ) must be known

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

T HE TURBULENT- VISCOSITY HYPOTHESIS



1
u u ) + u 0u 0 = p + 2u
(u

Reynolds stresses tensor u 0 u 0 : effect of turbulent

fluctuations on the mean motion


Hypothesis: this tensor is aligned to the mean

rate-of-strain tensor
Eddy viscosity t (x
x ) (positive scalar quantity):


2
ui uj
aij ui0 uj0 + k ij = t (xx )
+
3
xj xi

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

T HE EDDY VISCOSITY

Define the effective viscosity e (x


x ):

e (xx ) = + t (xx )
The mean momentum equation is closed as:

u u ) = p + (e (xx )u
u)
(u
Problem: t (x
x ) must be known.

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

A PPRAISAL OF THE B OUSINNESQ S HYPOTHESIS

Intrinsic hypothesis: aij depends upon mean velocity


gradients only

Specific hypothesis:
aij = 2t sij
modelled after laminar flows

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

1) T HE INTRINSIC HYPOTHESIS
T URBULENCE DOES HAVE MEMORY !

Experiment: sudden axisymmetric contraction after a grid


(Uberoi 1956, S k / = 2.1)

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

E VOLUTION OF ANISOTROPY
N ORMALIZED ANISOTROPIES bij = aij /2k

Open symbols: larger strain S k / = 55


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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

I NTRINSIC HYPOTHESIS IS INCORRECT

Contraction: normalized anisotropies bij = aij /2k are not

constant
For large strain bij depend on the total amount of mean

strain
Straight section: anisotropy is not zero and decreases on

the turbulence timescale k /

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

T HE MOLECULAR ANALOGY

V ISCOUS FLUID
Kinetic theory of gases:
velocity scale: mean

molecular speed c
length scale: mean free

path
kinematic viscosity

12 c

T URBULENT FLOW
Empirical argument:
velocity scale: turbulence

velocity scale u
length scale: turbulence

length scale `
turbulent viscosity t u `

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

E XAMPLE
S IMPLE SHEAR FLOW WITH S = u 1 / x2 U/L

V ISCOUS FLUID

T URBULENT FLOW

Fluid = ensemble of

Turbulent flow = ensemble

molecules

of eddies

Molecular timescale

Turbulent timescale

t = k /

m = /c
Shear timescale S =

S 1

U
m
S =
= KnM  1
S
c
Lc

Shear timescale S = S 1

t
Sk

= O(1)
S

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

I S THE INTRINSIC HYPOTHESIS WORTH SOMETHING ?


T URBULENT VISCOSITY IS OFTEN USEFUL

In simple shear flow the mean velocity gradients change slowly:


Local mean velocity gradients characterize the history of

mean distortion
Reynolds stress balance is dominated by local processes
When P/ 1 the turbulent-viscosity hypothesis is correct

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

2) T HE SPECIFIC HYPOTHESIS
T URBULENCE IS NOT A NEWTONIAN FLUID

I NCONSISTENT !
aij = 2t sij
In turbulent shear flows s ii = 0 but normal Reynolds

stresses are not!


aij is not aligned with s ij

N OT INVARIANT
aij = 2t sij
Tensorial relation is not general
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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

S PECIFIC HYPOTHESIS
I NVARIANT BUT NOT OBJECTIVE
aij = t,ijkl skl
Not rotation-invariant

O BJECTIVE RELATION
aij = t1 ij + t2 sij + t3 sik skj
Unable to reproduce simple experimental situations...
A costitutive eq. for turbulence does not need to be objective
(Coriolis, etc)

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

S PECIFIC HYPOTHESIS : W HY A LINEAR LAW ?

N EWTONIAN FLUID
Straining small compared

to molecular scales:
S /c  1
Small departure from

equilibrium
Linear dependence of

stress tensor on velocity


gradient tensor

T URBULENT FLOW
Straining large compared

to turbulence scales:
S k / > 1
Large departure from

equilibrium
More general dependency

of Reynolds stresses on
velocity gradient tensor

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

B EYOND A LINEAR LAW

Non-linear laws: e.g. memory effect


2
aij = A k ij
3

Z
0


M()


uj
ui
(t ) +
(t ) d
xj
xi

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

L IMITATIONS OF EDDY VISCOSITY CONCEPT

Eddy viscosity not fully adequate for:


Flows with abrupt change of shear rate
Flows over curved surfaces
Flows in ducts with secondary motions and/or separations
Rotating or stratified flows
Three-dimensional flows
Many others...

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

RANS RESULTS HAVE LIMITED RELIABILITY...


F REITAS , S ELETED BENCHMARKS FROM COMMERCIAL CFD CODES , J.F LUIDS E NG . 1995

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

... BUT CAN BE USED NONETHELESS !


T ORO ROSSO (1)

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

... BUT CAN BE USED NONETHELESS !


T ORO ROSSO (2)

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

... BUT CAN BE USED NONETHELESS !


T ORO ROSSO (3)

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

... BUT CAN BE USED NONETHELESS !


T ORO ROSSO (3)

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

... BUT CAN BE USED NONETHELESS !


U PPER RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS (1)

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

... BUT CAN BE USED NONETHELESS !


U PPER RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS (2)

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

... BUT CAN BE USED NONETHELESS !


U PPER RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS (3)

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RANS equations

Equations for k and rij

Eddy viscosity

... BUT CAN BE USED NONETHELESS !


U PPER RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS (4)

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