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MTNL

CETTM

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW &


CLASSIFICATION
MODULE ID: TINTOFC001

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

CETTM

Introduction

MTNL

An Optical Fibre System uses light waves as carrier of


the information signals.
Transmitted through an Optical Fibre using the principle
of Total Internal reflection.
Main portion of an optical transmitter is light source
( LED or LASER diode.)
This changes electrical signals to optical signals.
Receiver contains a photo diode which converts light
back into electrical signals.
Detected signal is then amplified and shaped
appropriately.

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

Basic FibreOptic Link

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Driver

Source

Fibre

Transmitter

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

Detector

MTNL

Regen.
Receiver

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Transmission in Optical Fiber

MTNL

Transmission sequences given below:


Information is encoded into electrical
signals.
Electrical signals are converted into
light signals.
Light travels down the fiber.
A detector changes the light signals
into electrical signals.
Electrical signals are decoded into
information.
OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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Optical fiber

MTNL

A Basic Optical fiber consists of two


concentric layers.
Inner layer called core has a refractive index
slight higher than the outer layer called
cladding.
Light injected into the core.
This light strikes the core-cladding surface at
an angle greater than the critical angle and
gets reflected back into the core

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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Total Internal Reflection

Angle of incidence
1

Critical angle
1

Angle of
incidence
1

2
Angle of refraction
Light is bent away
From the Normal

Light does not enter


Second medium

1 is greater than 2
1 is denser and 2 is rearer
OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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Angle of
Reflection
2

When angle of
incidence is more
than Critical angle
light is reflected in
the same material
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Fiber Construction

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1. Core: 8m diameter
for SMF & 50 m dia for
MMF
2. Cladding: 125m dia.
3. Buffer: 250m dia.
4. Jacket: 400 m dia

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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Fiber Construction

MTNL

Secondary coating
Primary coating
Clad
Core

9
m
125 m

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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Fiber Construction

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Optical Fiber

Thin strands of highly transparent glass or


sometimes plastic that guide light.
Core
The centre of the fiber where the light is transmitted
Cladding
The outside optical layer of the fiber that traps the
light in the core and guides it along - even through
curves
Buffer coating or primary coating
A hard plastic coating on the outside of the fiber that
protects the glass from moisture or physical damage.

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

Optical Fibre types


CETTM

MTNL

Based on material
1. Glass Fibres [glass core & glass cladding]
2. Plastic-clad Silica Fibres [glass core & plastic
cladding]
3. Plastic Fibres [plastic core & plastic fibres]
Based on size
1. Multi-mode fibres
2. Single-mode fibres
Based on refractive index
1. Step-Index Fiber
2. Graded-index Fiber

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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Modes

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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Types of Fiber

MTNL

Single-mode optical fiber (SMF)


is an optical fiber designed to
carry only a single ray of light
(mode)
Use for long distance
communication e.g. 50 Km
Multimode fiber (MMF) has
higher "light-gathering" capacity
than single-mode optical fiber and
can carry many rays of light
Used for Short distance
communication e.g. 200 mtrs

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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Colour code scheme in Seicor cable

Fiber No

Colour code

Fiber No

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Colour code

Blue

Red

Orange

Black

Green

Yellow

Brown

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Violet

Slate

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Blue/Black

White

12

Orange/Black

Colour code simplifies fiber identification


OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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Optical Fiber Cable configurations

No of fibers

Fibers in each tube

12

24

48

96

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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OFC COMPONENTS ,FUNCTIONS


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OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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OFC Components

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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OFC Classification
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OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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Pigtails & Patch Cords


OFTB

WSC

OFTB

OF CableFibres

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Connector
F
D
F

OF
System
Patch Cord

Pigtail

FDF/FDMS WITH COUPLER

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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Applications of Fibre Optics in


Communications

MTNL

Common carrier nationwide networks.


Telephone interoffice trunk lines.
Customer premise communication networks.
Undersea cables.
High EMI areas (Power lines, Rails, Roads).
Factory communication/Automation.
Control systems.
Expensive environments.
High lightning areas.
Military applications.
Classified (secure) communication

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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Trenching , HDPE pipe laying specs

MTNL

Depth 165 cm,soft soil /1m rocky soil


Top width :45cm,. Bottom width ;30cm
Trial pits : 2M X1M X 1.6M
On ducted routes : PVC pipes 100m inner dia,
3pvc pipes of 30cms dia as subpipes
Non ducted routes ; HDPE pipes 75mm
(6kg/cm 2), 10kg./cm 2 in congested city

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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CETTM

Trenching , HDPE pipe laying specs

MTNL

Depth 165 cm,soft soil /1m rocky soil


Top width :45cm,. Bottom width ;30cm
Trial pits : 2M X1M X 1.6M
On ducted routes : PVC pipes 100m inner
dia, 3pvc pipes of 30cms dia as subpipes
Non ducted routes ; HDPE pipes 75mm
(6kg/cm 2), 10kg./cm 2 in congested city

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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Guidelines OFC Laying


CETTM

MTNL

Trial pits : 6 pits/km


8mm/12mm Nylon ropes to replace 4mm
ropes already in HDPE pipe
In walk through tunnels : Green pipe
32/40mm 2 number of split HDPE pipes of
total dia 75mm
Hand hole inner size: 120cm x 80cm x 100cm
deep With cast iron cover and MS frame

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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Ribbon Cable
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OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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48 fiber cable

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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OFC patch cord &pIgtail

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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OFC CLASSIFICATION
CETTM

MTNL

Based on material
1. Glass Fibres [glass core & glass cladding]
2. Plastic-clad Silica Fibres [glass core & plastic
cladding]
3. Plastic Fibres [plastic core & plastic fibres]
Based on size/Fiber
1. Multi-mode fibres
2. Single-mode fibres
Based on refractive index
1. Step-Index Fiber
2. Graded-index Fiber

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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CETTM

MTNL

Based on usage
1 Outdoor cable
2. Indoor cable
Outdoor cables are
1.Loose tube cables
2. Figure 8 cables
3..Armored cable
4. Ribbon cables
Indoor cables are
1.Tight ribbon cables
2. Fanout cables
3. Fiber optic patch cords
.
OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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OFC CLASSIFICATION

MTNL

Loose buffer cables


Tight buffer cables
Shallow water cables
Deep water cables
Based on ITU-T Recommendations
1 g-651:M ultimode,fibers for use at 850nm
2 g-652:Standard SM FIBER 1310 nm optimized
3.g-652c :Low water peakfiber for CWDM
4. g653 : Zero dispersion point shiftd to`1550 nm
5.g654 : Cut of w/l shifted , submarin cable
6.g655; Non zero dispersion shifted (c band)
7.g655b :- Advanced NZDSF (S,C BAND)
OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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OFC CLASSIFICATION

MTNL

Other cables
1. Self supporting aerial cable
2. Submarine cables
3. Fiber optic patch cords
4. optical Groundwire
Based on Fire rating
1 Riser cables.
2 Plenum cables
3 general purpose cables
Based on Physical design consideratons
1. Inside plant cables(isp)
2. Outside plant cables(osp)
OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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OFC CLASSIFICATION

MTNL

Speciality fibers
1 Erbium doped fibers
2 Photo sensitivew fibers
3.Bend insensitive fibers
4. Polarisation preserving cables
5 High index fibers
6.Holey fibers( Photonic Crystal Fibers)

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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Optical ground wire cross section

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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OPGW Cable and PMMA Cable


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OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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Aerial drop cable

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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ADSS (all dielectric supporting cable)


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OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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OFC CLASSIFICATION

MTNL

Other cables
1. Self supporting aerial cable
2. Submarine cables
3. Fiber optic patch cords
4. optical Groundwire
Based on Fire rating
1 Riser cables.; OFNR,OFCR
2 Plenum cables..OFNP
3 general purpose
cables..OFCG,OFNG,OFN,LSZH
Based on Physical design consideratons
1. Inside plant cables(isp)
2. Outside plant cables(osp)
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FIGURE 8 Cable

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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PHOTONIC CRYSTAL CABLE

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Silica material contain


Numerous airfilled
Microscopic holes.
Obtain waveguide
properties from
Arrangement of closely
Spaed air holes which
gothrough whole length
Of fiber
OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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Band gap fiber(photonic crystal)

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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ADSS cable

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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BEND INSENSITIVE FIBER

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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Ribbon type cable

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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Submarine OF cable

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1.Outer protective jacket


2.Galvanized steel armoring
3. Bedding layer
4.Polytheene outer sheath
5.Wrapping tape+lead sheath
6Polthene inner sheath
7.Wrapping tape and moisture
Barrier
8.Central strength member
(steel wire)

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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OFNP, OFNR CABLES

MTNL

OFNP:OPTICAL FIBER NONCONDUCTIVE


PLENUM
OFNR; OF CABLE NON CONDUCTIVBE RISER

OPTICAL FIBER OVERVIEW & CLASSIFICATION

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