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MTNL

CETTM

SWITCHING & VLAN


MODULE ID: ISWGVLN001

Switching & VLAN

CETTM

Topics Covered

MTNL

1. Introduction
2. Switch Operation & Functions
3. Types of Switching
4. Flat Networks & VLAN
5. Benefits of VLAN
6. Inter VLAN Communication
7. Types of VLANs
8. Frame Tagging

Switching & VLAN

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Switching & VLAN

Before switching

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The first switched LAN

Switching & VLAN

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The typical switched network design

Switching & VLAN

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CETTM

Layer 2 Switching

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Layer 2 switching is the process of using


the hardware address of devices on a
LAN to segment a network
Switching breaks up large collision
domains into smaller ones
A collision domain is a network segment
with two or more devices sharing the
same bandwidth.
Each port on a switch is its own collision
domain
Switching & VLAN

Layer 2 Switching

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Layer 2 switching provides the following:


Hardware-based bridging (ASIC)
Wire speed
Low latency
Low cost

Switching & VLAN

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Switch Features

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Bridges use software to create and manage a filter


table
Switches use application specific integrated circuits
(ASICs) to build and maintain their filter tables.
Think of a layer 2 switch as a multi port bridge
because their basic reason for being is the same: to
break up collision domains.
Layer 2 switches and bridges are faster than routers
because they dont take up time looking at the
Network layer header information.
Switches create private dedicated collision domains
and provide independent bandwidth on each port
Switching & VLAN

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Switch Features

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In layer 2 switching no modification to the data


packet takes place.
Limitations of Layer 2 Switching
Bridged networks break up collision domains,
but the network is one large broadcast
domain.
Broadcasts and multicasts, along with the
slow convergence time of spanning trees, can
considerably slow down the network

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Layer 2 Switch Functions

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Address learning,
Forward/filter decisions, and
Loop avoidance

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CETTM

Switching & VLAN

Address Learning

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CETTM

How switches learn hosts locations

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A switched network with switching loops


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Switching & VLAN

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CETTM

Switching & VLAN

Multiple frame copies

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CETTM

Switching & VLAN

Broadcast storm

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CETTM

Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)

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Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) created the


original version of Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
The IEEE later created its own version of STP called
802.1D.
All Cisco switches run the IEEE 802.1D version of
STP, which isnt compatible with the DEC version.
STPs main task is to stop network loops from
occurring on your layer 2 network

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CETTM

Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)

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STP monitors the network to find all links, making sure


that no loops occur by shutting down any redundant
links.
STP uses the spanning-tree algorithm (STA) to first
create a topology database, then search out and
destroy redundant links.
With STP running, frames will be forwarded only on
the premium, STP-picked links.

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CETTM

LAN Switch Types

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LAN switch types decide how a frame is handled


when its received on a switch port.
Latencythe time it takes for a frame to be sent out
an exit port once the switch receives the frame
depends on the chosen switching mode.
There are three switching modes:
Cut-through (Fast-Forward)
Fragment-Free (modified cut-through)
Store-and-forward

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CETTM

Different switching modes within a frame

6 bytes
Preamble

1 byte
SFD

6 bytes

6bytes

Destination
hardware
address

Cut-through:
No error checking

Switching & VLAN

2 bytes

Source
hardware
address

Upto 1500 bytes

Length

Fragment Free:
Checks for collisions

DATA

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4 bytes
FCS

Store-and-Forward:
Error are checked,
Has highest latency

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CETTM

Cut-Through (Real Time)

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With the cut-through switching method, the LAN


switch reads only the destination address (the first six
bytes following the preamble) onto its onboard
buffers.
it then looks up the hardware destination address in
the MAC switching table, determines the outgoing
interface, and proceeds to forward the frame toward
its destination.
A cut-through switch really helps to reduce latency
because it begins to forward the frame as soon as it
reads the destination address and determines the
outgoing interface.
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Fragment-Free (Modified Cut-Through)


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Fragment-Free is a modified form of cut-through


switching in which the switch waits for the collision
window (64 bytes) to pass before forwarding.
If a packet has a collision error, it almost always
occurs within the first 64 bytes.
It means each frame will be checked into the data
field to make sure no fragmentation has occurred.
Fragment-Free mode provides better error checking
than the cut-through mode with practically no
increase in latency.
Its the default switching method for the 1900
switches.
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Store-and-Forward

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Store-and-forward switching is Ciscos primary LAN


switching method.
The store-and-forward method provides efficient, errorfree transport instead of fast transport.
LAN switch copies the entire frame onto its onboard
buffers and then computes the cyclic redundancy
check (CRC).
Latency through the switch varies with frame length.
The frame is discarded if it contains a CRC errorif its
too short (less than 64 bytes including the CRC) or if
its too long (more than 1518 bytes including the CRC).

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CETTM

Switching & VLAN

Flat network structure

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The benefit of a switched network

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Switching & VLAN

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VLAN Definition

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By default, switches break up collision domains and


routers break up broadcast domains.
How to break up broadcast domains in a pure
switched internetwork?
By creating a virtual local area network
A VLAN is a logical grouping of network users and
resources connected to administratively defined ports
on a switch.
A VLAN is treated like its own subnet or broadcast
domain
Frames broadcast onto the network are only switched
between the ports logically grouped within the same
VLAN
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CETTM

VLAN Definition

MTNL

By default, no hosts in a specific VLAN can


communicate with any other hosts that are members
of another VLAN,
For inter-VLAN communication, the router is required
layer 2 switched networks are typically designed as
flat networks.
Every broadcast packet transmitted is seen by every
device on the network, regardless of whether the
device needs to receive that data

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CETTM

Benefits of VLAN

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VLANs simplify network management:


Network adds, moves, and changes are achieved
by configuring a port into the appropriate VLAN.
A group of users needing high security can be put
into a VLAN so that no users outside of the VLAN
can communicate with them.
VLANs can be considered independent from their
physical or geographic locations.
VLANs can enhance network security.
VLANs increase the number of broadcast domains
while decreasing their size

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CETTM

Broadcast Control

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Broadcasts occur in every protocol,


How often Broadcasts occur depends upon three
things:
Type of protocol
The application(s) running on the internetwork
How these services are used
Bandwidth abusers are multimedia applications, faulty
equipment, inadequate segmentation, and poorly
designed firewalls

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CETTM

Security

MTNL

Anyone connecting to the physical network could


access the network resources located on that
physical LAN.
Anyone can observe any and all traffic happening in
that network by plugging a network analyzer into the
hub.
Users could join a workgroup by just plugging their
workstations into the existing hub.
With VLANs, administrators can have control over
each port and user

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CETTM

Flexibility and Scalability

MTNL

Layer 2 switches only read frames for filteringthey


dont look at the Network layer protocol.
By default, switches forward all broadcasts.
If VLANs are created and implemented, then smaller
broadcast domains at layer 2 are created.
Broadcasts sent out from a node in one VLAN wont
be forwarded to ports configured to be in a different
VLAN.
VLANs offer flexibility to add only the desired users
into one broadcast domain regardless of their physical
location

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Physical LANs connected to a router


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Switching & VLAN

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Switches removing the physical boundary

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VLAN Types

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An administrator creates VLANs and assigns switch


ports to each VLAN.
Such a VLAN is called a static VLAN
If the administrator assign all the host devices
hardware addresses into a database, the switches can
be configured to assign VLANs dynamically whenever
a host is plugged into a switch.
This is called a dynamic VLAN

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CETTM

Static VLANs

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Static VLANs are the usual way of creating VLANs,


and theyre also the most secure.
Static VLAN configuration is comparatively easy to
set up and monitor,
Static VLAN works well in a network where the
movement of users within the network is controlled

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CETTM

Dynamic VLANs

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A dynamic VLAN determines a nodes VLAN


assignment automatically.
VLAN assignments can be based on hardware (MAC)
addresses, protocols, or applications to create
dynamic VLANs.
A dynamic VLAN makes management and
configuration easier because if a user moves, the
switch will assign them to the correct VLAN
automatically.
A lot more work is required initially setting up the
database

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CETTM

Identifying VLANs

MTNL

As frames are switched throughout the network,


switches must be able to keep track of all the
different types, plus understand what to do with them
depending on the hardware address.
Frames are handled differently according to the type
of link they are traversing

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CETTM

Access and trunk links in a switched


network

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Frame Tagging

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A switch fabric is basically a group of switches sharing the


same VLAN information.
There needs to be a way for each switch to keep track of all
the users and frames as they travel the switch fabric and
VLANs.
Frame tagging uniquely assigns a user-defined ID to each
frame. people refer to it as a VLAN ID or color.
Each switch that the frame reaches first identifies the VLAN
ID from the frame tag, then it finds out what to do with the
frame by looking at the information in the filter table.
If the frame reaches a switch that has another trunked link,
the frame will be forwarded out the trunk-link port

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CETTM

Frame Tagging

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The frame reaches an exit to an access link matching


the frames VLAN ID, the switch removes the VLAN
identifier.
The destination device can receive the frames without
having to understand their VLAN identification

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CETTM

VLAN Identification Methods

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Switches use VLAN identification to keep track of all


those frames as theyre traversing a switch fabric.
Switches identify which frames belong to which VLANs.
Trunking methods:
Inter-Switch Link (ISL)
IEEE 802.1Q

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CETTM

Inter-Switch Link (ISL)

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This is proprietary to Cisco switches, and its used for


Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet links only
Inter-Switch Link (ISL) is a way of explicitly tagging
VLAN information onto an Ethernet frame
ISL is an external tagging process, the original frame
isnt alteredits only encapsulated with a new 26byte ISL header
It also adds a second 4-byte Frame Check Sequence
(FCS) field at the end of the frame
Because the frame has been encapsulated by ISL
with information, only ISL-aware devices can read it
These frames can be up to 1522 bytes long
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ISL Frame Structure

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ISL Header 26
bytes

DA

Type

User

SA

LEN

Encapsulated Ethernet Frame

AAAA03

HSA

VLAN

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VLAN

BPDU

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CRC
4 bytes

INDEX

RES

BPDU

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CETTM

IEEE 802.1q

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Created by the IEEE as a standard method of frame


tagging,
It inserts a field into the frame to identify the VLAN.
If trunking between a Cisco switched link and a
different brand of switch, use 802.1Q for the trunk to
work.
The ports that populate the same trunk create a
group thats known as a native VLAN, and each port
gets tagged with an identification number that
reflects its native VLAN, the default being VLAN 1

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IEEE 802.1q Frame

CETTM

DA

SA
6

Tag

Type/Length

TPID

Priority

CFI

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Tag Protocol
Identifier

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Priority levels
(0 to 7)

Canonical Format
Indicator

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Data

FCS

Upto 1500

4 bytes

VID
12 bits
Unique VLAN
Identifier

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VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP)

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VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) manages all


configured VLANs across a switched internetwork
and maintains consistency throughout that network
VTP allows an administrator to add, delete, and
rename VLANs and this information is then
propagated to all other switches in the VTP domain
Accurate tracking and monitoring of VLANs
Dynamic reporting of added VLANs to all switches in
the VTP domain

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Routing between VLANs

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Hosts in a VLAN live in their own broadcast domain


and can communicate freely.
VLANs create network partitioning and traffic
separation at layer 2 of the OSI
If hosts or any other IP-addressable device is to
communicate between VLANs, a layer 3 device is
absolutely necessary.
Use a router that has an interface for each VLAN or
a router that supports ISL routing.

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Router with individual VLAN associations


CETTM

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Termination VLANs in separate physical interfaces


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Router on a stick

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Termination of individual VLANs using sub-interfaces

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Summary

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Switching reduces collisions


Every port of Switch is a separate collision domain
Switch uses forward/filter table to handle frames
STP removes switching loops and creates tree like
structure
VLAN is a logical grouping of network users
VLAN is treated like its own subnet or broadcast domain
VLANs simplify network management, controls
broadcasts, enhances security
There are 2 types of VLAN trunking/tagging
ISL
IEEE 802.q
VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) is used to manage all
configured VLANs

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References

CETTM

MTNL

Books

Hand book on Internetworking by CISCO


CCNA Study guide by Todd Lammle

URLs

http://www.cisco.com
http://en.wikipedia.org

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