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Poem: "The Raven" by Edgar Allan Poe

Once upon a midnight dreary while I pondered weak and weary; rare and radiant
And the silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain
Deep into that darkness peering, long I stood there wondering, fearing,
Doubting, dreaming dreams no mortal ever dared to dream before.

Poem: "Death Be Not Proud" by John Donne

One short sleepe past, wee wake eternally,
And death shall be no more; death, thou shalt die.

Poem: "Birches" by Robert Frost

When I see birches bend from left and right.
I like to think some boy's been swinging them.


Poem: "Honky Tonk in Cleveland, Ohio" by Carl Sandburg

It's a jazz affair, drum crashes and cornet razzes.
The trombone pony neighs and the tuba jackasssnorts.
The banjo tickles and titters too awful.
Poem: "The Highwayman" by Alfred Noyes
Over the cobbles he clattered and clashed in the dark inn-yard,
He tapped with his whip on theshutters, but all was locked and barred;
Tlot tlot, tlot tlot! Had they heard it? The horse-hooves, ringing clear;

Tlot tlot, tlot tlot, in the distance! Were they deaf that they did not hear?
Poem: "Fossils" by Ogden Nash
There were no drums or saxophones,
But just the clatter of their bones,
Rolling, rattling carefree circus,
Of mammoth polkas and mazurkas

Poem: Daffodils by William Wordsworth
I wandered lonely as a cloud
That floats on high o'er vales and hills,
When all at once I saw a crowd,
A host, of golden daffodils;
Beside the lake, beneath the trees,
Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.
Poem: Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening by Robert Frost
He gives his harness bells a shake
To ask if there is some mistake.
The only other sound's the sweep
Of easy wind and downy flake.
Poem: The Lotus-Eaters by Alfred Lord Tennyson
There is sweet music here that softer falls
Than petals from blown roses on the grass,
Or night-dews on still waters between walls
Of shadowy granite, in a gleaming pass;
Music that gentlier on the spirit lies,
Than tir'd eyelids upon tir'd eyes;
Music that brings sweet sleep down from the blissful skies.

Feminism (Analysis)
The Filipino Woman
Who are the Filipinos? What is it like to be a Filipino woman? How do you describe
yourself? These are important questions are finding our true identity as a nation and
the identity of a Filipino woman in our modern world. Nakpil chose 4 historical
women, Cory, Leonor, Gabriela and Imelda, to represent most, if not all, the women
in our nation throughout the years.
Cory and Leonor both came from the same small town and had both gone through
the loss of a loved one. However, that is where the similarities end. Their differing
personalities and the decisions they made lead them to very opposite roads in life.
While Leonor was obedient and submissive to her parents and society, Cory
overcame the tragic loss of her husband and became the first woman president of
the Philippines.
Gabriela and Imelda also had different stories to tell. Gabriela became a rich widow
after her first husband died. However, she married a peasant leader and took up his
revolution against Spain after he was shot in the back. The opposite was true for
Imelda. She was the daughter of the least successful child in a family of
professionals and government officials, but she later married the only Philippine
president to reign for 20 years in office.
Nakpil highlights that these women, although somehow similar, reflect the different
personalities and attitudes that make up a Filipina. All the traits these women show,

both positive and negative, can be seen in Filipino women migrant workers. These
women migrant workers have sacrificed time, memories and contact with their
families just to earn a suitable income. Many of them are overqualified for the work
given to them overseas, sacrificing their dignity but rising above the challenge of
poverty to provide a future for their families. Despite everything Filipino women
have gone through throughout the centuries, they keep an identifiable Filipino trait
with them, their unquenchable optimism.
Short Story (Analysis)
"Summer Solstice or Tatarin"
"Summer Solstice" is a short story that has received recognition both critical and
praising. Written by Nick Joaquin, the story takes place in 1850s Philippines during
the festival days of St. John. There is a pro-woman feel to the story, which has
garnered a lot of debate and attention considering the setting is in a time where
women must be submissive. In this analysis, learn about the setting, the themes
and symbolism that this short and interesting story incarnates.
The Tatarin, or otherwise known as the Tadtarin, was a three day festival that
celebrated a ritual of fertility. This was done only by women. Many men frowned
upon the extravagant dances and plays surrounding the ritual. "Summer Solstice" is
set during the three days of the St. Johns festival. Lupeng, a Filipino woman who
feels closed to her womanhood, is married to Paeng, who is no doubt loyal to her.
They have three small boys and live a somewhat wealthy life as they have a
carriage driver named Entoy and a maid and cook named Amada.
Guido is a cousin of Paengs who comes back to the Philippines after studying in
Europe. The story starts when the family is enjoying the days of the St. Johns
festival until Guido makes suggestive comments to Lupeng, and even bending down
to kiss her feet. This makes her leave abruptly and have a discussion with her
husband the coming night.
Lupeng secretly found herself intrigued by the attention of Guido; she felt that he
was correct in saying that women should be ravished and men should adore them.
This causes her to participate in the last night of the festival, which is the Tatarin
ritual. Paeng goes with her and tries to drag her back once the dancing begun, but
she runs from him to the women. He tries to take her back but the women in the
crowds beat him out, leaving him helpless. As the two return home, Paeng says he
must whip his wife because he loves her and feels that she needs to be put in her
place. To this, she shouts and says she wants to be adored, not respected and
orders him to kiss her feet.
Setting and Conflicts
Since the story takes place in the 1850s, women were repressed and felt shut in.
Lupeng may seem to be happy in her routine life, but she also feels angry. You can
notice this when she states to the children Hush, hush I implore you! Now look:

your father has a headache, and so have I. So be quiet this instant or no one
goes to Grandfather. It indeed sounds like she feels as though she has a duty that
she must carry on but she gets annoyed at her family because of her subdued state
of womanhood. Although she tries act horrified when Guido tells of her woman
should be adored rather than beneath their husbands, she contemplates and
realizes she wants to be the leader of the pack.
External and Internal Conflicts
The stereotypes of masculinity and feminine traits run rampant in the story. Women
are supposed to look after their husbands and children while the husbands work and
wait for their supper. Not only is this seen in the story but in daily life as well, which
makes the story shocking to readers since it is about women wanting to be free.
Lupeng shatters the concept of the suppressed woman when she gains control of
her husband, who kisses her feet at the end of story. This makes it seem as though
the internal conflict was that women are the ones who want to be the rulers of men,
as seen in the Tatarin festival.
Themes and Symbolism
Main Theme:
St. Johns and Tatarin Festivals The St. Johns festival is about men and their
fertility, which seems quite vulgar to Lupeng and makes her start to realize how she
wishes women could be seen in the same way. The Tatarin festival is the exact
opposite, showing women as leaders of fertility since they carry children. This
festival is the last trigger to make Lupeng feel as though she is stronger than a man
and deserves adoration.
Amada When Lupeng rushes to find her cook, Amada, she sees her in a
compromising position on the bed which makes Lupeng blush and feel restrained
about her own sexuality. This is the first trigger for Lupeng before she announces
she wants admiration.
Guidos Speech When Paengs cousin Guido returns from Europe, he tells Lupeng
of his travels. He also says I remember that you are a woman, yes. A beautiful
woman. And why not? Did you turn into some dreadful monster when you married?
Did you stop being a woman? Did you stop being beautiful? Then why should my
eyes not tell you what you are just because you are married? This makes
Lupeng lash out and call it simple comedy but it is also the second set off before she
feels liberated. She takes his words to heart as well as when he lowers himself to
kiss her feet in appreciation.

Functions of Titles
1. Important Object
The Necklace by Guy de Maupassant
A Piece of String by Guy de Maupassant
The Cactus by O. Henry
2. Introducing the Main Character
Gabriel-Ernest by H.H. Munro (SAKI)
The Happy Princeby Oscar Wilde
The Brave Tin Soldier by Hans Christian Andersen

3. To Arouse Curiosity

A Dead Woman's Secret by Guy de Maupassant

How the Widow Won the Deacon by William James Lampton
The Way to the Dairy by H.H. Munro (SAKI)
4. To give the type of story

The Laughing Hippopotamus by L. Frank Baum

A Duel by Guy de Maupassant
A Boring Story by Anton Chekhov
5. To give the Setting

The story of an Hour by Kate Chopin

The striding Place by Gertrude Athertone
One Autumn Night by Maxim Gorky
6. Tone/mood

Lost Hearts by M.R. James

Regret by Kate Chopin
Ex Oblivione by H. P. Lovecraft

Functions of the First Paragraph

1. To introduce the main Character

A Dark Brown Do by Stephen Crane

A Child was standing on a street-corner. He leaned with one shoulder against a high
board-fence and swayed the other to and fro, the while kicking carelessly at the
An Angel in Disguise by T.S. Arthur
Idleness, vice, and intemperance had done their miserable work, and the dead
mother lay cold and still amid her wretched children. She had fallen upon the
threshold of her own door in a drunken fit, and died in the presence of her
frightened little ones.
The Servant by S.T. Semyonov I
Gerasim returned to Moscow just at a time when it was hardest to find work, a short
while before Christmas, when a man sticks even to a poor job in the expectation of
a present. For three weeks the peasant lad had been going about in vain seeking a

2. To give the setting

Lost Hearts by M.R. James
It was, as far as I can ascertain, in September of the year 1811 that a post-chaise drew up
before the door of Aswarby Hall, in the heart of Lincolnshire.
The Striding Place by Gertrude Atherton
Weigall, continental and detached, tired early of grouse shooting. To stand propped against a
sod fence while his host's workmen routed up the birds with long poles and drove them
towards the waiting guns, made him feel himself a parody on the ancestors who had roamed
the moors and forests of this West Riding of Yorkshire in hot pursuit of game worth the
killing. But when in England in August he always accepted whatever proffered for the
season, and invited his host to shoot pheasants on his estates in the South.
Springtime a la Carte by O. Henry
It was a day in March.
Never, never begin a story this way when you write one. No opening could possibly be
worse. It is unimaginative, flat, dry and likely to consist of mere wind. But in this instance it
is allowable. For the following paragraph, which should have inaugurated the narrative, is
too wildly extravagant and preposterous to be flaunted in the face of the reader without
3. To give the tone and mood
The Story of An Hour by Kate Chopin
Knowing that Mrs. Mallard was afflicted with a heart trouble, great care was taken to break
to her as gently as possible the news of her husband's death.
To Build a Fire by Jack London
Day had broken cold and grey, exceedingly cold and grey, when the man turned aside from
the main Yukon trail and climbed the high earth- bank, where a dim and little-travelled trail
led eastward through the fat spruce timberland.
Ex Oblivione by H. P. Lovecraft
When the last days were upon me, and the ugly trifles of existence began to drive me to
madness like the small drops of water that torturers let fall ceaselessly upon one spot of
their victims body, I loved the irradiate refuge of sleep. In my dreams I found a little of the
beauty I had vainly sought in life, and wandered through old gardens and enchanted woods.
1. Perfect Rhyme
Poem by Sylvia Chidi

More than a million people may read it

Even if I have to sell it on credit

I will be the businesswoman with wit

Sit down! Think about it!
Robert Frosts "the Road Not Taken" is in perfect rhyme (abaab):
TWO roads diverged in a yellow wood,
And sorry I could not travel both
And be one traveler, long I stood
And looked down one as far as I could
To where it bent in the undergrowth;

2. general rhyme
Emily Dickinson's 'Not any Higher Stands the Grave.'
'Not any higher stands the Grave
For Heroes than for men-Not any nearer for the Child
Than numb Three Score and Ten--' (1-4)
W. B Yeats's 'Easter 1916.'
'I have met them at close of day
Coming with vivid faces
From counter or desk among grey
Eighteenth-century houses.' (1-4)

3. eye rhyme

Last Rose of Summer

Let's look at an example of eye rhyme in the first stanza of the poem, The Last Rose
of Summer, by Thomas Moore.
'Tis the last rose of summer,
Left blooming alone;
All her lovely companions
Are faded and gone;

Let me not to the marriage of true minds
Admit impediments. Love is not love
Which alters when it alteration finds,
Or bends with the remover to remove:

Identical Rhymes
Simply using the same word twice. An example is in (some versions of) Emily Dickinsons Because I
Could not Stop for Death :
We paused before a House that seemed
A Swelling of the Ground
The Roof was scarcely visible
The Cornicein the Ground

Our world was bound before life

As we live to astound the wife
And we are alive to live this life
Rich Rhymes
Rhyme using two different words that happen to sound the same (i.e. homonyms) for example
raise and raze. The following example a triple rich rhyme is from Thomas Hoods A First
Attempt in Rhyme :
Partake the fire divine that burns,
In Milton, Pope, and Scottish Burns,
Who sang his native braes and burns.
Internal Rhymes
Rhyming of two words within the same line of poetry. The following, for example, is from Edgar Allan
Poes The Raven :
Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary,
Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore,
End Rhymes
Rhyming of the final words of lines in a poem. The following, for example, is from Seamus Heaneys
Digging :
Under my window, a clean rasping sound
When the spade sinks into gravelly ground
In Emily Dickinson's brief but interesting poem 'A word is dead' end rhyme is used in a different way:
A word is dead
When it is said,

Some say.
I say it just
Begins to live
That day.

Shakespeare considers the world a stage and men and women
actors on the stage of life. They play seven roles according to their
age. The first stage, as described by the poet, is the infant who is
being carried by a nurse. The infant cries and vomits all the time.
Later, that infant grows into a schoolboy, not willing to attend school
which is the fourth stage of a mans life. The third stage is that of a
lover who is lost in his thoughts of love. The lover writes poetry to
his ladys beauty. In the fourth stage, as he grows older, he joins the
army and becomes a soldier. He is physically fit and is aggressive,
short-tempered and ambitious in nature. The fifth stage shows that
with maturity and wisdom, the family man becomes a judge. He is a
fair, healthy man full of wisdom. His look is authoritative and he
advises people. The sixth stage is about the man who has grown old
and is seen in a pantaloon and spectacles. His authoritative voice
has grown weak and his voice trembles as he talks.
The last stage is about the senile man who loses his teeth, his vision
and his hearing. After this, the man part in the play ends and he
exits from the stages of his life forever.
Shakespeare wants to render a message through his poem, The
Seven Ages of Man that men and women are merely players in the
drama of life. They are termed as merely players because no one
lives forever but plays his or her part and departs. At birth, they
enter a stage and during death, they leave it. Man passes through
seven phases of life in accordance with their age.
The poem is composed in free verse. The style is narrative. The
poem describes seven different stages of life in brief but has a
powerful impact throughout.
Metaphor is that figure of speech where comparison of two different

things are implied but not clearly stated. Examples of metaphor in

the poem are as follows,*All the worlds a stage
*And all men and women are merely players
*seeking the bubble reputation (reputation has been termed as
short-lived like a bubble)
Simile: A simile is a figure of speech in which two dissimilar objects
are compared and the comparison is made clear by the use of terms
like like, such as and so on. Examples of simile in the poem are,
*Sighing like furnace
*creeping like a snail
Alliteration: Alliteration is the close repetition of the consonant
sounds at the beginning of words to facilitate narration. Example of
alliteration in the poem is,
*shrunk shank
*plays his part
The Seven Ages of Man
William Shakespeare
All the worlds a stage,
And all the men and women merely players;
They have their exits and their entrances,
And one man in his time plays many parts,
His acts being seven ages. At first the infant,
Mewling and puking in the nurses arms;
And then the whining schoolboy, with his satchel
And shining morning face, creeping like snail
Unwillingly to school. And then the lover,
10 Sighing like furnace, with a woeful ballad
Made to his mistress eyebrow. Then a soldier,
Full of strange oaths, and bearded like the pard,
Jealous in honor, sudden and quick in quarrel,
Seeking the bubble reputation
15 Even in the cannons mouth. And then the justice,
In fair round belly with good capon lined,
With eyes severe and beard of formal cut,
Full of wise saws and modern instances;

And so he plays his part. The sixth age shifts

20 Into the lean and slippered pantaloon,
With spectacles on nose and pouch on side;
His youthful hose, well saved, a world too wide
For his shrunk shank; and his big manly voice,
Turning again toward childish treble, pipes
25 And whistles in his sound. Last scene of all,
That ends this strange eventful history,
Is second childishness and mere oblivion,
Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans everything.