Analysis of Structural
A R.C. structure is a combination of beams, column, slab & wall, rigid connected
together.
The analysis must begin with the evaluation of all the loads carried by the structure,
including its own weight.
Many of the loads are variable in magnitude & position, and all possible critical
arrangements of loads must be considered.
Force in each member can be determined by one of the following methods:

Manual calculations
Computer methods
Since the design of R.C. member in generally based on the ultimate limit state, the
analysis is normally performed for loadings corresponding to that state.
3.1
Loads
The loads on structural divided into 2 types:

Dead load
Dead loads are those which are normally permanent and constant during the
structures life.
Dead loads are generally calculated on a slightly conservative basis, so that a member
will not need redesigning because of a small change in its dimensions.
3.1.2 Imposed loads
These loads are more difficult to determine accurately. For more of them, it is only
possible to make conservative estimate based on standard codes of practice or past
experience.
Example of imposed loadings are the weight of its occupants, furniture, or machinery;
the pressure of wind, the weight of snow, and of retained earth or water; and the
forces caused by thermal expansion on shrinkage of the concrete.
A large building is unlikely to be carrying its full imposed load simultaneously on all
its floors. For this reason the British Standard Code of Practice allows a reduction in
the total imposed load (flood) when the columns, wall or foundations are designed,
for a building more than 2 storey high.
Similarly, the imposed load may be reduced when designing a beam span which
supports a floor area greater than 40 square meters.
Although the wind load is an imposed, it is kept in a separate category when its partial
factors of safety are specified, and when the load combinations on the structure are
being consider.
3.2
Load combinations
ii.
iii.
The imposed load can cover all or any part of the structure, and therefore should be
arranged to cause the most serve stresses, load combinations (i) should be associated
with minimum design dead load of 1.0Gk applied to such parts of the structure as will
give the most critical condition.
For load combination (i),a 3 span continuous beam would have the loading
arrangement shown in figure 3.1, in order to cause the maximum sagging moment in
the outer spans & the maximum possible hogging moment in the central span.
Figure 3.2 shows the arrangement of vertical loading on a multi span continuous
beam to cause (i) max. sagging moments in alternate spans and max. possible hogging
moments in adjacent spans, and (ii) max. hogging moment at support A.
As a simplification, BS 8110 allow the ultimate design moment at the support to be
calculated from one loading condition will all spans fully covered with the ultimate
load 1.4Gk + 1.6Qk as shown in part (iii) of fig. 3.2.
Fig 3.2 (i) Loading arrangement for max. moment in the span
Fig 3.2 (ii) Loading arrangement for max. support moment at A (support)
Fig 3.2 (iii) Loading for design moment at the supports according to BS 8110.
The entire cross section (ignoring the reinforcement) [easy and simple method to
use]
The concrete cross section plus the transformed area of reinforcement based on
the modular ration (n = Es / Ec).
The compression area only of the concrete cross section, plus the transformed area
of reinforcement based on the modular ration.
A structure should be analysis for each of the critical loading conditions which
produce the max. stresses at any particular section. This procedure will be illustrated
in the examples for a continuous beam and a building frame.
Sign convention

Anti clockwise support moment are positive for the fixed end moments (FEM)
Moments causing sagging are positive, while moments causing hogging are
negative.
a.
Ultimate load
b.
Shear diagram
c.
Moment diagram
A continuous beam should be analyzed for the loading arrangements which give the
maximum stresses at each section.
The analysis to calculate the bending moments can be carried out manually by
moment distribution, but tabulated shear and moment coefficients may be adequate
for continuous beams having approximately equal spans & uniformly distributed
loads.
3.3.2.1
Fig. 3.5
Wl 2
M ba Vab
M ab
2
therefore
Vab
Wl M ab M ba
2
l
and
Vba Wl Vab
M aximum span M max occur at zero shear and distance to zero shear
Vab
W
therefore
a3
Vab
M ab
2W
the points of contraflexure occurs at M 0, that is
M max
Vab x
Wx 2
M ab 0
2W
so that
Vab Vab 2WM ab
2
a1
W
l Vab Vab 2WM ab
2
a2
A similar analysis can be applied to beams that do not support a uniformly distributed
load. In manual calculations it is usually not considered necessary to calculate the
distance a1, a2 and a3. A sketch of the BM is often adequate.
The critical loading arrangements for the ultimate limit state are shown in the fig.
above.
Table 3.1 is the moment distribution carried out for the loading arrangement (1).
The shearing forces, the maximum BM, & their positions along the beam, can be
calculated using the previously derived formulae.
M M BA )
load
( AB
2
L
306 0 (131.8))
(
2
6
131kN
306 131
Shear VAB
V AB
175kN
2
VAB
M AB
2w
131.0 2
2 x51
168.2kNm
V AB
w
1312
51
2.6m
Distance from A, a 3
For case 1:
wl 2
8
306 x6
8
230kN
FEM BA
wl 2
wl 2
wl 2
FEM CD
FEM CB
8
12
12
100 x 4
100 x 4
306 x6
12
12
12
33kN
33kN
230kN
FEM BC
Stiffness factor
Support
B
Member
BA
Length, m
6
BC
CB
CD
Stiffness
3EI
l
4 EI
l
4 EI
l
3EI
l
Stiffness
1.5
Distribution factor
0.333
0.667
0.667
1.5
0.333
A
AB
0.00
0
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0
BA
0.33
B
BC
0.67
CB
0.67
229.5
65.39
0.00
21.80
0.00
7.27
0.00
2.42
0.00
0.81
0.00
0.27
0.00
0.09
0.00
0.03
33.33
130.78
65.39
43.59
21.80
14.53
7.27
4.84
2.42
1.61
0.81
0.54
0.27
0.18
0.09
0.06
33.33
130.78
65.39
43.59
21.80
14.53
7.27
4.84
2.42
1.61
0.81
0.54
0.27
0.18
0.09
0.06
131.43
131.43
131.43
C
CD
0.33
D
DC
0.00
229.5
65.39
0.00
21.80
0.00
7.27
0.00
2.42
0.00
0.81
0.00
0.27
0.00
0.09
0.00
0.03
131.43
0
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0
3.3.2.2
The characteristic live load does not exceed the characteristic dead load.
The possibility of hogging moments in any of the span should not be ignored.
3.3.3 Structural frames
In situ R.C. structures behave as rigid frames, and should be analyzed as such.
The general procedure for a building frame is to analysis the slabs as continuous
members supported by the beams or structural walls. The slabs can be either one way
spanning or two way spanning.
The column & main beams are considered as a series of rigid plane frames, which can
be divided into two types:

Type 1 frames are in building where none of the lateral loads, including wind, are
transmitted to the column & beams but are carried by shear walls or other forms of
bracing.
Type 2 frames are designed to carry the lateral loads, which cause bending, shearing
and axial forces in the beams and columns.
For both types of frame the axial forces due to vertical loads in the columns can
normally be calculated as if the beams & slabs were simply supported.
3.3.3.1
The moment distribution for the first loading case is shown in table 3.2.
The
distributions for each upper & lower column have been combined, since this
simplifies the layout for the calculations.
The S.F. & max. span moment can be calculated from the formulae of section 3.3.2.
for the 1st loading arrangement & span AB:
Table 3.2
Figure 3.14
Figure 3.15
Figure 3.16
A comparison of design envelopes of fig. 3.16 & fig. 3.9 will emphasize the
advantages of considering the concrete beam as part of a frame, not as a continuous
beam as part of a frame, not as a continuous beam as in example 3.2. not only the
analysis of sub frame more precise, but many moments and shears in the beam are
smaller in magnitude.
The moment in each column is given by:
k
M col M col x col
k col
Thus, for the 1st loading arrangement & taking Mcol from table 3.2 gives column
moment
This loading arrangement gives the max. moment, as shown in fig. 3.17
Figure 3.17
Fig. 3.18
Substitute frame
Fig. 3.19
Column moment
The column moments are illustrated in fig. 3.19. The should be compared with the
corresponding moments for the internal column in Fig. 3.17.
3.3.3.2
Points of contra flexure are located at the point mid points of all columns & beams
The direction avail loads in the column are in proportion to their distances from
the center of gravity of the frame. It is usual to assume that all the columns in a
storey are of equal cross sectional area.
Fig. 3.20
By inspection, there is tension in the 2 column to the left & compression in the columns to
the right; & by assumption (2), the axial forces in columns are proportional to the distance
from the central line of the frame. Thus
Axial forces in exterior column 4 P
By considering a section through the top storey column as shown in fig. 3.21a. The forces in
this sub frames are calculated as follows:
The calculations of the equivalent forces for the 4th floor (fig. 3.21b) follow a similar
procedure as follow:
B.M. in the beams & columns at their connections can be calculated from these results by the
following formulae,
Beam,
M B Fx 0.5beam span
Columns,
M c Hx0.5storey height
B.M. due to characteristic wind loads in all the columns & beams of this structure are shown
in fig. 3.22.