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3.

Analysis of Structural
A R.C. structure is a combination of beams, column, slab & wall, rigid connected
together.
The analysis must begin with the evaluation of all the loads carried by the structure,
including its own weight.
Many of the loads are variable in magnitude & position, and all possible critical
arrangements of loads must be considered.
Force in each member can be determined by one of the following methods:
-

Applying moment & shear coefficient

Manual calculations

Computer methods

Since the design of R.C. member in generally based on the ultimate limit state, the
analysis is normally performed for loadings corresponding to that state.
3.1

Loads
The loads on structural divided into 2 types:
-

Dead load
Dead loads are those which are normally permanent and constant during the
structures life.

Live load (imposed load)


Live loads, on the other hand are varies with magnitude & temporary in nature.

3.1.1 Dead loads


It includes the weight of the structural itself, and all architectural components such as
exterior cladding, partitions & ceilings
Once the sizes of all the structural members and the details of the architectural
requirements & permanent fixtures have been established, the dead load can be
calculated quite accurately.
For R.C. structure, self weight is taken as 24kN/m3 and for higher density should be
taken for heavily reinforced on dense (25kN/m3).
In the case of building, the weight of any partitions should be calculated from the
architects drawings.

Dead loads are generally calculated on a slightly conservative basis, so that a member
will not need redesigning because of a small change in its dimensions.
3.1.2 Imposed loads
These loads are more difficult to determine accurately. For more of them, it is only
possible to make conservative estimate based on standard codes of practice or past
experience.
Example of imposed loadings are the weight of its occupants, furniture, or machinery;
the pressure of wind, the weight of snow, and of retained earth or water; and the
forces caused by thermal expansion on shrinkage of the concrete.
A large building is unlikely to be carrying its full imposed load simultaneously on all
its floors. For this reason the British Standard Code of Practice allows a reduction in
the total imposed load (flood) when the columns, wall or foundations are designed,
for a building more than 2 storey high.
Similarly, the imposed load may be reduced when designing a beam span which
supports a floor area greater than 40 square meters.
Although the wind load is an imposed, it is kept in a separate category when its partial
factors of safety are specified, and when the load combinations on the structure are
being consider.
3.2

Load combinations

3.2.1 Load combinations for the ultimate state


Various combinations of the characteristic values of dead load Gk, imposed load Qk,
wind load Wk and their partial factors of safety must be considered for the loading of
the structure.
For the ultimate limit state the loading combinations to be considered are as follows:
i.

Dead + imposed load


1.4Gk + 1.6Qk

ii.

Dead + wind load


1.0 Gk + 1.4Wk

iii.

Dead + imposed + wind load


1.2Gk + 1.2Qk + 1.2Wk

The imposed load can cover all or any part of the structure, and therefore should be
arranged to cause the most serve stresses, load combinations (i) should be associated
with minimum design dead load of 1.0Gk applied to such parts of the structure as will
give the most critical condition.
For load combination (i),a 3 span continuous beam would have the loading
arrangement shown in figure 3.1, in order to cause the maximum sagging moment in
the outer spans & the maximum possible hogging moment in the central span.
Figure 3.2 shows the arrangement of vertical loading on a multi span continuous
beam to cause (i) max. sagging moments in alternate spans and max. possible hogging
moments in adjacent spans, and (ii) max. hogging moment at support A.
As a simplification, BS 8110 allow the ultimate design moment at the support to be
calculated from one loading condition will all spans fully covered with the ultimate
load 1.4Gk + 1.6Qk as shown in part (iii) of fig. 3.2.

Fig 3.1 Loading arrangement for max. sagging moment at A & C

Fig 3.2 (i) Loading arrangement for max. moment in the span

Fig 3.2 (ii) Loading arrangement for max. support moment at A (support)

Fig 3.2 (iii) Loading for design moment at the supports according to BS 8110.

3.2.2 Load combinations for the serviceability limit state


A partial factor of safety of f = 1.0 is usually applied to all load combinations at the
serviceability limit state.
In considering deflections, the imposed load should be arranged to give the worst
effects. The deflections calculated from the load combinations are the immediate
deflections of a structure.
3.3

Analysis of beams and frame


To design a structure it is necessary to know the bending moments, torsional moments,
shearing forces & axial forces in each member.
Elastic analysis used to determine the distribution of these forces within the structure.
R.C. is a plastic material, a limited redistribution of the elastic moments is sometimes
allowed.
The stiffness of the members can be calculated on the basis of any one of the
following:
-

The entire cross section (ignoring the reinforcement) [easy and simple method to
use]

The concrete cross section plus the transformed area of reinforcement based on
the modular ration (n = Es / Ec).

The compression area only of the concrete cross section, plus the transformed area
of reinforcement based on the modular ration.

A structure should be analysis for each of the critical loading conditions which
produce the max. stresses at any particular section. This procedure will be illustrated
in the examples for a continuous beam and a building frame.
Sign convention
-

Anti clockwise support moment are positive for the fixed end moments (FEM)

Moments causing sagging are positive, while moments causing hogging are
negative.

3.3.1 Non continuous beam (one span)


Analysis for bending moments & shearing forces is readily performed manually.
For ultimate limit state, we need only consider the max. load of 1.4Gk + 1.6Qk.

Example 3.1 Analysis of non continuous beam


The one span simply support beam carries a distributed dead load Gk = 25kN/m, a permanent
concentrated load of 30kN at mid span, Qk = 10kN/m.

a.

Ultimate load

b.

Shear diagram

c.

Moment diagram

3.3.2 Continuous beams


The methods of analysis for continuous beams may also be applied to continuous slab
which span in one direction.
A continuous beam is considered to have no fixing with the supports so that the beam
is free to rotate. This assumption is not strictly true for beam framing into columns &
for that type of continuous beam it is more accurate to analysis them as part of a
frame.

A continuous beam should be analyzed for the loading arrangements which give the
maximum stresses at each section.
The analysis to calculate the bending moments can be carried out manually by
moment distribution, but tabulated shear and moment coefficients may be adequate
for continuous beams having approximately equal spans & uniformly distributed
loads.
3.3.2.1

Continuous beams the general case

The moments at the supports are determined by moment distribution.


It is necessary to calculate the moments in the span & also shear forces on the beam.
For a uniformly distributed load, the equations for the shears and maximum span
moments can be derived from the following analysis.
Using the sign convention of figure 3.5 & taking moment about support B:

Fig. 3.5

Shear & Moment in a beam

Wl 2
M ba Vab
M ab
2
therefore
Vab

Wl M ab M ba

2
l

and
Vba Wl Vab
M aximum span M max occur at zero shear and distance to zero shear
Vab
W
therefore
a3

Vab
M ab
2W
the points of contraflexure occurs at M 0, that is
M max

Vab x

Wx 2
M ab 0
2W

Vab Vab 2WM ab


2

so that
Vab Vab 2WM ab
2

a1

W
l Vab Vab 2WM ab
2

a2

A similar analysis can be applied to beams that do not support a uniformly distributed
load. In manual calculations it is usually not considered necessary to calculate the
distance a1, a2 and a3. A sketch of the BM is often adequate.

Example 3.2 Analysis of a continuous beam

The critical loading arrangements for the ultimate limit state are shown in the fig.
above.
Table 3.1 is the moment distribution carried out for the loading arrangement (1).
The shearing forces, the maximum BM, & their positions along the beam, can be
calculated using the previously derived formulae.

M M BA )
load
( AB
2
L
306 0 (131.8))

(
2
6
131kN
306 131

Shear VAB

V AB

175kN
2

VAB
M AB
2w
131.0 2

2 x51
168.2kNm

M ax. for span AB moment

V AB
w
1312

51
2.6m

Distance from A, a 3

B. M. shown in fig 3.7


Shear shown in Fig. 3.8
The individual B.M. diagram are combined in fig. 3.9a to give the B.M. design
envelop.
Similarly, fig. 3.9b is the shear force design envelop.

For case 1:

wl 2
8
306 x6

8
230kN

FEM BA

wl 2
wl 2
wl 2
FEM CD
FEM CB
8
12
12
100 x 4
100 x 4
306 x6

12
12
12
33kN
33kN
230kN

FEM BC

Stiffness factor
Support
B

Member
BA

Length, m
6

BC

CB

CD

Stiffness
3EI
l
4 EI
l
4 EI
l
3EI
l

Stiffness
1.5

Distribution factor
0.333
0.667
0.667

1.5

0.333

Moment distribution for case 1


Support
Member
Distribution
factor
FEM, kN
balance, kN
Carry Over, kN
balance, kN
Carry Over, kN
balance, kN
Carry Over, kN
balance, kN
Carry Over, kN
balance, kN
Carry Over, kN
balance, kN
Carry Over, kN
balance, kN
Carry Over, kN
balance, kN
Moment, kNm

A
AB
0.00
0
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0

BA
0.33

B
BC
0.67

CB
0.67

-229.5
65.39
0.00
21.80
0.00
7.27
0.00
2.42
0.00
0.81
0.00
0.27
0.00
0.09
0.00
0.03

33.33
130.78
-65.39
43.59
-21.80
14.53
-7.27
4.84
-2.42
1.61
-0.81
0.54
-0.27
0.18
-0.09
0.06

-33.33
-130.78
65.39
-43.59
21.80
-14.53
7.27
-4.84
2.42
-1.61
0.81
-0.54
0.27
-0.18
0.09
-0.06

-131.43

131.43

-131.43

C
CD
0.33

D
DC
0.00

229.5
-65.39
0.00
-21.80
0.00
-7.27
0.00
-2.42
0.00
-0.81
0.00
-0.27
0.00
-0.09
0.00
-0.03
131.43

0
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0

3.3.2.2

Continuous beam with approximately equal spans and uniform loadings

The ultimate BM & SF in continuous beams of 3 or more approximately equal span


can be obtained from BS 88110 provided that:
-

The span differ by no more than 15% of the longest span

The loading is uniform

The characteristic live load does not exceed the characteristic dead load.

The possibility of hogging moments in any of the span should not be ignored.
3.3.3 Structural frames
In situ R.C. structures behave as rigid frames, and should be analyzed as such.
The general procedure for a building frame is to analysis the slabs as continuous
members supported by the beams or structural walls. The slabs can be either one way
spanning or two way spanning.
The column & main beams are considered as a series of rigid plane frames, which can
be divided into two types:
-

Braced frames supporting vertical loads only

Frames supporting vertical and lateral loads

Type 1 frames are in building where none of the lateral loads, including wind, are
transmitted to the column & beams but are carried by shear walls or other forms of
bracing.

Type 2 frames are designed to carry the lateral loads, which cause bending, shearing
and axial forces in the beams and columns.
For both types of frame the axial forces due to vertical loads in the columns can
normally be calculated as if the beams & slabs were simply supported.
3.3.3.1

Braced frames supporting vertical loads only

A building frame can be analyzed as a complete frame, or it can be simplified into a


series of substitute frames for analysis. The frame shown in fig. 3.11 can be divided
into any of the sub frames shown in fig. 3.12.
The substitute frame (1) in fig. 3.12 consists of one complete floor beam with its
connecting columns (which are assumed rigidly fixed at their remote ends). An
analysis of this frame will give the following moments and shearing forces in the
beams and columns for the floor level considered.
Substitute frame (2) is a single combined with its connecting columns & two adjacent
spans, all fixed at their remote end. This frame maybe used to determine the bending
moment & shear forces in the central beam. Provided that the central is greater than
the 2 adjacent spans, the BM in the columns can also be found with this frame.
Substitute frame 3 can used to find the moments in the column only. It consists of a
single junction, with the remote ends of the members fixed. This type of sub frame
would be used when the beams have been analyzed as continuous over simple
supports.
In frame (2) & (3), the assumption of fixed ends to the outer beams over estimates
their stiffness. These values are therefore halved to allow to the flexibility resulting
from continuity.
The various critical loading arrangements to produce max. stresses have be considered.
When considering the critical loading arrangements for a column, it is sometimes
necessary to include the case of a max. moment & minimum possible axial load, in
order to investigate of tension failure caused by the bending.

Example 3.3 Analysis of a substitute frame


Substitute frame shown in fig. 3.13 is part of the complete frame in fig. 3.11.
Characteristic loads carried by beam are Gk = 25kN/m, Qk = 10kN/m, uniformly
distributed along the beam. The analysis of the beam will be carried out by moment
distribution: thus the member stiffness & their relevant distribution factors are first
required.

Critical loading arrangement

The moment distribution for the first loading case is shown in table 3.2.

The

distributions for each upper & lower column have been combined, since this
simplifies the layout for the calculations.
The S.F. & max. span moment can be calculated from the formulae of section 3.3.2.
for the 1st loading arrangement & span AB:

Table 3.2

Moment distribution for the first loading case

Beam bending moment diagrams (kNm)

Figure 3.14

Figure 3.15

Figure 3.16

Beam shearing force diagrams (kN)

Bending moment and shearing force envelopes

A comparison of design envelopes of fig. 3.16 & fig. 3.9 will emphasize the
advantages of considering the concrete beam as part of a frame, not as a continuous
beam as part of a frame, not as a continuous beam as in example 3.2. not only the
analysis of sub frame more precise, but many moments and shears in the beam are
smaller in magnitude.
The moment in each column is given by:
k
M col M col x col
k col
Thus, for the 1st loading arrangement & taking Mcol from table 3.2 gives column
moment

This loading arrangement gives the max. moment, as shown in fig. 3.17

Figure 3.17

Column bending moment

Fig. 3.18

Substitute frame

Fig. 3.19

Column moment

Example 3.4 Analysis of a substitute frame for a column


The substitute frame for this example, shown in fig. 3.18. Gk = 25kN/m & Qk = 10kN/m.

The column moments are illustrated in fig. 3.19. The should be compared with the
corresponding moments for the internal column in Fig. 3.17.
3.3.3.2

Frame supporting vertical and lateral loads

Lateral loads on a structure may be caused by wind pressures, by retained earth, or by


seismic forces.
The analysis for the lateral loads should be kept separate & the force may be
calculated by an elastic analysis by a simplified approximate method. For preliminary
design calculations, and also for medium size regular structures, a simplified
analysis may well as adequate.
BS 8110 recommends that any simplified form of analysis should assume points of
contra flexure at the mid length of all the column & beams. A suitable approximate
analysis is the cantilever method. It assumes that:
-

Points of contra flexure are located at the point mid points of all columns & beams

The direction avail loads in the column are in proportion to their distances from
the center of gravity of the frame. It is usual to assume that all the columns in a
storey are of equal cross sectional area.

Example 3.5 Simplified analysis for lateral loads cantilever method


The wind load of 3.0 kN/m is assumed to be transferred to the frame as a concentrated load at
each floor as indicated.

Fig. 3.20

Frame with lateral load

By inspection, there is tension in the 2 column to the left & compression in the columns to
the right; & by assumption (2), the axial forces in columns are proportional to the distance
from the central line of the frame. Thus
Axial forces in exterior column 4 P

Axial force in interior column


1P

By considering a section through the top storey column as shown in fig. 3.21a. The forces in
this sub frames are calculated as follows:

The calculations of the equivalent forces for the 4th floor (fig. 3.21b) follow a similar
procedure as follow:

B.M. in the beams & columns at their connections can be calculated from these results by the
following formulae,

Beam,

M B Fx 0.5beam span

Columns,

M c Hx0.5storey height

So at the roofs external connection

M B 0.54 x0.5 x6 1.6kNm


M c 0.93x0.5 x3.5 1.6kNm
As a check at each joint, MB = , MC

B.M. due to characteristic wind loads in all the columns & beams of this structure are shown
in fig. 3.22.