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PROBLEMS:

1. A circular disc 3m in diameter is held normal to a 26.4 m/s


wind of density 1.2 kg/m3 .what force is required to hold it at
rest?
Assume coefficient of drag of disc as 1.1.
Forc required is drag

CD A U 2
2

= 1.1 x 32 x1.2 x 26.42


4
2
= 3251.7 N
2.calculate the total drag shear drag and the pressure exerted
on 1m length of an infinite cylinder which has a diameter equal
to 30mm,air of density 1.236 kg/m3 flowing past the cylinder
with velocity 3.6 m per minute. Take total drag coefficient
equal to 1.4 and shear drag coefficient equal to 0.185.
Total drag

= Cd A U2
2
= 1.4 x (1x 0.03) x 1.236 x 1 (3.6/60) 2
2
5
= 9.344 x10 N

Shear drag

= 0.185(.1x0.03) x 1.236 x 1 x(3.6/60) 2


2
= 1.235x105 N

Pressure drag

=
=

9.344x105 8.109x10 N

1.235x105

3. A semi-tubular cylinder of 75mm radius with concave side


upstream (drag coeff. = 2.3) is submerged in flowing water of
velocity 0.6m/s.if the cylinder is 7.2m long, calculate the drag.
Assume density of water as 1000kg/m3
Drag

D = Cd A U2
2
= 2.3x (0.075x7.2) x 1000 x 1x 0.62
= 223.56 N

4. The coefficient Cd of a 5 kN and 0.5 m diameter bomb as a


function of the mach number is tabulated below. Linear
interpolation may be used between tabulated values.
Mach
0.50 0.75 1.00 1025 1.59
number
Drag.coeff: 0.25 0.28 0.35 0.55 0.70
If the bomb is dropped from a flying plane find the velocity
with which it hits the ground .Atmosphere pressure may be
assumed 101KN/m2, temperature 290.15K ; gas constant for
air 287Nm/Kg K and adiabatic index 1.4

Near ground velocity of sound a = (rRT)

R = 287; r = 1.4; T = 341.44


Therefore a = 341.44 m/s
For mach number M local velocity of the bomb U may be taken as
= M x 341.44 m/s.
Air density near ground is calculated from perfect gas law
= P/ RT
P = 101x 103 ; R = 287; T = 290.15
Therefore = 1.213 Kg/m3
As the drag on the bomb exactly balances its weight in its fall
W=D
U= Cd A 2
2
W = 5x10 ; = 1.213
And also substituting U in terms of mach number M
5x10

Cd x ( x 0.52) 1.213 x 0.5 (M x 341.44) 2

Simplyfing Cd = 0.3601/m2
Solving by the help of given table we get

M = 1.0068 for U = 343.76

5. After boiling out from aero plane and before parachute is


released max accelerates to terminal velocity .Assuming weight
of
mass as 800N, = 1.2 Kg/m3 area of fall 0.11m2 Cd = 1.8
.Determine the fall velocity
For the freely falling parachute the weight is balanced by the drag
force
Therefore

800 = Cd A U2
2
1.8 x 0.11 x 1.2 xU2
2

U = 82.06 m/s
6.The vertical component of the landing speed of a parachute is
6.0m/s. Treat the parachute as as open atmosphere and
determine its diameter if the total weight to be carried is 1500N
Assume to be 1.208 kg/m3
Assume Cd = 1.33 of paracute
For the freely faslling falling parachute the weight is balanced by
drag force
1500 = Cd A U2
2
= 1.33 x A x 1.208 x(62)/2
Therefore

dia = 8.126m

7. A Kite has an effective area of 0.40.m2 and weights 2.0 N .in a


wind of 40 Km/hr, the drag on the kite is 11.9 N .Determine the
tension in the cord if the cord makes an angle of 45 degrees
with the horizontal. Also find the lift coefficient.

Speed

U = 40km/hr
= 40x1000
60x60
= 11.11m/s
drag = tension x Cos 45
therefore tension = 11.9x 2
= 16.83 N

Lift on the kite L = W + TCos 45


= 2+ 16.83 x (1/2)

= 13.9N
L = CL A U 2
2

L = 13.9 ; = 1.208 ; U = 11.11 ; A = 0.40;


From which we get CL = 0.466
8. An aero plane weighting 22,500 N has a wing area of 22.5 M2
and span of 12.0 m what is the life coefficient if it travels at 320
Km/hr in the horizontal direction? Also compute the
theoretical value of circulation and angle of attack measured
from Zero axis
Assuming level flight lift exactly balances weight
W=L
= Cl A U2
2
W = 22500; A = 22.5; =1.208 U = 320 {convert to m/s }
We get
Cl = 0.2095

Assuming lift curve slope as 2 i.e. CL = 2

9.An experimental plane is fitted with RAF 34 wing with total


area of 96 m2 and chord to length ratio of 1: 6 If the plane

weights 5 x 105 N , determine the minimum take off speed


.How is the runway length related to this speed ?also determine
the power required.
(Assuming for RAF-43 CL is maximum at 19 degree angle of
attack for which CD= 0.16 and CL =1.3)
assuming level flight ,lift balances weight
5x105 = 1.3 x 96 x 1.208 x u2
2
u = 81.44 m/s
As the take off speed corresponding to maximum value of CL
Take off speed = 81.44m/s
The power produced by the aero engine is such that it accelerates
the aeroplane to achieve this velocity well within the runway of
length S .for M is the mass of aeroplane whose velocity changes
from 0 to U in distance S
Acceleration a can be written in 2 ways
a = u2 and a = drag /M
2s
s = u2
2s

u2 x M
2xD

power required = drag x velocity


= CL A U2 xU
2
= 0.16 x96 x 1.208 x 81.43x 0.5
= 5011.2 x 103watts

10. for an aircraft of following characteristics determine the


angle of attack that will ensure take off at 30 m/s and power
required for take off.
Weight = 13,500 N
Wing area = 30 m
Take off speed = 30m/s
A model test has shown that CL and Cdof the wing vary with angle
of attack as
CL = 0.36(1 + 0.2 z)

Cd

0.008(1 + z)

Assuning level flight W = L

Given

= CL A U2
2
13500 = CL x 30 x 1.208 x 302x 0.5
CL = 0.828
CL = 0.36(1 + 0.2 z)

From which we get z = 6.5 degrees


Also given
Cd = 0.008(1 + z)
From which we get Cd = 0.06
Power required

= drag x velocity
= CL A U2 xU
2
= 0.6 x 30 x 1.205 x 303 x .5
= 29.35 x 103 watts

11.A water craft is fitted with a hydrofoil of area to provide


necessary lift to support the weight of the craft .If the drag and
lift coefficients of the hydrofoil are 0.50 and 1.60 respectively,
and weight of the craft is 18000 n, determine thee minimum
speed when ware craft will be fully supported. What will be the
power required to overcome hydrofoil resistance in water?
If the craft is fitted with 90kW engine estimate the top speed.

The hydrofoil boats or water crafts filted with hydrofoils which


are submerged in water.As the boat speeds up, the lift on the
hydrofoil increases just like an aerofoil .It seema at certain
speed , the fukk weight of boat with crew is supported by the
lift of thww hydrofoil keeping the boat above water level in
that condition
W=L
18000 = CL A U2
2
= 1.6 x .70 x 1000 x U2
2
U = 5.675 m/s
Drag = CL x lift

= (0.5/1.6) x 18000

Cd
= 5625 N
Power minimum

= D x velocity
= 5625 x 5.675
= 31.92 x 103 watts

at 90 Kw power
90000

= drag x velocity
= CL A U2
2
=

0.5 X 0.70 X 1000 X U2


2

from this we get top speed u = 8.017 m/s


12. Aircraft of mass M is slowed after landing by two
parachutes employed from the rear. Each parachute is of
diameter D and drag coefficient Cd if the landing speed of the
air craft is U0 estimate the time required for the aircraft to
decelerate to a velocity of U0 /4 . Assume air resistance of
aircraft be negligible
The resistance of a parachute may be taken as the drag of the
parachute
=

CL A U2
2

resistance force on aircraft


- M du
dt
du /dt

= mass x acceleration
=

CL A U2
2

13. a light plane weighting 12.0 kN has a wing span of 9.0 m


and chord length of 1.2 m assuming the lift characteristics of
thw wing determine the angle of attack for a take off speed of
144 km/hr .Also determine the power required at take off
speed if the parasite drag coefficient is 0.02 .further determine
the stall speed .For angles of attack between 10 & 14 degrees a
liner variation of CL from 0.8 to 1.1 may be assumed
for angle of attack between 10 and 14 degrees the linear variation
of CL from o.8 to 1.1 may be assumed .also for the airplane Cd =
0.07 and Cf = 0.02
for level flight conditions at sea level ,
W = lift
12000 = X 9 x 1.5 x 1.208 x [(144 x 1000)/60x60]
From which

CL = 0.92

Corresponding angle of attack is 12 degrees


Total drag coefficient

= 0.07+0.02 = 0.09

Power required

= drag x velocity

= CL A U2 xU
2
substituting the values we get

= 46.97 x 103 watts


if U corresponds to stalling condition
12000
= 1.3 x (9 x 1.5 ) x 1.208 x U2
2
u = 33.65 m/s
14.a man weighting 80kg decents from an aeroplane using 5.5m
diameter parachute .Determine maximum terminal velocity
that can be attained .Assume drag coefficient As 1.33
The drag of parachute will be exactly balance thw weight of the
airman
80 x x9.81

CL A U2

2
= 1.33 x A x 5.5 x 1.208 x U2
2
= 6.434 m/s

15. determine the rate of deceleration that will be experienced


by a blunt nosed projectile of drag coefficient 1.22 when it is
moving horizontally at 1600 km/hr .The projectile has a
diameter of 0.5 m and weights 3000N
horizontal velocity

= 1600 km/hr
= 444.44m/s

drag force on the projectile is equal to mass multiplied by


acceleration

CL A U 2

= - M x acceleration

2
1.22 x (3.14/4) x 0.52 x x1.208 x 444.442 x .5

= (-300/9.81)x a

declaration a = 93.369 m/s2]


16. A flat plate 1m x 1m moves at 6.5 m/s to its plane
.Compute the resistance of the plate of when the surrounding
fluid is
a) air with mass density 1.2 kg/m3
b) water with a density 1000kg/m3
assume drag coeffienient = 1.15 for both the cases
the resistance or drag = Cd A U2
2
a) for air

= 1.15 x (1 x 1 ) x 1.2 x 6.52 x .5


= 29.13N

b) for water

=
=

1.15 x (1 x 1 ) x 1000x 6.52 x .5


24293.75N

17.Atruck having a projected area of 6.5 m2 traveling at


70km/hr has a total resistance of 2000N of this 20% is due to
friction and 10% due to surface friction .The rest is due to
form drag .Make calculations for coefficient of drag .Take
density = 1.22 kg/m3 for air

total resistance to motion = 2000 N


resistance of rolling friction = 2000 x (20/100) = 400 N
resistance of surface friction = 2000 x (10/100) = 200 N
resistance due to form drag = 2000 (400+200)
= 1400N
= CD A U2
2
= CD x 6.5 x 1.22 x 05 x [(70 x
1000)/(60 x 60)]
we get

CD = 0.934

the coefficient of form drag = 0.984

18. Air blows over a cylinder smoke stack of 5 cm diameter


with a velocity of 0.2 m/s work out the total aerodynamic
drag. shear drag ,pressure drag, in a 1m length of smoke
stack .For the flow situation , the total and shear drag
coefficients are 1.25 and 0.18 respectively .take air density as
1.20
total drag

= CD A U 2
2
= 1.25 x (1 x 0.05) x 1.20 x 0.22 x .5
= 0.1498 N

shear drag

= 0.18 x (1 x 0.05) x 1.2 x .22 x .5


= 0.0216N

pressure drag

= 0.1498 0.0216
= 0.1282 N

19. A man weighting 100 kg descends to the ground froma an


aeroplane with the help of a parachute agsinst the resistance of
air .the ahpe of the parachute is hemispherical of 2m
diameter .Find the velocity of the parachute with which it
comes down .Assume cd = 0.5, density 0.00125 g/cm and v =
0.15 stokes .
For parachute decending down the weight balances with the air
drag
Projected area of hemisphere = 3.14 x 22/4
Air density = 0.00125 g/cm3
= 1.25 kg/m3
weight of parachute decending down = 100 kgf = 100 x 9.81 N
W = CD A U2
2
100 x 9.81 = 0.5 x A x 1.25 x U2/2
U = 31.62m/s
20. Experiments were conducted in a wind tunnel with wing
speed of 50 km/hr on a flat plate 2 m long and 1 m wide .The
density of air is 1.15kg/m3

And the plate is kept ay such an angle that the coefficients of


lift and drag are 0.75 and 0.15 respectively .determine :
1) lift force
2) drag force
3) resultant force
4) power exterted by the air stream on the plate
lift

CL A U 2

2
= 0.75 x (2 x 1) x 1.15 x 0.5 [(50 x 1000)/(100 x 60)]
drag D =

Cd A U 2
2

= 0.15 x (2 x 1) x 1.15 x .5 x [(50 x 1000)/(100 x 60)]


= 166.11 N
Resultant force

(L2 + D2 ) 0.5 = 169.44 N

Inclination of resultant with free stream flow


= tan-1 (L/D)

(166.11/33.22)

= tan-1(166.11/33.22)
= 78.42 degrees
Power exerted

= drag X velocity

= 33.22 x [(50 x 1000 )/(60 x 60 )]


= 462.5 watts

21.A kite weighting 1 kg having an area 1 square meters makes


an angle of 70 degree to horizontal when flying in a wind of 36
km/hr .if pull on the sting attached to the kite is 5 kgf and it is
inclined to the horizontal at 45degrees, calculate the lift and
drag coefficients .
under the action of lift ,drag,weightand tension the kite is said
to be in equilibrium
D = T cos 45
= 5 x cos 45
= 3.53 x 9.81 N
= Cd A U2
2
= Cd x 1 x .5 x [(36 x 1000)/(60 x 60 )] 2
= 0.557
L = Tsin45 + W
= (5sin 45 +1 )9.81 N
= 4.53 x 9.81 N
= CL A U2
2
= CL x 1 x 1.2 x .5 x [(936 x 1000)/(60 x 60)]
we get CL = 0.740

22.A kite of dimensions 0.9 x 0.9m and weighting 7.5N is


maintained in air at an angle of 10degrees to the horizontal
.The string attached to the kite makes an angle of 45 degrees to
the horizontal and at this position, the drag and lift coefficient
are estimated to be 0.6 and 0.8 respectively. Make calculations
for the wind speed and tension in the string. Take density as 1.2
kg/m2
Under the action of lift ,drag,weight and tension ,the kite is
said to be in equilibrium
D = T cos 45

Cd A U2 = T cos 45
2
0.6 x (0.9 x 0.9 ) x 1.2 x 0.5 x U2 = T cos 45
0.3276 U2 = T /(21/2 )
L = Tsin45 + W
0.8 x (0.9 x 0.9 ) x 1.2 x 0.5 x U2 = t sin 45 + 7.5
0.4368 U2

= T / (21/2 )+ 7.5

From the two equations we get the values of U and T


As
u = 8.287 m/s T = 31.82 N

23.

The wind velocity is commonly measured with a cup


anemometer which consists of two hollow hemispheres
mounted in opposite directions at the ends of a horizontal rod
which turns freely about a vertical axis. The accompanying
sketch shows one such anemometer .If the wind velocity is
60km/hr, what torque is required to hold the rotating member
stationary.
Cd=1.32 for hemisphere hollow on the up stream
=0.35 for hemisphere hollow on the down stream
And for air =1.22kg/m3
Drag force ( hollow stream ) D1

Cd A U2

2
= 1.3 x [(3.14 x 0.1 )] x 1.22 x .5 [(60 x 1000)/(60 x60)] 2
2

= 1.765 N
Drag force (hollow down stream ) = 0.35 x [(3.14 x 0.12)] x 1.22 x
.5 [(60 x 1000)/(60 x60)] 2
= 0.47 N
Torque required = (D1-D2) x radius
= (1.765-0.47) x 0.5/2
= 0.3225N

24.Estimate the pressure on a maruthi van , 1.4m wide ,1.5 m


high and 2.5 m long , traveling at 60km/h through air of =1.2
kg /m3
v= 15 x106 m/s2 .Assume that a turbulent
boundary layer starts immediately at the leading edge . Cd
=0.75.

Profile drag or total drag on the body is made of a pressure drag


and skin friction drag
Pressure drag
= Cd A U2
= 0.75
2
A = 1.5 x 1.4 ; Cd = 0.75
U = 60km/hr = 16.67m/sec
Pressure drag = 0.75 x (1.5 x 1.4 ) x 1.2 x 16.672 x 0.5
= 262.5 N
Reynolds number for the flow taking longest dimension
= UL/v
assuming for air Re = (16.67 x 2.5 )/0.000015
= 2.78 x 106
the turbulent boundry layer is assumd to develop on two sides and
top .The skin friction drag for turbulent boudry layer Cf = 0.455/
(log Re ) 2.58
Cf = 0.455/(log 2.78 x106) 2.58
= 7.128 N
Assuming skin friction drag =
=

2.78 x106 x 2.5 x [1.6 x 2 + 1.4 ] x 1.2 x 16.672x 0.5


= 7.128 N
Profile drag = 262.5 +7.128
= 269.6128 N

25.A kite weighing 0.25 kg can be assumed to be a flat plate of


face area 0.5 m2 and is flying in air (=1.2 kg/m3).The wind
velocity is 10 m/s in the horizontal direction .The tension in the
string holding the kite is 20KN and it makes an angle of 40 to
the horizontal .Calculate the lift and drag coefficients.
Since the kite is in equilibrium ,the drag and lift forces are
balanced by the tension in the string and the weight og the kite
Horizontal forces
D = T cos 40
Vertical forces

L = T sin 40 + W
D = 20 cos 40 = 15.32 N
= Cd A U2
2
= Cd x 0.5 x 1.2 x 100 x 0.5
Cd = 0.511
L

= 20 sin 40 + (0.25 x 9.81)


= 15.308
= CL x 0.5 x 1.2 x 100 x 0.5

CL = 0.51

26.A wing of a small airplane is rectangular in plan (10m x


1.2).In the straight and level flight at 240 km/h, the total
aerodynamic force acting on the wing is 20KN .If the lift/drag
ratio is 10 , calculate the coefficient of lift and the total weight
the plane can carry.
The aerodynamic force acting on the wing has two components
,vertical component lift L, and horizontal component drag D)
Such that the aerodynamic force is equal to (L2 + D2) 0.5
Also given L/D = 10 ; for level flight the eight of air craft exactly
balances lift L

we get

20 x 103 = (L2 + D2) 0.5


substituting D = L/10
20 x 103
= L (1.010.5)
L = CL A U 2
2
L = CL x (10 x 1.2 ) x 1.208 x 0.5 x[(240x 1000)/3600] 2

From this we get

CL = 0.622

The weight of aero plane = 19.9x103 N


the steel ball will occupy a position a position such that the string
makes an angle to the vertical through the point of suspension in
the equilibrium position of the ball .
Reynolds number of the fluid flow taking dis of ball as
characteristic length
Re
= U dia
= (1.2 x 12 x0.01)/(1.85 x 10-5 )
v

= (24/Re)+(3/Re0.5) + 0.34 = 0.337


D =

Cd A U2
2

= 0.377 x 3.14 x (0.0052) x1.2 x 122 x 0.5


= 25.59 N
For equilibrium neglecting the string tension
D cos 0 = m g sin 0
Where m is the mass of steel ball
m = (4/3) x 3.14 x (0.005) 3 x 7600
= 0.398 x 10-2 kg
(Assuming density of steel as 7600 kg/m3)
angle =

tan-1(d/mg)

= 3.75 degrees
28. a spherical balloon of 4 m in diameter is filled with
hydrogen (=0.1 kg/m3).And the total mass of the balloon skin and
the load it carries is 30 kg.Estimate the upward terminal velocity
of the balloon when for air = 1.0 kg/m3 and U =1.8 x 10-5 pa-s.
When the balloon is moving upwards the buoyant force will be
acting upwards and it is balanced by drag force and weight on the
balloon, both acting downwards.
Upward buoyant force = weight of the displaced air
= (4/3) x 3.14
= (4/3) x 3.14 x 23 x 1 x 9.81
= 328.78 N

weight of the balloon


balloon

= 30 + weight of the hydrogen in the


= [30 +(4/3) x 3.14 x R3 x ] x g
= [30 +(4/3) x 3.14 x 23 x 0.1] 9.81
= 327.178 N

Drag force acting down wards = 328.78 327.178


= 1.502 N
= Cd A U2
2
= 0.4 x 3.14 x R2 x 1x 0.5 x U2
from which

U = 0.733 m/s

the upward velocity is 0.773 m/s for the balloon

29. a paratrooper weighing 800N descends with a terminal velocity


of 5m/s in atmosphere of =1.2 kg/m3 . Estimate the diameter of
the parachute if the drag coefficient is 1.3.
For a desenting parachute the drag force acting upwars is
balanced by the weight
W=D
= Cd A U2
2
800 = 1.30 x (3.14 x Dia2 ) x
4
Dia = 7.22 m

1.2 x 5 x 5 /
2

30. The wing of an airplane has a span of 12 m and chord length of


2.5 m. It produces a lift of 100 KN at a speed of 500 km/h. A 1/25
the model of the wing is tested in a wind tunnel at 400 m/s and
=5.3 kg/m3 .The total drag measured is 380 N assuming that the
test is based on wings if the infinite span, calculate the total drag
for the prototype when the lift distribution is elliptical and
For air =1.2 kg/ m3.
It is assumed that the wind tunnel test is based on wings of
infinite span and so the effect of induced drag is absent .Hence in
calculation of total drag of prototype induced drag is to be added.
For a 1/25th size model wing area can be taken as [1/25] 2.
The Times the wing area of the prototype.
Wing are of model

= [1/25] 2 x wing area of the prototype

= [1/25] 2 x 2.5 x1.2


= 30/625 m2
Cd from wind tunnel test of model = D/[(A x xU2/ 2]
= 380/[1.2 x (30/ 625) x 4002 ]
= 0.0187
For level flight assuming lift balances weight of prototype
W =L
L = CL A U 2
2
= CL x 30 x 1.2 x [(500 x 1000)/60 x 60 ] 2

CL = 0.288
For elliptical lift distribution across span the coefficient of
induced drag
Cd = CL 2 / ( 3.14 x AR)
= 0.288 /[3.14 x (12/2.5)]
= 0.55 x 10-2
total drag coefficient Cd = 0.0187 + 0.55 x 10-2
= 0.0242
= Cd A U2
2
= 0.0242 x (12 x 2.5) x 1.2 [(500 x 1000)/(60 x 60)]
= 8401.7 N

total drag of wing

31.A 25 cm diameter round nosed projectile travels at a speed of


650 m/s through standard atmosphere at an altitude of 6 km.Find
the drag.
(For a round nosed projectile be assumed 0/6 at or near mach no:
2)
Temperature and air density at 6 Km altitude from standard table
-23 degrees and 0.66 Kg/m3

Local velocity of projectile M = V/A


= (650/314.914)
= 2.05
Mach no: being near 2 , Cd may be taken as 0.6 for the case
Drag
substituting we get

= Cd A U2
2
= 4.107 N