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Typical Values of the Coefficient of Volume Compressibility, m v (after Carter 1983)

mv
Type of clay

Description

(x10 m2/kN)
-3

Lower Limit
Heavy over-consolidated boulder clays,
stiff weathered rocks and hard clays

Very low
compressibility

Boulder clays, marls, very stiff tropical red Low


clays
compressibility

0.05

Firm clays, glacial outwash clays, lake


deposits, weathered marls, firm boulder
Medium
clays, normally consolidated clays at depth compressibility
and firm tropical red clays

0.1

Normally consolidated alluvial clays such


as estuarine and delta deposits, and
sensitive clays

High
compressibility

0.3

Highly organic alluvial clays and peats

Very high
compressibility

1.5

Carter, M and Bentley, S. P., Correlations of Soil Properties, Pentech Press, London, 1991.

m v (after Carter 1983)


mv
(x10 m2/kN)
Upper Limit

London, 1991.

-3

Average

0.05
0.1

0.075

0.3

0.2

1.5

0.9

Typical Values of Compressibility Index, C c (after Holtz and Kovacs 1981)


Soil
Normally consolidated medium sensitive clays
Chicago silty clay (CL)
Boston blue clay (CL)
Vicksburg Buckshot clay (CH)
Swedish medium sensitive clays (CL-CH)
Canadian Leda clays (CL-CH)
Mexico City clay (MH)
Organic clays (OH)
Peats (Pt)
Organic silt and clayey silts (ML-MH)
San Francisco Bay Mud (CL)
San Francisco Old Bay clays (CH)
Bangkok clay (CH)

Cc
Lower Limit Upper Limit
0.2
0.5
0.15
0.3
0.3
0.5
0.5
0.6
1
3
1
4
7
10
4
10
15
1.5
4
0.4
1.1
0.7
0.9

Carter, M and Bentley, S. P., Correlations of Soil Properties, Pentech Press, London, 1991.

ovacs 1981)

Cc
Average
0.35
0.225
0.4
0.55
2
2.5
8.5

London, 1991.

12.5
2.75
0.75
0.8
0.4

Typical Values of the Coefficient of Consolidation, c v (after Carter and Bentley 1991
cv
Soil
Boston blue clay (CL)
Organic silt (OH)
Glacial lake clays (CL)
Chicago silty clay (CL)
Swedish medium sensitive
clays (CL-CH)
1. laboratory
2. field
San Francisco Bay Mud (CL)
Mexico City clay (MH)

Lower Limit
6
0.6
2
2.7

(m2/yr)
Upper Limit
18
3
2.7
2.7

Average
12
1.8
2.35
2.7

0.1
0.2
0.6
0.3

0.2
1
1.2
0.5

0.15
0.6
0.9
0.4

Carter, M and Bentley, S. P., Correlations of Soil Properties, Pentech Press, London, 1991.

Comparison of cv Obtained From Various Methods (after Robinson and Allam, 1996

Soil

(kPa)
Red earth

Brown soil

Black cotton soil

Illite

cv

Range of
Pressure '

25-50
50-100
100-200
200-400
400-800
25-50
50-100
100-200
200-400
400-800
25-50
50-100
100-200
200-400
400-800
25-50
50-100
100-200

(m2/yr)
Logarithm-oftime method
1.46
2.03
2.31
2.57
2.55
1.20
0.95
0.90
0.66
0.41
1.60
0.97
0.63
0.36
0.18
0.52
0.42
0.69

Square-root-oftime method
1.72
2.52
3.15
3.44
3.78
1.40
1.19
1.07
0.70
0.46
2.07
1.16
0.79
0.50
0.20
0.71
1.00
1.00

Bentonite

Chicago clay

200-400
400-800
25-50
50-100
100-200
200-400
400-800
12.5-50
25-50
50-100
100-200
200-400
400-800
800-1600

0.99
1.31
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.00
7.92
6.34
4.32
1.00
1.44
1.91
2.24

1.45
1.84
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.01
14.35
7.54
5.49
1.49
1.39
2.03
2.72

Das, Braja M., Principles of Geotechnical Engineering, Fifth Ed., Thomas Learning, United S

r and Bentley 1991)

Reference
Ladd and Luscher, 1965
Lowe, Zaccheo, and Feldman, 1964
Wallace and Otto, 1964
Terzaghi and Peck, 1967
Holtz and Broms, 1972

Leonards and Girault, 1961

ndon, 1991.

n and Allam, 1996)

yr)
Early stage log
t method
1.93
2.84
3.60
3.96
4.04
1.71
1.20
1.11
0.86
0.43
3.07
1.51
1.09
0.64
0.25
0.79
1.05
1.15

Reference

1.62
2.03
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.01
0.01
14.51
9.93
6.37
1.57
1.55
2.34
2.87

Taylor, 1948

s Learning, United States, 2002.

Typical Values of C/Cc (after Carter and Bentley 1991)


Soil

Organic silts
Amorphous and fibrous peat
Canadian muskeg
Leda clay (Canada)
Post-glacial Swedish clay
Soft blue clay (Victoria, B.C.)
Organic clays and silts
Sensitive clay, Portland, ME
San Francisco Bay Mud
New Liskeard (Canada) varved clay
Mexico City clay
Hudson River silt
New Haven organic clay silt

C/Cc
Lower Limit

Upper Limit

Average

0.035
0.035
0.09
0.03
0.05
0.026
0.04
0.025
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.04

0.06
0.085
0.1
0.06
0.07
0.026
0.06
0.055
0.06
0.06
0.035
0.06
0.075

0.0475
0.06
0.095
0.045
0.06
0.026
0.05
0.04
0.05
0.045
0.0325
0.045
0.0575

Carter, M and Bentley, S. P., Correlations of Soil Properties, Pentech Press, London, 1991.

Typical Values of Unit Weights (sat and dry) (after Carter and Bentley 1991)
sat
Soil
Sands and gravels
very loose
loose
medium dense
dense
very dense
Poorly-graded sands
Well-graded sands
well-graded sand/gravel mixtures
Clays
unconsolidated muds
soft, open-structured
typical, normally consolidated
boulder clays (overconsolidated)
Red tropical soils

dry

Lower
Limit

(kN/m )
Upper
Limit

16.67
17.65
18.63
19.61
21.57
16.67
17.65
18.63
15.69
16.67
17.65
19.61
16.67

(kN/m3)

Average

Lower
Limit

17.65
18.63
20.59
21.57
22.56
18.63
22.56
22.56

17.16
18.14
19.61
20.59
22.06
17.65
20.10
20.59

12.75
13.73
14.71
16.67
19.61
12.75
13.73
14.71

16.67
18.63
21.57
23.54
20.59

16.18
17.65
19.61
21.57
18.63

8.83
10.79
12.75
16.67
12.75

Carter, M and Bentley, S. P., Correlations of Soil Properties, Pentech Press, London, 1991.

ley 1991)
dry
(kN/m3)
Upper
Limit

Average

13.73
14.71
17.65
19.61
21.57
14.71
21.57
21.57

13.24
14.22
16.18
18.14
20.59
13.73
17.65
18.14

10.79
13.73
18.63
21.57
17.65

9.81
12.26
15.69
19.12
15.20

Representative Values of Modulus of Elasticity of Soil, Es (Das, 2002)


Es
Soil

Soft clay
Hard clay
Loose sand
Dense sand

(kPa)
Lower Limit

Upper Limit

Average

1800
6000
10000
35000

3500
14000
28000
70000

2650
10000
19000
52500

Range of Values: Modulus of Elasticity, E (McCarthy, 1998)


Es
Soil

Sand, loose
Sand, dense
Sand, silty
Sand and gravel, loose
Sand and gravel, dense
Silt
Loess
Clay, soft
Clay, medium
Clay, firm
Clay, sandy

(kPa)
Lower Limit

Upper Limit

Average

9000
45000
7000
45000
90000
2400
15000
500
4000
7000
25000

25000
80000
21000
145000
180000
20000
50000
5000
10000
20000
40000

17000
62500
14000
95000
135000
11200
32500
2750
7000
13500
32500

Representative Values of Poisson's Ration, (Das, 2002)


Soil

Loose sand
MediumSand
Dense sand
Silty sand
Soft clay
Medium clay

Lower Limit

Upper Limit

Average

0.2
0.25
0.3
0.2
0.15
0.2

0.4
0.4
0.45
0.4
0.25
0.5

0.3
0.325
0.375
0.3
0.2
0.35

Lower Limit

Upper Limit

Average

0.1
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.4
0.3
0.2

0.3
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.4

0.2
0.35
0.35
0.3
0.45
0.35
0.3

Range of Values: Poisson's Ratio, (McCarthy, 1998)


Soil

Sand, loose
Sand, dense
Silt
Loess
Clay, saturated
Clay, partially saturated
Clay, with sand and silt

Typical Values of Undrained Shear Strength, c u (after Day, 2006)


cu
Clay
Lower Limit
Very soft
Soft
Medium
Stiff
Very stiff
Hard

12
25
50
100
200

(kPa)
Upper Limit
12
25
50
100
200

Average
18.5
37.5
75
150

Day, Robert W., Foundation Engineering Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2006.

rk, 2006.

Typical Values of Void Ratio, e (after Lambe and Whitman, 1969)


Soil
Compacted caliche
Silty sand
Sandy clay
Beach sand
Compacted Boston blue
clay
Vicksburg buckshot clay
Ottawa sand
Sand-Franklin Falls
Sand-Scituate
Sand-Plum Island
Sand-Fort Peck
Silt-Boston
Loess
Lean clay
Sand-Union Falls
Silt-North Carolina
Sand from dike
Sodium-Boston blue clay
Calcium kaolinite
Sodium montmorillonite
Sand (dam filter)

Lower Limit
0.227
0.242
0.379
0.636
0.485
0.576
0.591
0.75
0.485
0.652
0.561
0.742
0.652
0.394
0.439
0.636
0.652
0.47
1.212
2.333
0.455

e
Upper Limit
0.667
0.333
1.303
0.833
0.652
0.985
0.636
0.848
0.621
0.697
0.606
3.97
0.764
0.53
0.645
0.879
1.152
2.697
1.682
3.97
0.773

Average
0.447
0.2875
0.841
0.7345
0.5685
0.7805
0.6135
0.799
0.553
0.6745
0.5835
2.356
0.708
0.462
0.542
0.7575
0.902
1.5835
1.447
3.1515
0.614

Day, Robert W., Foundation Engineering Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2006.

rk, 2006.

Typical Values of Permeability, k (after Lambe and Whitman, 1969)

Soil
Compacted caliche
Silty sand
Sandy clay
Beach sand
Compacted Boston blue clay
Vicksburg buckshot clay
Ottawa sand
Sand-Franklin Falls
Sand-Scituate
Sand-Plum Island
Sand-Fort Peck
Silt-Boston
Loess
Lean clay
Sand-Union Falls
Silt-North Carolina
Sand from dike
Sodium-Boston blue clay
Calcium kaolinite
Sodium montmorillonite
Sand (dam filter)

Lower Limit
5.0E-09
7.0E-09
2.5E-10
8.0E-02
3.5E-09
3.0E-10
6.0E-10
9.0E-04
4.0E-03
1.8E-02
1.8E-03
1.0E-08
4.0E-09
2.0E-09
4.3E-02
5.7E-07
1.4E-04
1.7E-10
2.1E-06
1.8E-08
1.6E-03

k
(cm/s)
Upper Limit
1.0E-07
3.0E-08
2.8E-04
2.0E-01
3.2E-08
1.2E-09
7.0E-10
1.2E-03
9.5E-03
2.8E-02
2.8E-03
2.0E-06
5.2E-09
2.8E-08
1.0E-01
8.0E-05
1.7E-03
1.0E-07
1.2E-05
1.8E-08
1.0E-01

Average
5.3E-08
1.9E-08
1.4E-04
1.4E-01
1.8E-08
7.5E-10
6.5E-10
1.1E-03
6.8E-03
2.3E-02
2.3E-03
1.0E-06
4.6E-09
1.5E-08
7.2E-02
4.0E-05
9.2E-04
5.0E-08
7.1E-06
1.8E-08
5.1E-02

Day, Robert W., Foundation Engineering Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2006.
Typical Values of Permeability, k

Soil
Clean gravel
Gravel, clean coarse sand
Graded sand, fine sand
Silty sand, silt
Dense silt, clayey silt
Clay, silty clay

Lower Limit
1.0E+00
1.0E-01
1.0E-03
1.0E-05
1.0E-07

k
(cm/s)
Upper Limit
1.0E+00
1.0E-01
1.0E-03
1.0E-05
1.0E-07

Average
1.0E+00
5.5E-01
5.1E-02
5.1E-04
5.1E-06
1.0E-07

Spangler, Merlin G. and R.L. Handy, Soil Engineering, Fourth Edition, Harper & Row Publish

Typical Values of Permeability, k

Lower Limit

k
(cm/s)
Upper Limit

Average

2.00E-02
2.00E-02
2.00E-02

4.00E-01
1.60E-01
2.00E-01
1.20E-01

9.00E-02
1.10E-01
7.00E-02

Soil
River deposits
Rhone at Genissiat
Small streams, eastern Alps
Missouri
Mississippi
Glacial deposits
Outwash plains
Esker, Westfiels, Mass.
Delta, Chicopee, Mass.
Till
Wind deposits
Dune sand
Loess
Loess loam
Lacustrine and marine offshore
deposits
Very fine uniform sand
Bull's liver, Sixth Ave. N.Y.
Bull's liver, Brooklyn
Clay

5.00E-02
1.00E-02
1.00E-04

2.00E+00
1.30E-01
1.50E-02
1.00E-04

1.03E+00
7.00E-02
7.55E-03

1.00E-01

3.00E-01

2.00E-01
1.00E-03
1.00E-04

1.00E-04
1.00E-04
1.00E-05

6.40E-03
5.00E-03
1.00E-04
1.00E-07

3.25E-03
2.55E-03
5.50E-05

Lambe, T. William, and Whitman, Robert V., Soil Mechanics, SI version, Wiley, New York, 196
Typical Values of Permeability, k

Lower Limit
1.0E+00

k
(cm/s)
Upper Limit
1.0E+01

Average
5.5E+00

1.0E-03

1.0E+00

5.0E-01

1.0E-05

1.0E-03

5.1E-04

1.0E-07

1.0E-04

5.0E-05

Soil
Clean gravel
Clean sand, sand and gravel
mixtures
Fine sands, silts
Sand-silt-clay mistures, glacial
tills
Homogeneous clays

1.0E-07

McCarthy, David F., Essentials of Soil Mechanics and Foundations: Basic Geotechnics, Fifth

ew York, 2006.

3.2E-02

n, Harper & Row Publishers, New York, 1982.

on, Wiley, New York, 1969.

Basic Geotechnics, Fifth Edition, Prentice Hall, 1998.