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Wind Power Plant Modeling

Dynamic Model Data


WECC-WGMG
Model Validation
Working Group
Phoenix, AZ
November 18-20, 2009

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) Topologies


Type 1

Four basic types


types, based on
the WTG technology:

Pl nt
Pla
Fee ders

Plant
Feeders

gene rator

gene rator

Type
yp 1 Fixed-speed,
p
conventional induction generators
Variable Slip WTG
Type 2 Induction generators with
variable rotor resistance

Type 2

PF control
capacitor
p
s
Slip power
as heat loss

Type 3

PF control
p
s
capacitor

ac
to
dc

Type 4
Plant
Feeders

Variable Speed WTGs


Type 3 Doubly-fed asynchronous
generators with rotor-side converter
Type 4 Asynchronous generators
with full converter interface

gene rator

Plant
Feede rs
genera tor

ac
to
dc

dc
to
ac

ac
to
dc

dc
to
ac

full power

partia l power

PSSE 31 and PSLF 17.0_03


NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Type
T
1:
1 Fixed
Fi d Speed
S
d WTG
(Induction Generator)

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Controller Settings (Type 1)


Control input
p parameters:
p
Most of the parameters are given and unique for
a specific turbine.
This data will be made available from WECC or
turbine manufacturers.
Available in PSSE and PSLF

Three modules included: WT1T, WT1G, WT1P


The compensating capacitor is not dynamically
modeled but it should be provided and initialized
from load flow data.
WIND PLANT SPECIFIC ADJUSTMENT: NONE

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Example Data of WTG Type 1


Direct Connected Type 1 Generator
W1G1U-PSSE Data

0.846
0
3.927
0.1773
0.0
0.1
1
0.03
1.2
0.179

WT1G-PSLF Data

wt1g 5 "WTG TERM" 0.60 "1" : #9 mva=110 /


"Ls"
3.93
/
"Lp"
0.1773
/
"Ra"
0.0
/
"Tpo"
Tpo
0 846
0.846
/
"Se1"
0.030
/
"Se2"
0.179
/
"Acc"
0.5
/
"Lpp"
0.0
/
"Ll"
0 10
0.10
/
"Tppo"
0.0
/
"ndelt"
10
/
"wdelt"
0.80

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Example Data of WTG Type 1


Two Mass Turbine Model
W12T1U-PSSE Data

5.30
0.0
0.925
5.0
1.0
Ht = Htfrac H
Hg = H - Ht

Hg

K = 2 (2 Freq1 ) H t
2

WT1T-PSLF Data
t

WT1T 5 "WTG TERM" 0.60 "1" : #9 /


"H"

5.30

"D"

0.0

"Htfrac"
"Freq1"
"Dshaft"

0.925
5.0
1.0

/
/
/

From
Governor
Model

# Optional
two-mass
model:

Pmech

.
.

Tmech

1
2Ht

s0
Dshaft

From
Generator
Model

Pgen

. Telec

tg

1
2Hg

tg

1
s

s2

tg

1
s

1
s

s1

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Example Data of WTG Type 1


P
Pseudo
d Governor
G
Model
M d l
W12A1U-PSSE Data

WT1P-PSLF Data
wt1p 5 "WTG
WTG TERM
TERM" 0.60
0 60 "1"
1 : #9 /
"Tpe"
"Kdroop"
"Kp"
"Ki"
"Pimax"
"Pimin"
"T1"
"T2"

00.015
015
0.1
0.015
0.1
0.1
0.1
1.0
0.25

0.10
0.015
0.10
66.667
1.00
0.25
0.10
0.10

/
/
/
/
/
/
/

speed
From
Turbine
Model

pgen
From
Generator
Model

1
1 + sTpe

Kp
wref

Kdroop

1
1 + sT1

Ki

pimax

1
s

pimin

s2

1
1 + sT2
s3

pmech
To
Governor
Model

s1

s0

NREL is a national laboratory


of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC
pref

Type 1: Fixed Speed WTG


(Induction Generator)
Terminal Voltage
g

Real Power

Reactive Power

Turbine Speed

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Type 2: Variable Slip WTG


(Induction generators with
variable rotor resistance)

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Controller Settings (Type 2)


Control input
p parameters:
p
Most of the parameters are given and unique for a
specific turbine.
This data will be made available from WECC or
turbine manufacturers.
Available in PSSE and PSLF (being developed)

Three modules included: WT2T, WT2G, WT2E, WT2A


The compensating capacitor is not dynamically
modeled but it should be provided and initialized from
load flow data.
WIND PLANT SPECIFIC ADJUSTMENT: NONE

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Example Data of WTG Type 2


Induction Generator with the
controlled external rotor resistor
W2G1U-PSSE Data

WT2G-PSLF Data

0.126
6.84
0.18
0.0044
0.1099
1.0
0.0
1.20
0.0
0.0
0.0217
0.8988
0.9
0.905
0.0
0.0054
0.02
0.04
0.1

In PSLF, this data is supplied through Module WT2E

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Example Data of WTG Type 2


Rotor resistance control model
W2E1U-PSSE Data
0
0.05
1
1
0.99
0.05

In PSSE this data is supplied


via Module W2G1U

From
Generator
Model

Pgen

Kp
1 + sTp
Rmax

s1

+
Speed
From
Turbine
Model

Rext

Kpp + Kip / s
s0

Rmin
Kw

To
Generator
Model

1 + sTw
s2

P vs. slip curve

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Example Data of WTG Type 2


Two mass turbine model
W12T1U-PSSE Data

WT2T-PSLF Data

3.46
0.00
0.81
1.50
0 30
0.30

Ht = Htfrac H
Hg = H - Ht

Hg

K = 2 (2 Freq1 ) H t
2

t
From
Governor
Model

Pmech

.
.

Tmech

1
2Ht

s0
Dshaft

From
Generator
Model

Pgen

. Telec

tg

1
2Hg

tg

1
s

s2

tg

1
s

1
s

s1

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Example Data of WTG Type 2


Pseudo--governor model
Pseudo
WT2P-PSLF Data

W12A1U-PSSE Data

0.015
0
015
20.0
1.0
0.1
0.1
0.1
1.0
0.25
speed
From
Turbine
Model

pgen
From
Generator
Model

1
1 + sTpe

Kp
wref

Kdroop

1
1 + sT1

Ki

pimax

1
s

pimin

s2

1
1 + sT2
s3

pmech
To
Governor
Model

s1

s0

pref

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Type 2: Variable Slip WTG (Induction


generators with variable rotor resistance)
Terminal Voltage

Real Power

Reactive Power

Turbine Speed

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Type 3: Variable Speed WTG


Doubly Fed Induction Generator

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Type 3: Doubly Fed Induction Generator


Control input parameters:
Most of the parameters are given and unique for a
specific turbine.
This data will be made available from WECC or
turbine manufacturers.

varflg = ? WIND PLANT SPECIFIC ADJUSTMENTS:


varflg and vltflg are flags that must be set by the
user based on the setting
g defined for each wind
power plant to be included in the case study.

vltflg = ?
Fn = fraction of WTG on the wind plant that are online. Used only for VAR control gain adjustment
PFAref = initialized from load flow data

Four modules included in PSLF


wt3g, wt3e, wt3t, wt3p

Vc is the controlled bus specified within the


module wt3e. It can be terminal voltage or remote
bus voltage or fictitious remote bus voltage.
Vw > 1.0 p.u. will be used to initialize pitch angle.

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Example of VAR Controller Settings (Type 3


wt3e module) - Remote voltage definition
XC = compensating reactance for voltage control (in p.u.)
VC = Vf jXC Ift

Vf = voltage at busfrom

VC = voltage at a remote point

Ift = current flowing from busfrom to busto

Vrfq = VC computed from the load flow solution at initial condition.


1

2
3

Line 1 (1)

I43

W
Line 2 (2)

VC

Wind Turbine
Generator
Equivalent

VC

I21_2
21 2
VC
wt3e 5 "BUS5" 0.575 "1 " 1 : #9 mwcap=33.3 / monitored bus is not defined; Thus terminal voltage (bus
5) is controlled.
wt3e 5 "BUS5" 0.575 "1 " 4 "BUS4" 34.5 "1 " 1 : #9 mwcap=33.3 / Thus bus 4 (VC) will be controlled
wt3e 5 "BUS5" 0.575 "1 " 4 "BUS4" 34.5 3 "BUS3" 34.5 1 " 1 : #9 mwcap=33.3 /
Thus remote node (VC) on branch 4-3 is controlled.
VC = V4 jXC I43
XC < X43
wt3e 5 "BUS5" 0.575 "1 " 2 "BUS2" 138 1 "BUS1" 138 2 " 1 : #9 mwcap=33.3 /
Thus remote node (VC) on branch 2-1 is controlled
controlled.
VC = V2 jXC I21
XC < X21

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Example of VAR Controller Settings (Type 3)


Voltage Control is disabled

Eq-cmd

Reactive power control:


Qcmd = Qref = Qgen_load_flow
varflg = 0; vltflg = 0
voltage is not controlled

Eq-cmd
Power factor control:
varflg = -1; vltflg = 0
voltage is not controlled
PFAref is defined at initial load flow solution based on Pgen, Qgen
NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Example of VAR Controller Settings (Type 3


wt3e module) Voltage Control is enabled

Eq-cmd

Voltage control emulation for plant level reactive compensation:


varflg = 1; vltflg = 0
voltage Vc (remote bus) is controlled = Vrfq defined initially from load flow solution
terminal voltage
g Vterm is not regulated
g

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Example of VAR Controller Settings (Type 3


wt3e module) Voltage Control is enabled

Eq-cmd

Voltage control emulation


for Plant Level Reactive
compensation:
varflg = 1; vltflg = 1
voltage is controlled at
the Vrfq defined separately
the terminal voltage Vterm
is controlled with the
faster control loop (good
response during fault
event).
event)

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Example of Pitch Controller


Settings (wt3t module)
Initialize the blade pitch when
The wind speed Vw > 1
1.0
0p
p.u.
u
Pitch Angle - Theta - Initialization
30

Theta (degree)

25
20
15
10
5
0
-5

0.5

1.5

2.5

Vw - Wind Speed (p.u.)

Unless we specify that the


wind speed Vw > 1.0 p.u.
The initial (pre-fault) pitch angle = 0.

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Real Power Settings

The wind plant operation may have different output levels


In the dynamic:
1 If Pgen = 60MW in load flow solution and MWCAP = 100MW in the dynamic
1.
dynamic, it means that the
wind speed is less than rated wind speed, the turbine speed set point will be initialized
accordingly ( ~ 1.12 p.u.) and Vw should be set to Vw < 1.0p.u. , and the blade pitch is

adjusted to its optimum ( = 0 degree)


2.

If Pgen = 100MW in load flow solution and MWCAP = 100MW in the dynamic, it means that the
wind speed is at or higher than rated wind speed the turbine speed set point will be
initialized accordingly (1.2 p.u). The pitch angle setting will be as follows (wt3t - module):

If Vw = 1.5 p.u. the wind speed is higher than rated wind speed and the blade pitch
must be adjusted at the initial condition
condition.

If Vw = 0.7 p.u. this information is ignored and the blade pitch is adjusted to its
optimum ( = 0 degree)

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Example Data of WTG Type 3


Doubly--Fed Induction Generator (Type 3)
Doubly
WT3G1-PSSE Data

0.8
30.0
0.0
0.1
15
1.5

67

IBUS, WT3G1, ID, ICON(M), CON(J) to CON(J+4) /

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Example Data of WTG Type 3


Doubly--Fed Induction Generator (Type 3)
Doubly
WT3G-PSLF Data

Eq"cmd

1
1+ 0.02s

(efd)
From
exwtge

-1

High Voltage

X"

Reactive Current

s0

(ladifd)
From
exwtge

Low Voltage
Active Current

IPlv

1
1+ 0.02s

Isorc

Management

LVPL & rrpwr


IPcmd

( refer to W3G2U for PSSE Equivalent)

Management
s1

LVPL

Vterm
1.11

Lvplsw = 0

LVPL

Lvplsw = 1
V
zerox
(0.50)

brkpt
(0.90)

1
1+ 0
0.02s
02s

jX"
s2

Low Voltage Power Logic

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Example Data of WTG Type 3


Electrical Control for TypeType-3 Wind Generator
WT3E1-PSSE Data

0.15
0.69
18.0
0.78
5.0
0.98
0.0
1.12
0.05
0.74
3.0
1.2
0.6
1.12
0.1
0.296
436
-00.436
1.1
0.05
0.45 0.45
50
5.0
0.05
0.9
1.2
40.0
-0.5
05
0.4
0.05
0.05
1.0
NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Example Data of WTG Type 3


Electrical Control for TypeType-3 Wind Generator

WT3E-PSLF Data

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Example Data of WTG Type 3


Mechanical System Model for TypeType-3 Wind Generator
WT3T1-PSSE Data

0.44
4.95
0
0.007
21.98
0.8747
1.8
1.5

WT3T-PSLF Data

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Example Data of WTG Type 3


Pitch Control Model for TypeType-3 Wind Generator
WT3P1-PSSE Data

0.3
150
25
3
30
27
0
10
1

WT3P-PSLF Data

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Type 4: Variable Speed WTG


Asynchronous generators with full
converter interface

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Type 4: Variable Speed WTG Asynchronous


generators with full converter interface
Control input parameters:
Most of the parameters are given and unique for a specific turbine
turbine.
This data will be made available from WECC or turbine manufacturers.
WIND PLANT SPECIFIC ADJUSTMENTS:
varflg and vltflg are flags that must be set by the user based on the setting defined
for each wind power plant to be included in the case study.
Fn = fraction of WTG on the wind plant that are on-line. Used only for VAR control
gain adjustment
PFAref = initialized from load flow data
Refer to type 3 description of Remote Control Voltage Vc and Vrfq
Turbine model is ignored.

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Example Data of WTG Type 4


Generator/converter
G
t /
t model
d l
W4G1U-PSSE Data

0.02
0.02
0.4
0.9
1.11
1.2
2.0
2.0
0.02

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Example Data of WTG Type 4


Generator/converter
G
t /
t model
d l
WT4G-PSLF Data

I Qcmd

-1
1+ 0.02s

(efd)
From
wt4e

High Voltage
Reactive Current
s0

Management

LVPL & rrpwr


IPcmd

Low Voltage
Active Current

IPlv

1
1+ 0.02s

(ladifd)
From
wt4t

Isorc

Management
s1

LVPL

Vterm
Lvpl1

Lvplsw = 0

LVPL

Lvplsw = 1
V
zerox
(0.50)

brkpt
(0.90)

1
1+ 0.02s

jX"
s2

Low Voltage Power Logic

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Example Data of WTG Type 4


Electrical
El t i l Control
C t l Model
M d l
W4E1U-PSSE Data

0.15
18.0
5.0
0.05
0.10
00
0.0
0.08
0.47
-0.47
1.1
0.0
0.5
-0.5
0.05
01
0.1
0.9
1.1
120.0
0.05
0 05
0.05
1.7
1.11
1.11

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Example Data of WTG Type 4


Electrical
El t i l Control
C t l Model
M d l

W4E1U-PSSE Data

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Example Data of WTG Type 4


Excitation Control Model
WT4E-PSLF Data

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Example Data of WTG Type 4


Electrical Control Model
Excitation Control Model

Vrfq

WT4E-PSLF Data

(vref)

Vreg

1
1+ sTr

Qmax

Kiv/s

s4

1/fN

Kpv
1+ sTv

s3

Qwv

Qord

1
1+ sTc
s5

Qmin

varflg

s2

WindCONTROL
Emulator

Qref

PFAref

(vref)

tan

(vref)

Qmax

-1
1

P,Q Priority Flag


(pqflag)

Qcmd

Qmin
0

Pelec

1
1+ sTp

Qord

Iqmn

(vref)

Vt

Iqmx

Iqmx

Iqmn

s6

pfaflg

Iqmxv

Q Priority

P Priority

1.6
qmax
Vt
1.0

-1

Iqhl

Qgen
Vmax

Qcmd

+
Vterm

Iqmx
Vref

Kqi / s
s0

Vmin

+ -

P,Q Priority Flag

IQcmd

-1

Iqmxv
Minimum
Minimum

Minimum

Kvi / s
s1

Iqmn

Converter Current Limit

(efd)

to Wind
Generator
Model
wt4g
IQcmd

ImaxTD

ImaxTD2 - IPcmd2

ImaxTD2 - IQcmd2
Iphl

Pordd
(vsig)

from Wind
Turbine Model
wt4t

Porx

.
.

Ipmx

IPcmd

Minimum

Minimum

Ipmx

Ipmx

(ladifd)

Vterm

to Wind
Generator Model
wt4g

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

IPcmd

Example Data of WTG Type 4


Electrical Control Model
Power Converter Dynamic
PSLF Data

Pref

Pelec
From Wind
Generator Model
wt4g
(pelec)

1
1 + sTpw
s0

Pref

dPmx

piin

Kpp +

Kip
s
s1

piou

Pord

To wt4e
(vsig)

dPmn

sKf
1 + sTf
s2

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

Type 4: Variable Speed WTG Asynchronous


generators with full converter interface
Terminal Voltage

Real Power

Reactive Power

Frequency

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC