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2 Emissions inventory

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2 Emissions Inventory
The emissions inventory was one of the main phases of the present project and was aiming to
the collection and processing of appropriate data for the estimation of air pollutants emissions
from different sources. Usually, much of this information is available through the databanks
of EUROSTAT, but in case of Cyprus this was not the case. This was the first time that a
systematic and coherent inventory was performed. As explained in the following sections,
some data was available from different departments, but this had been collected for other
purposes and no effort has been made before for the calculation of emissions. Apparently, the
work performed within the framework of this project is a first good approximation and has set
the basis for continuous improvement and update of the developed database in order to
achieve the smallest possible uncertainty, an inherent parameter of the emissions inventory
process.
The year 2001 is the reference year for this emissions inventory and all projections for the
future need to be performed based on that year.
The air pollution sources being considered in this project are treated as linear, point and area
sources and cover:

Emissions due to road traffic


Emissions due to the use of industrial boilers
Emissions due to dry cleaners
Emissions from the hotel industry
Emissions due to domestic heating, heating in hospitals/other buildings
Emissions due to agricultural activities
Emissions due to petrol stations
Emissions from airports

The air pollutants being considered here are:

Oxides of nitrogen (NOx)


Sulphur dioxide (SO2)
Carbon monoxide (CO)
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)
Particulate Matter (PM)

Maps of the emissions estimates have been created which in conjunction with the in-situ
performed measurements will be the main tool for the presentation and evaluation of the
projects findings
The following sections give a relatively brief description of the process being followed for the
estimation of the emissions from each of the above sources (further details are include in the
Annex) and include an overall view of the results of the inventory. The last section of this
report includes some suggestions for the expansion of the performed emissions inventory.

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2 Emissions inventory

2.1

Road Traffic Emissions

The COPERT methodology/program has been prepared to introduce the road traffic emissions
inventory in the CORINAIR framework and has been proposed to be used by EEA member
countries for the compilation of CORINAIR emission inventories. The equations given in the
CORINAIR have been adopted for the calculation of the vehicles emissions in this project.
Total emissions estimates are calculated with combination of firmed technical data (e.g.
emissions factors) and activity data (e.g. number of vehicles per category, per unit time). The
emissions of the traffic sector depend on a variety of factors such as the distance that each
vehicle covers, its speed (or road type), its age, engine size, and weight. As will be explained
later, the split of vehicles into categories is necessary. The general equation for the estimation
of emissions is the following:
Emissions per period of time (g) = Emission factor (gr/km) x Number of vehicles (veh) x
Mileage per vehicle per period of time (km/veh)
Vehicles emissions are heavily dependent on the engine's operation conditions. Different
driving situations impose different engine operation conditions and therefore a distinct
emissions performance. In order to account for these variations in driving performance, three
driving modes have been defined (EMEP/CORINAIR approach), namely urban driving, rural
driving and highway driving. Different activity data and emissions factors have been used for
each driving situation. Also, vehicles emissions are directly related to the engines
technology (e.g. catalytic, non-catalytic vehicles, open loop, uncontrolled vehicles). These
parameters are explained in detailed in the Annex, and a brief description is given in the
following sections. The pollutants that are being estimated based on the COPERT emission
factors are nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOC)
and particulate matter (PM), while for the estimation of the sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions a
different approach is applied, as explained in the following section.
Methodology
The estimation of the air pollutants emissions due to road traffic depends on:

the main vehicles category

the vehicles engine technology, meaning the emission control technology

the vehicles engine capacity (cylinder capacity) or the vehicles weight class

the mean vehicles speed according to the driving mode (urban, rural, highway)

the emission factors being applied, and

the quality of fuel being used

The emission performances of different types of vehicles vary considerably, so it is necessary


to establish a classification in which the vehicles in each class display sufficient homogeneity
to be treated as a single group. The main vehicles categories being considered in this project
are the following:

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Passengers' cars (PC): gasoline and diesel vehicles used for the carriage of passengers and
comprising not more than 8 seats in addition to the drivers seat. This
category does not include the so called in Cyprus commercial cars
that have only front seats. These are included in the LDV category.
Light duty vehicles (LDV): vehicles used for the carriage of goods and having a maximum
weight not exceeding 2.5 tones (e.g. vehicles with only front seats,
single and double cabin pick-up trucks, small vans)
Heavy-duty vehicles (HDV): vehicles used for the carriage of goods and having a maximum
weight exceeding 2.5 tones (e.g. trucks, fort lifts). In this category
include all construction and big agricultural vehicles.
Buses (B):

Vehicles used for the carriage of passengers and comprising more than
8 seats in addition to the drivers seat.

2-wheeled vehicles (2-W): motor vehicles with less than four wheels
Within each of these five main categories there is still a diversity of vehicle types, with
respect to their emissions and operational characteristics. Therefore, for the estimation of the
emissions, it was necessary to define a further sub-classification of the vehicles so that each
group displays a reasonably uniform emissions performance. The main criteria involved in
this classification are:

the vehicle type (PC, LDV, HDV, B, 2-W)

the vehicle size (engine capacity or gross weight)

the level of emission control (according to the EU emission control legislation)

the fuel being used (petrol, diesel, LPG)

the engine (for the 2-W 4 strokes or 2 strokes)

In order to identify the level of emission control, the years of introduction of the various
amendments to EU legislation is linked to the model years of vehicles within the fleet. Table
A 2.1 in the Annex includes all the categories being adopted by the COPERT methodology. It
must be kept in mind that the different Member States have some differences in the
procedures they follow. Future vehicles categories are not included.
As evident from the classification of vehicles in Table A2.1 of Annex A2 there is a need for a
detailed database of the registered vehicles fleet. Unfortunately, for the case of Cyprus there
is no much of information concerning the technology of the registered fleet. Therefore
appropriate assumptions and reconstruction of the fleet categorization were necessary. It has
been assumed that the manufacturing year of the registered vehicles is directly related to the
technology restrictions implied from the EU regulations. However, this assumption could not
be applied universally since the use of unleaded gasoline in Cyprus was introduced in 1992,
meaning that before 1992 even new vehicles were non-catalytic, despite the corresponding
EU regulations for the Member States. In order to overcome the lack of information of the
registered vehicles, the COPERT categorization of the vehicles has been modified as follows
for the purposes of the present project (Table 2.1):

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Table 2.1. Modified Vehicles Categorization for Cyprus


Category

Fuel used

Size

Manufactured

Level of Control

Passengers

Petrol

< 1.4 l

Until 1971

Pre-regulation

1972 - 1977

70/220

1978 - 1980

77/102/EEC

1981 -1985

78/665/EEC

1986 - 1991

83/351/EEC

1992 - 2001

Improved

1992 - 1996

91/441/EEC

1997 2000

94/12/EEC

2001 - today

(EURO III)

Until 1971

Pre-regulation

1972 - 1977

70/220

1978 - 1980

77/102/EEC

1981 -1985

78/665/EEC

1986 - 1991

83/351/EEC

1992 - 2001

Improved

1992 - 1996

91/441/EEC

1997 2000

94/12/EEC

2001 - today

(EURO III)

Until 1971

Pre-regulation

1972 - 1977

70/220

1978 - 1980

77/102/EEC

1981 -1985

78/665/EEC

1986 - 1991

83/351/EEC

1992 2001

Improved

1992 - 1996

91/441/EEC

1997 - 2000

94/12/EEC

2001 - today

(EURO III)

before 1985

Uncontrolled

1986 - 1996

88/436

1996 - 2000

94/12/EEC

2001 - today

(EURO III)

before 1985

Uncontrolled

1986 - 1996

88/436

1996 - 2000

94/12/EEC

2001 - today

(EURO III)

before 1995

Uncontrolled

Vehicles

1995 1998

93/59/EEC

(LDV)

1998 2000

96/69/EEC

Cars (PC)

1.4 2.0 l

> 2.0 l

Passengers

Diesel

< 2.0 l

cars

> 2.0 l

Light Duty

Petrol

< 3.5 t

&

&

&

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2 Emissions inventory

2001 - today

(EURO III)

before 1995

Uncontrolled

1995 1998

93/59/EEC

1998 - 2000

96/69/EEC

2001 - today

(EURO III)

before 1993

ECE

Duty

1993 1997

91/542/EEC

Vehicles

1997 - today

91/542/EEC

before 1993

ECE

1993 1997

91/542/EEC

1997 - today

91/542/EEC

before 1993

ECE

1993 1997

91/542/EEC

1997 - today

91/542/EEC

before 1993

ECE

1993 1997

91/542/EEC

1997 - today

91/542/EEC

before 1993

ECE

1993 1997

91/542/EEC

1997 today

91/542/EEC

up to 1996

EXE R 47

1997 1998

COM(93)449

after 1999

COM(93)449

> 50 cc

up to 1996

ECE R 40.01

4 strokes

after 1997

COM(93)449

> 50 cc

up to 1996

ECE R 40.01

2 strokes

after 1997

COM(93)449

Diesel

Heavy

Diesel

(HDV)

< 3.5 t

3.5 7.5 t

7.5 16 t

16 32 t

32 40 t

> 40 t

Buses

Diesel

R49

R49

R49

R49

R49

Urban buses
Tourist buses

2-wheeled

Petrol

< 50 cc

vehicles

The main modifications of the applied categorization is related to the passenger cars (PC),
where all the vehicles without catalytic converter and being manufactured after 1986 are
considered to belong to the class improved conventional.
As mentioned in the introduction, the emissions (E) can be calculated if the emissions per unit
of activity (e=emission factor, expressed in g of emitted pollutant per covered distance in km),
the number of vehicles in each defined category (n per unit time) and the covered distance (l
in km/unit time) are known, according to the formula:
E = e * n * l (in kg of pollutants per unit time)
It is obvious that the above equation has to be applied for each vehicle category and each road
separately, since the emissions factors and the activity (traffic load and distance) are different.
Consequently, the data required include:

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the distance traveled in each case, or equivalently the length of each road segment

the average speed on each road segment (in km/unit time)

the emission factor

the number of vehicles in each vehicle category on each road (traffic load)

The following sub-sections briefly describe the methodology followed for the collection of
the required information, where a more detailed description is provided in the Annex A2.
Road length
For the identification of the length of each road segment the development of a GIS
(Geographical Information System) application was necessary. This application was
including the digitization of the road network of the island and the use of appropriate
software. An electronic map with the highways network and the 2-lanes roads of both GCC
and TCC. The map was in raster format and had to be converted into vector format, in order
to provide geographical information. For the cities, the paper maps of 1:7500 scale were
scanned and geo-referenced, in order to provide the basis for the identification (name) of
roads included in the provided electronic map and for further digitization of the road network.
The length of each of the digitized roads was calculated with the use of an appropriate script
and it is provided into meters (m). More information about the digitization of the road maps
and the categorization of the road network are provided in following paragraphs and in the
Annex.
Mean speed
Different approaches have been used for the estimation of the mean speed of vehicles. These
include: a) the use of radar device for the measurement of the speed on the left lane of
selected roads during selected periods of the day and b) the monitoring of the time required to
drive specific distances on selected roads during selected periods of the day. Comparison the
results of these two approaches indicated an averaged agreement better than 15%, which
ranges within the acceptable accuracy of emissions inventories. However, since the daily
emissions have been decided to be reported, an estimate of the mean daily speed of each road
was made based on the road category (main city road, secondary city road, highway, rural
road, etc), the mean traffic load and the personal experience of the persons responsible for the
emissions inventory. For the cases of highways a mean speed of 110 km/hr in GCC and 100
km/hr in TCC has been considered, for the rural roads the corresponding adopted mean speeds
are km/h in GCC and km/h in TCC, while for the cities roads the monitored traffic load was
the main criterion. It is worth mentioning here that although the mean vehicle speed is an
independent variable in the emission factors functions, the uncertainty introduced by the
speed is relatively small compared to the uncertainties due to the different assumptions in
emissions inventories. The average deviation of the Copert NOx emission factors at 39 km/h
compared with 46 km/h is +/- 5,66%.
Emission factors
For the needs of the present project the emission factors given in the COPERT have been
applied. These factors are usually expressed as function of the vehicles speed (in several
cases different emission factors are used for different speed ranges), the considered air
pollutant and vehicles category. The full equations were introduced in a FORTAN code

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prepared for the needs of the project. Totally, 230 emission factors equations are being
applied.
Traffic load
The assign of an appropriate traffic load in each road of the network is a time consuming
process and several assumptions are required. The data being used for the assignment of the
loads is coming from:

Analytical traffic load measurements performed by the team in cities of both GCC and
TCC, meaning monitoring of the vehicles of the 5 main categories with the use of manual
counters for 16 hours, covering the period 06:00 to 22:00. A methodology was developed
(see Annex) for the expansion of the measurements during the nighttime (00:00 to 06:00
and 22:00 to 24:00).

Semi-analytical traffic load measurements have been performed for GCC urban roads,
meaning combination of hourly total traffic loads with the use of automatic monitoring
sensors and analytical traffic loads with the use of manual counters for specific periods of
the day. These measurements have been made available to the emissions inventory team.
A methodology was developed (see Annex A2) for the split of the total traffic loads into
the 5 main categories.

Total traffic load measurements have been performed and estimated in the GCC rural
network and highways. The results have been taken from an existing annual report. These
are measurements performed with automatic devices and a methodology has been
developed (see Annex A2) for the expansion of the categorization of the provided data.

Estimates of the traffic loads in the TCC rural and highways network. Since no
information is available for the rural network of TCC and manual measurements could not
be performed within the frame of the present project a methodology based on the
comparisons of the TCC vehicles fleet to that of GCC and the corresponding traffic loads
has been applied (see Annex A2).

For the categorization of the GCC urban network, the categorization provided in the 1:7500
paper maps has been adopted. According to this, the roads are separated into main roads
(being colored as brown in the paper maps), secondary roads (being colored as yellow) and
roads with less traffic (being colored as white). In the case of the TCC urban network, since
no official categorization is available, the TCC team prepared the required categorization
based on their own experience. All the main and secondary roads in all cities are included in
the finally produced digitized maps and an appropriate traffic load has been assigned to them,
as explained in the following paragraph. The same is true for several less frequently used
roads.
The information on the traffic loads of the rural, urban and highways network that is included
in the database of the present project has been assigned on each road separately. In cases that
there are classified roads for which no direct data are available, then the average traffic load
of the corresponding road category in the corresponding urban region is assigned. For
example, the traffic load assigned to a yellow road in the city of Limassol for which no
analytical data are available is the mean load of all yellow roads of the city of Limassol for
which data are available. Statistically is expected the assigned load not to introduce great
uncertainty in the overall calculations. Special treatment has been introduced for the
residential areas (see Annex), since the digitized maps do not include all the residential roads.

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According to the developed methodology, the GCC residential areas are classified into 3
categories on the basis of their building density, as evident from the 1:7500 paper maps and in
comparison to the GCC Nicosia residential areas, for which analytical information is
available, appropriate emissions are assigned. The main assumption made here is that the
traffic load in residential areas is proportional to the building density of the area.
As mentioned before, the COPERT methodology provides different emission factor equations
for the different vehicles categories; therefore the initial 5 main categories had to further be
splitted. The composition of the fleet of the registered vehicles has been used for this split.
Tables 2.2 to 2.3 and Figures 2.1 to 2.2 show the fleet composition in GCC and TCC, while
the methodology for the split of the fleet as appears in the tables is described in detailed in the
Annex. One main assumption made for the calculation of the emissions is that the
composition of the entire registered vehicles fleet is representative of the composition of the
fleet moving in the individual urban, rural and highway road network. Since no information
on the registered catalytic passenger cars vehicles is available the consumption of unleaded
gasoline (Figure 2.3) since the year of its introduction in the market was used for the
estimation of the percentage of passenger cars with catalytic converter (see Annex for the
applied methodology).

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Table 2.2. Composition of the GCC vehicles fleet
Type of
vehicle

Fuel

Engine capacity / load

2001

19972000

19921996

19861991

19811985

19781980

19721977

Before
1971

Passengers

Petrol

< 1400 cc

3013

11456

36511

32038

16171

4279

3251

2411

1400-2000 cc

4932

17691

60377

31327

10702

2483

2267

1725

> 2000 cc

466

1463

2868

1792

1159

295

422

243

< 2000 cc

387

874

6909

1161

850

178

82

27

> 2000 cc

813

4041

7359

4659

2141

572

454

220

Petrol

< 3,5 tns

88

486

1772

2468

3329

924

1061

375

Diesel

> 3,5 tns

6656

23166

29177

28677

7594

1011

74

84

HDV

Diesel

> 3,5 tns

768

2608

6099

6166

4090

1990

3400

1986

Buses

Diesel

Public

57

232

272

360

151

126

236

118

Coaches

77

352

499

344

94

39

39

< 50 cc

1638

5915

8200

8183

3585

1046

286

191

>50 cc, 2 strokes

804

2449

2483

1282

1056

585

240

160

50-250 cc, 4 strokes

276

840

851

439

362

201

82

55

250-750 cc, 4 strokes

52

157

160

82

68

38

15

10

750 cc, 4 strokes

17

52

53

27

23

13

Cars

Diesel

LDV

2-wheeled
vehicles

Petrol

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2 Emissions inventory
Table 2.3. Composition of the TCC vehicles fleet
Type of
vehicle

Fuel

Engine capacity / load

2001

19972000

19921996

19861991

19811985

19781980

19721977

Before
1971

Passengers

Petrol

< 1400 cc

598

5168

6099

11789

3732

782

6657

23

1400-2000 cc

972

9578

8544

7371

1726

445

4591

37

> 2000 cc

185

3903

1185

485

203

111

751

20

< 2000 cc

91

2219

1264

833

528

48

132

> 2000 cc

149

3663

1205

358

348

134

144

Petrol

< 3,5 tns

77

426

569

560

470

414

1531

Diesel

> 3,5 tns

624

3288

3163

1517

1019

217

513

Diesel

> 3,5 tns

356

1026

1242

1362

1269

315

1209

Petrol

> 3,5 tns

20

14

21

Diesel

Public

50

27

19

Coaches

78

375

325

467

339

68

563

< 50 cc

208

1525

1258

2199

2382

448

917

>50 cc, 2 strokes

95

775

443

1308

1114

3621

1193

50-250 cc, 4 strokes

32

266

152

449

382

124

409

250-750 cc, 4 strokes

50

28

84

72

23

77

750 cc, 4 strokes

17

28

24

26

Cars

Diesel

LDV

HDV

Buses

2-wheeled
vehicles

Petrol

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2 Emissions Inventory

Fleet composition in GCC

Number of vehicles

300000
250000
200000
150000
100000
50000
0
Passengers

LDV

HDV

Buses

2-W

Figure 2.1. Fleet composition in GCC

Number of vehicles

Fleet composition in TCC

100000
80000
60000
40000
20000
0
Passengers

LDV

HDV

Buses

2-W

Figure 2.2. Fleet composition in TCC

Fuel (M. tonnes * 1000)

Total Fuel Consumption for Vehicles

450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
TCC

Leaded

Unleaded

GCC

Figure 2.3. Total fuel consumption for vehicles

Diesel

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Annual Air Pollutants Emissions Traffic Sector


As mentioned in the Introduction, the air pollutants being considered in this study are
nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOC),
particulate matter (PM), and sulphur dioxide (SO2).
The following Table 2.4 includes information about the estimation of the total emissions in
different areas in both communities due to traffic.
Table 2.4. Overall annual air pollutants emissions due to traffic
Region

NOx
(tns/yr)

CO
(tns/yr)

VOC
(tns/yr)

PM
(tns/yr)

SO2
(tns/yr)

Greek Cyprus Community (GCC)


Nicosia urban
area

1776

8372

1436

86

731

Limassol urban
area

1773

7129

1520

143

784

Larnaka urban
area

531

2488

430

34

215

Pafos urban
area

1032

4111

678

65

253

Highways
network

3545

6894

663

111

1825

Rural network

2925

5432

875

164

1866

Total GCC
emissions

11677

35987

6480

540

5674

Turkish Cyprus Community (TCC)

Nicosia urban
area

522

1443

252

22

525

Famagusta
urban area

271

1356

251

12

171

Kerynia urban
area

274

1006

184

153

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2 Emissions Inventory
Morphou urban
area

78

393

99

45

Rural and highway network

529

925

127

18

510

Total TCC
emissions

1674

5123

913

64

1404

Total emissions
due to traffic

13256

39549

8271

667

7078

For the estimation of the SO2 emissions the mean S-content of the fuel has been used.
Specifically:
S-content for Leaded and unleaded gasoline in GCC = 0.1% per weight
S-content for diesel in GCC = 0.8 % per weight
S-content content for Leaded and unleaded gasoline in TCC = 0.005 % per weight
S-content for diesel in TCC = 0.7 % per weight
For the calculation of the SO2 emissions no emission factors are available, since all the Scontent of the fuel being used is converted into SO2. Therefore, for the calculation of the
SO2 emissions it would be necessary to have information on the fuel being consumed from
each vehicle. Since such information is not available, the following methodology was
adopted:
Calculation of the total SO2 emissions due to traffic by combining the total consumption
of fuel in each of the two communities (as given from the official fuel consumption
reports for 2001) with the corresponding S-contents. It was found that 5674400 kg
SO2/year (or 15546,3 kg SO2/day) and 1402700 kg SO2/year (or 3843 kg SO2/day) are
emitted due to traffic in GCC and TCC respectively.
Calculation of the percentage of distances covered in different types of roads with
respect to the length of the entire road network in each community. In other words, the
total road length of the highways, the remaining rural network (B, E and F-roads in GCC
and M and S-roads in TCC) and the main roads in each city separately was calculated.
Then for each category of roads (e.g. GCC-Nicosia road network) the percentage of the
category with respect to the community total network length (GCC network in this case)
was calculated.
Assuming that the SO2 emissions are directly related to the distance covered by the
vehicles then the above percentages were applied on the total daily community SO2
emissions. That way, an estimate of the expected SO2 emissions (in kg/km) due to the
traffic in each of the roads (e.g. in GCC-Nicosia roads in the case of the given example)
is taken. Similar procedure was followed for the residential roads as well.
In Figures 2.4 to 2.9, the daily emissions of NOx and PM for the cities of Nicosia (also
VOC), Limassol, Larnaca and Famagusta and Kyrenia (only NOx, PM emissions are verly
low there) are depicted. Here, the spatial emissions distribution can be observed well.
Further diagrams can be generated with the help of the Annex-CD.

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Figure 2.4. Daily NOx emissions of road transport sector in Nicosia

Figure 2.5. Daily PM emissions of road transport sector in Nicosia

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Figure 2.6. Daily VOC emissions of road transport sector in Nicosia

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Figure 2.7. Daily NOx emissions of road transport sector in Limassol

Figure 2.8. Daily PM emissions of road transport sector in Limassol

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Figure 2.9. Daily NOx emissions of road transport sector in Larnaca

Figure 2.10. Daily PM emissions of road transport sector in Larnaca

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Figure 2.11. Daily NOx emissions of road transport sector in Famagusta

Figure 2.12. Daily PM emissions of road transport sector in Famagusta

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2.2 Industrial Emissions


2.2.1 Industrial Boilers
The pollutants emitted from the heavy industry, such as the Petroleum Refinery and the
Power Generation Plans and the operation of the registered boilers are included here. All
these are considered as individual point sources and the coordinates of the corresponding
industry are assigned to each source.
The pollutants considered are NOx, SO2, CO, PM and non-methane total organic compounds
(TOC). Nitrogen oxides (NOx =NO + NO2) formed in combustion processes are due either
to thermal fixation of atmospheric nitrogen in the combustion air or to the conversion of
chemically bound nitrogen in the fuel. The rate of CO emissions from combustion sources
depends on the oxidation efficiency of the fuel. By controlling the combustion process
carefully, the CO emissions can be minimized. Thus if a unit is operated improperly or not
well maintained, the resulting concentrations of CO might increase by several orders of
magnitude. Smaller boilers, heaters and furnaces tend to emit more of these pollutants than
larger combustors. This is because smaller units have a higher ratio of heat transfer surface
area to flame volume than larger combustors have. In any case, the presence of CO in the
exhaust gases of combustion systems results from the incomplete fuel combustion. The SO2
emissions are directly related to the S-content of the fuels being used, while the PM
emissions depend on the fuel composition. Small amounts of TOC are also emitted from
combustion. The rate at which organic compounds are emitted depends mainly on the
combustion efficiency of the boilers. Therefore, any combustion modification, which
reduces the combustion efficiency, will most likely increase the concentration of organic
compounds in the flue gases. TOC include VOCs, semi-volatile organic compounds and
condensable organic compounds. Emissions of VOCs are primarily unburned vapor phase
hydrocarbons. These include essentially all vapor phase organic compounds (aliphatic,
oxygenated and low molecular weight aromatic compounds) emitted from a combustion
source (e.g. alkanes, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, benzene, toluene, xylene, ethyl benzene).
The remaining organic emissions are composed largely of compounds emitted in condensed
phase, and can be classified under the group known as polycyclic aromatic matter (POM)
and the subset of compounds called polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). For the
purpose of our study we are applying the emission factor for the non-methane TOC for the
calculation of the VOC emissions. The overestimation in the emissions that might result
from this assumption is not considered significant since VOC is the largest part of NMTOC.
In TCC several enterprises are using Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). Since we were not
able to identify emission factors specific for liquified petroleum gas, the emissions factors
given for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) were used (Toleris 2004). Given that liquified
petroleum gas is mainly consisted of propane and butane while liquified petroleum gas of
methane and ethane, it is expected the use of these emissions factors to underestimate the
emissions of CO and PM and overestimate the emissions of VOC. It is believed that these
discrepancies fall well within the uncertainties of an emission inventory, taking into account
the relatively small consumption of liquified petroleum gas.
Two methods are followed for the estimation of the pollutants emitted:

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Use of available emission data: This is data coming either from direct measurements
at the industries chimneys, or estimates of the pollutants emitted based on the
consumption and the specifications of the fuel being used.

Estimation of the emissions based on the consumption of fuel: In this case a list of
the registered boilers for GCC was made available to the emissions inventory team with
the name, the address, the activity of the industry operating a boiler and the vapor
production capacity of the boilers. The emissions inventory team visited each of these
industries/enterprises, registered their geographical position with the use of a GPS
(Global Position System) and interviewed the shift engineer or technician in order to
retrieve information about the type of fuel and the quantities being used per unit time, as
well as the operation hours of the boilers. This information was registered in preprepared forms and then was introduced in a database. The same procedure was
followed for TCC, and the information was made directly available to the emissions
inventory responsible scientist directly by the TCC projects team.

It is worth mentioning that the inventory team faced difficulties to retrieve the requested
information. Furthermore, in some cases the registered enterprises could not be found due
to incorrect or incomplete position information in the lists provided to the team.
Since the CORINAIR database provides only ranges of emissions factors for different types
of boilers, the fuel consumption was used for the calculation of the emissions based on
emission factors provided from the US Environmental Protection Agency. These factors are
based on direct experimental results (emission factor rating A) or on estimates (emission
factor rating B), and their value depends on the boilers capacity. Two main categories are
considered: boilers of capacity more than 100 million Btu/hr (= 341,3 MW) and less than
100 million Btu/hr. In the first category fall the boilers of the Cyprus Petroleum Refining
and those of the power plants in both TCC and GCC. For the case of GCC direct emissions
data is included while in the case of the power plant in TCC the corresponding emissions
factors have been used. Tables 2.5 and 2.6 give the emissions factors that were used for
the present study, along with the emission factor rating for each factor (letter in parenthesis).
3

Table 2.5. EPA Emissions Factors (in kg/10 L of fuel)


Fuel

NOx

CO

SO2

PM

VOC

Diesel

2,4 (A)

0,6 (A)

17,04 S (A)

0,24 (A)

0,024 (A)

Light Fuel Oil (LFO)

2,4 (A)

0,6 (A)

18 S (A)

0,84 (B)

0,024 (A)

5,64 (B)

0,6 (A)

18,84 S (A)

1,2 (B)

0,1356 (A)

Boilers < 100 million Btu/hr

Boilers > 100 million Btu/hr


Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO)

S indicates that the weight % of sulphur in the oil should be multiplied by the value given.
For diesel the mean S-content is 0,6% per weight in GCC and 0,7% per weight in TCC,
while for light fuel oil the mean S-content is 2% per weight in GCC (no light fuel oil is
being used in TCC).

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Table 2.6. Emissions Factors for industrial boilers (in kg/10 L of fuel)
Fuel

NOx

CO

SO2

PM

VOC

5,02

0,33

0,01

0,11

0,063

Boilers < KW
Liquified pertoleum
gas (LPG)

As evident from the above Tables 2.5 and 2.6, the type and the quantity of fuel being used
per unit time (daily in our case) is the required information for the estimation of the air
pollutants emissions. In some cases, not the fuel quantity consumed was acquired from the
enterprises but the cost of the fuel consumed. In these cases an averaged price of 0,25
CYP/L of diesel and 0,17 CYP/L of light fuel oil was used for the calculation of the fuel
being purchased. For the conversion of fuel mass into fuel volume the following mean
densities have been used:
diesel = 0,8414 kg/L

LFO = 0,93 kg/L

HFO = 0,95 kg/L

LPG = 0,5 kg/L

Overall, the database being created within the framework of the present project includes
information from 194 industries in GCC and 125 in TCC, and the total emissions are given
in Table 2.7.
Table 2.7. Air Emissions from Industrial Point Sources
Boilers
Registered in

NOx (tns/yr)

CO (tns/yr)

TOC (tns/yr)

PM (tns/yr)

SO2 (tns/yr)

GCC

10782

117

509

1452

30388

TCC

965

104

203

9544

TOTAL

11747

221

515

1655

39932

Figure 2.10 depicts the daily NOx emissions of boilers in Cyprus.

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2-22

Figure 2.13. Daily NOx Emissions of Boilers

2.2.2 Dry Cleaners


Dry cleaners and industrial laundries are point sources. The reason that they are treated
separately from the industrial boilers, described in the previous paragraph, is due to the use
of solvents, meaning that except the emissions due to the use of fuel for the boilers there are
additional emissions of VOCs due to the evaporation into the atmosphere of the solvents. It
is assumed that all the used solvent eventually evaporates into the atmosphere, so the
applied emission factor is equal to 1. The amount of the VOC emissions due to solvents
depends on the technology applied, meaning if the enterprise has a closed circulation solvent
system or not, and it is reflected to the amount of solvent consumed.
As in the cases of the industrial boilers a visit was paid to the registered dry cleaners where
the owner was interviewed for the type and the amount of fuel as well as of solvents being
used. The fuels being used are diesel and light fuel oil. The geographical position of each
dry cleaner was recorded with the use of a GPS device. Some of the dry cleaners are using
electricity for the production of water vapor and in these cases only the amount of solvents
being consumed was recorded. In a few cases, no information was available from the
owners of the dry cleaners; therefore an indirect methodology was used to estimate the
amount of fuel being used. As mentioned in the previous section, one of the information
that was made available was the vapor production of the registered boilers in GCC.
Theoretically, the vapor production is directly related to the amount of consumed fuel. The
detailed information from the dry cleaners in Nicosia-GCC was used for the calculation of
the vapor production to fuel consumption ratio. This ratio was calculated to be 13,514 and it
was applied to all cases that analytical information could not be retrieved. This way the
total amount of fuel being consumed was calculated. In order to identify the amounts of

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diesel and light fuel oil being consumed, the mean contribution of each of these fuels to the
total fuel consumption in the dry cleaners of the different counties (Nicosia, Limassol,
Larnaka and Pafos) was calculated and then it was applied to the corresponding cases that
information was missing.
Overall, the present database includes information from 198 dry cleaners and industrial
laundries in GCC and in TCC. Table 2.8 includes the air pollutants emissions calculated
using the EPA emission factors for the different types of fuel, assuming 282 working days
per year in GCC (most of the dry cleaners operate on Saturday as well) and 240 working
days per year in TCC:
Table 2.8. Emissions of dry cleaners
Dry
cleaners
in

Light Fuel
Oil
consume
d (?)

Diesel
consume
d

Solvent
consume
d

(tns/yr)

(tns/yr)

NOx
(tn/yr)

CO
(tn/yr)

VOC
(tn/yr)

PM
(tn/yr)

SO2
(tn/yr)

GCC
(198)

7273

4196

209

30,7

7,7

209

7,8

333

TCC (12)

46

2,347

0,14

0,04

2,349

0,01

0,6

TOTAL

7273

4242

211

31

211

334

2.2.3 Hotel industry


In the cases of hotels, significant quantities of diesel are being consumed for central heating
during wintertime and water heating during both winter and summertime. Most of the
hotels have solar systems for the water heating, but in cases of large hotels these solar
systems do not satisfy their needs for warm water, therefore boilers are being used.
Although, there is no database with the hotels that do operate boilers for central heating and
water heating, the emissions inventory team tried to retrieve information from at least the
large hotels in GCC. The same was applied to TCC. The hotel apartments and the smaller
hotels are using split units for heating and mostly relay on solar systems for the water
heating. The current database includes information from 118 hotels in GCC and 41 in TCC.
It has to be mentioned that most of the hotels in TCC consume liquified petroleum gas and
since no emissions factors are available for liquified petroleum gas the corresponding
emissions are calculated based on the emissions factors for liquified natural gas as in the
case of industrial boilers, but the factors for heating boilers are a little different than those
for industrial boilers, as evident from Table 2.9:
3

Table 2.9. Emissions Factors for heating boilers (in kg/10 L of fuel)
Fuel

NOx

CO

SO2

PM

VOC

liquified petroleum gas

1,46

1,46

0,01

0,12

0,063

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2 Emissions Inventory

The hotel emissions are given on seasonal basis (winter and summer) due to the different
operational conditions of the hotels. The wintertime includes the period November to
March (5 months) and the summertime the period April to October (7 months). The
following Table 2.10 includes the emissions related to the hotels that are included in the
present project.
Table 2.10. Emissions of Hotels
Hotels in

Wintertime (Nov. Mar.)

Summertime (Apr. Oct.)

NOx
(tn/yr)

CO
(tn/yr)

VOC
(tn/yr)

PM
(tn/yr)

SO2
(tn/yr)

NOx
(tn/yr)

CO
(tn/yr)

VOC
(tn/yr)

PM
(tn/yr)

SO2
(tn/yr)

GCC
(198)

9,6

2,4

0,1

41

9,8

2,5

0,1

41,9

TCC (12)

1,3

0,8

0,03

0,1

3,2

0,9

0,6

0,02

0,08

TOTAL

10,9

3,2

0,13

1,1

47,2

10,7

3,1

0,12

1,1

43,9

2.3 Domestic heating and other sources


2.3.1 Domestic heating
For the calculation of the emissions due to the use of diesel for domestic heating, relevant
information from the latest population census in GCC was used. More specifically, the
census database was including information about the number of occupied housing units with
domestic heating within a community or quarter. Then, all regions were classified into three
categories, namely coastal, mountainous and flat, and a short survey was performed in order
to estimate the average amount of diesel being consumed in a house with central heating in
each of the 3 considered regions. The survey revealed that the diesel consumption for
heating in an average house is 20,5 L/day for houses in flat areas (about 2,5 tons/year), 22
L/day (about 4 tons/year) for houses in mountainous areas and 16,5 L/day (about 2
tons/year) for houses in coastal areas, while the use of central heating lasts for 3,5 months
(120 days) in coastal and flat areas and 5 months (180 days) in mountainous areas.
According to the TCC team, most of the houses in TCC have no central heating; therefore
no emissions from domestic heating TCC are included in the database.Table 2.11gives the
overall emissions due to domestic heating in GCC.
Table 2.11. Emissions due to domestic heating in GCC
Area

Diesel
consumption

NOx (tn/yr)

CO

VOC
(tn/yr)

(tn/yr)

PM

SO2 (tn/yr)

(tn/yr)

Coastal

26207

12,5

18,7

0,7

7,5

318

Mountainous

4869

2,3

3,5

0,1

1,4

59

Flat

106062

50,4

75,6

30,3

1289

TOTAL

137138

65,2

97,8

3,8

39,2

1666

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In addition to domestic heating there are emissions due to heating in other public buildings,
such as hospitals, schools, etc. No data is available for many of these sources, and the
current database includes information about the consumption of fuel for heating from the
main hospitals in GCC and TCC, as well as some public buildings in TCC. Almost all fuel
being used for heating in TCC is liquified petroleum gas. The overall emissions are given
below (Table 2.12):
Table 2.12. Emissions due to heating
Hospitals
and other

Liquified
petroleum gas

Diesel
consumption

(tn/yr)

(tn/yr)

NOx
(tn/yr)

CO

VOC
(tn/yr)

(tn/yr)

GCC

TCC

633

TOTAL

633

2.3.2

0,4

0,3

PM

SO2
(tn/yr)

(tn/yr)

0,02

0,03

0,3

Agriculture

In agriculture, diesel is being used for the operation of electrical generators and for
agricultural vehicles in the fields. No detailed information is available for the consumption
of fuel for agricultural purposes. The only information an official estimation for the
consumption of 41000 tones of diesel in GCC. For the spatial distribution of this quantity,
the main agricultural areas were defined in the GIS application and the fuel as well as the
corresponding emissions have been equally distributed. Due to lack of information, it has
been assumed that all the fuel is being used for the generators, meaning that the emissions
are estimated with the application of the emission factors corresponding to boilers. The
following table 2.13 gives these estimates:

Table 2.13. Emissions due to agriculture in GCC


Community

GCC

Diesel
consumption
(tn/yr)

NOx (tn/yr)

CO
(tn/yr)

VOC
(tn/yr)

PM
(tn/yr)

SO2 (tn/yr)

14000

19,5

29,2

1,1

11,7

498

2.3.3 Petrol Stations


Air emissions from petrol stations are related to evaporations during the pumping of fuel
into the vehicles and evaporations during the storage of fuel to the underground tanks. The
formal emissions could be calculated only if information on the consumption of individual
products from each gas station was available. Unfortunately such information was not made
available to the team from the different oil companies in both communities. The
evaporation during the storage of fuels is considered loss for each gas station and this

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reported loss that was available for GCC was used to directly estimate the emissions, which
are in the form of VOC. For the case of petrol stations in TCC, the team gathered
information about the fuel sales of individual products as these declared from each petrol
station to the tax office in TCC. Then an emission factor equal to 0,25% for leaded and
unleaded gasoline and 0,15% for diesel and kerosene was applied in order to calculate the
mean losses due to storage. For all the petrol stations their geographical position was
identified with the use of the GPS. Overall, the current database includes information from
240 petrol stations in GCC and 109 petrol stations in TCC. The following Table 2.14 gives
the total VOC emissions.
Table 2.14. Total VOC emissions from petrol stations
Gas stations
emissions

GCC

TCC

(240 Gas stations)

(109 gas stations)

532,4

204

VOC (tns/yr)

TOTAL

736,4

2.3.4 Airports
The two airports in GCC and one in TCC are additional emission sources that are included
in the current database. At first approximation, the airports are considered as point sources
and an emission factor of 0,3 on the total aviation kerosene consumption is applied, since on
the average 30% of the fuel is consumed during the taking-off process, while the S-content
of the aviation fuel is 0,01% per weight. Monthly information on the number of taking offs
in both airports in GCC was available along with the total aviation kerosene consumption.
Then the daily emissions per month were calculated for both airports. For the case of TCC
only the monthly mean fuel consumption for summertime and wintertime was available.
This information was treated as before in order to estimate the relevant emissions. The
following Ttables 2.15 and 2.16 give the overall information:

Table 2.15. Emissions due to aircrafts taking off during wintertime


Airports in

Kerosene
consumption

NOx
(tn/season)

CO

VOC
(tn/season)

(tn/season)

PM

SO2
(tn/season)

(tn/season)

(tn/season)
GCC
(2 airports)
TCC
(1 airport)
TOTAL

89847

81

20,3

0,8

28,3

5,8

500

0,5

0,1

0,005

0,2

0,03

90347

81,5

20,4

0,805

28,5

5,83

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2 Emissions Inventory

Table 2.16. Emissions due to aircrafts taking off during summertime


Airports in

Kerosene
consumption

NOx
(tn/season)

CO

VOC
(tn/season)

(tn/season)

PM

SO2
(tn/season)

(tn/season)

(tn/season)
GCC
(2 airports)

313601

175,6

43,9

1,8

61,4

12,4

TCC
(1 airport)

910

0,8

0,2

0,008

0,3

0,06

314511

176,4

44,1

1,808

61,7

12,46

TOTAL

2.4 Total emissions in Cyprus


The emissions of the different sources have been summarized and calculated for each area
within the 1x1 km of whole Cyprus including the cities. For the components NOx, SO2 and
PM the total emissions distribution is depicted in the 1x1 km grided map of Cyprus (see
Figures 2.11, 2.15. and 2.19). As an exampler for the emissions distribution in the cities, the
NOx, PM and VOC gridded maps of Nicosia, Limassol and Kyrenia are shown in the
Figures 2.12 to 2.14, 2.16. to 2.18 and 2.20 to 2.22.

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2-28

Figure 2.14. Total daily NOx emissions in Cyprus

Figure 2.15. Total daily NOx emissions in Nicosia

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2-29

Figure 2.16. Total daily NOx emissions in Limassol

Figure 2.17. Total daily NOx emissions in Kyrenia

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2-30

Figure 2.18. Total daily SO2 emissions in Cyprus

Figure 2.19. Total daily SO2 emissions in Nicosia

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2-31

Figure 2.20. Total daily SO2 emissions in Limassol

Figure 2.21. Total daily SO2 emissions in Kyrenia

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2-32

Figure 2.22. Total daily VOC emissions in Cyprus

Figure 2.23. Total daily VOC emissions in Nicosia

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2-33

Figure 2.24. Total daily VOC emissions in Limassol

Figure
2.25.Total
Totaldaily
dailyVOC
VOC
emissions
in Kyrenia
Figure 2.25.
emissions
in Kyrenia

2 Emissions Inventory

2-34

Figure 2.26. Total daily PM emissions in Cyprus

Figure
2.27.
Total
daily
emissions
in Nicosia
Figure
2.24.
Total
daily
PMPM
emissions
in Nicosia

2 Emissions Inventory

2-35

Figure 2.28. Total daily PM emissions in Limassol

Figure 2.29. Total daily PM emissions in Kyrenia

2 Emissions Inventory

2-36

2.5 Uncontrolled diffusive emission sources


Besides the emissions and their sources mentioned in the chapters before there are other
sources which can be categorized as follows:
2.5.1 Sources the emissions of which are difficult to be estimated

Official waste dumping areas

Quarries and mines. A map with the sites of quarries and mines in Cyprus is shown
in Figure 2.30. It is obvious that in the vicinity of quarries increased PM
concentrations and dust depositions are occurring.

Unpaved roads

Stockbreeding installations

The estimation of emissions from these sources would require the design of special
monitoring network or special investigations for the acquisition of information that could be
considered representative for each of the above sources.

Figure 2.30. Sites of mines and quarries in GCC Cyprus

2.5.2 Existence of unknown and uncontrolled sources


Within uncontrolled sources the following activities or events can be categorized:

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2-37

The fertilization and spraying of agricultural areas


the unofficial waste burning areas
the agricultural burning areas
the burning of used tires
the accidental fires

The emissions of such sources is impossible to be determined, since no information about


them is available or can be retrieved.
The waste burning, outside the 6 official waste dumping areas in GCC is forbidden and is
considered illegal action. However, a considerable percentage of the villages have their own
waste damping/burning area, usually just a few kilometers away from the villages
boundaries. Unfortunately, the local authorities have not managed yet to control this illegal
activity. In TCC the situation is similar, although there are many more waste dumping areas
officially registered, where the dumping is expected to be controlled. The burning of the
straw after the cereals reaping period, of the cut branches after the pruning period and of the
dry grass are other illegal action that take place extensively in agricultural regions and
contribute to the emission of mainly CO2, CO, unburned hydrocarbons and particulate
matter into the atmosphere. Although the authorities do not allow the uncontrolled
agricultural burning, since it is one of the main causes for fires, the farmers continue the
burning. Such sources are expected to have some contribution to the overall emissions
during early winter and early summer. Unfortunately, the burning of used tires continues
especially in the countryside and is an uncontrolled source of black smoke (soot particles)
and hydrocarbons. Finally, the accidental fires contribute to the atmospheric emissions and
take place usually during the summertime. As mentioned before, the agricultural burning is
several times the cause of these fires.