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Designation: D 1142 95 (Reapproved 2000)

Standard Test Method for

Water Vapor Content of Gaseous Fuels by


Measurement of Dew-Point Temperature1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 1142; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.

2.1.1 saturated water vapor or equilibrium watervapor


contentthe water vapor concentration in a gas mixture that is
in equilibrium with a liquid phase of pure water that is
saturated with the gas mixture. When a gas containing water
vapor is at the water dew-point temperature, it is said to be
saturated at the existing pressure.
2.1.2 specific volumeof a gaseous fuel, the volume of the
gas in cubic feet per pound.
2.1.3 water dew-point temperatureof a gaseous fuel, the
temperature at which the gas is saturated with water vapor at
the existing pressure.

1. Scope
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the water
vapor content of gaseous fuels by measurement of the dewpoint temperature and the calculation therefrom of the water
vapor content.
NOTE 1Some gaseous fuels contain vapors of hydrocarbons or other
components that easily condense into liquid and sometimes interfere with
or mask the water dew point. When this occurs, it is sometimes very
helpful to supplement the apparatus in Fig. 1 with an optical attachment2
that uniformly illuminates the dewpoint mirror and also magnifies the
condensate on the mirror. With this attachment it is possible, in some
cases, to observe separate condensation points of water vapor, hydrocarbons, and glycolamines as well as ice points. However, if the dew point of
the condensable hydrocarbons is higher than the water vapor dew point,
when such hydrocarbons are present in large amounts, they may flood the
mirror and obscure or wash off the water dew point. Best results in
distinguishing multiple component dew points are obtained when they are
not too closely spaced.
NOTE 2Condensation of water vapor on the dew-point mirror may
appear as liquid water at temperatures as low as 0 to 10F (18
to 23C). At lower temperatures an ice point rather than a water dew
point likely will be observed. The minimum dew point of any vapor that
can be observed is limited by the mechanical parts of the equipment.
Mirror temperatures as low as 150F (100C) have been measured,
using liquid nitrogen as the coolant with a thermocouple attached to the
mirror, instead of a thermometer well.

3. Significance and Use


3.1 Generally, contracts governing the pipeline transmission
of natural gas contain specifications limiting the maximum
concentration of water vapor allowed. Excess water vapor can
cause corrosive conditions, degrading pipelines and equipment.
It can also condense and freeze or form methane hydrates
causing blockages. Watervapor content also affects the heating value of natural gas, thus influencing the quality of the gas.
This test method permits the determination of water content of
natural gas.
4. Apparatus
4.1 Any properly constructed dew-point apparatus may be
used that satisfies the basic requirements that means must be
provided:
4.1.1 To permit a controlled flow of gas to enter and leave
the apparatus while the apparatus is at a temperature at least
3F above the dew point of the gas.
4.1.2 To cool and control the cooling rate of a portion
(preferably a small portion) of the apparatus, with which the
flowing gas comes in contact, to a temperature low enough to
cause vapor to condense from the gas.
4.1.3 To observe the deposition of dew on the cold portion
of the apparatus.
4.1.4 To measure the temperature of the cold portion on the
apparatus on which the dew is deposited, and

1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the


safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Terminology
2.1 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard:
1
This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D03 on Gaseous
Fuels and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D03.05 on Determination of
Special Constituents of Gaseous Fuels.
Current edition approved Feb. 15, 1995. Published April 1995. Originally
published as D 1142 50. Last previous edition D 1142 90.
2
Several pieces of apparatus for this purpose are commercially available.
Information concerning this apparatus is available from ASTM Headquarters.

Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

D 1142 95 (2000)

FIG. 1 Bureau of Mines Dew-Point Apparatus

refrigerant such as liquid butane, propane, carbon dioxide, or


some other liquefied gas in the chiller, G. The refrigerant is
throttled into the chiller through valve H and passes out at J.
The chiller body is made of copper and has brass headers on
either end. The lower header is connected with the upper
header by numerous small holes drilled in the copper body
through which the vaporized refrigerant passes. The chiller is
attached to the cooling rod, F, by means of a taper joint. The
temperature of the target mirror, C, is indicated by a calibrated
mercury-in-glass thermometer, K, whose bulb fits snugly into
the thermometer well. Observation of the dew deposit is made
through the pressure-resisting transparent window, E.
4.2.1 Note that only the central portion of the stainless steel
target mirror, C, is thermally bonded to the fitting, I, through
which C is cooled. Since stainless steel is a relatively poor
thermal conductor, the central portion of the mirror is thus
maintained at a slightly lower temperature than the outer
portion, with the result that the dew first appears on the central
portion of the mirror and its detection is aided materially by the
contrast afforded. The arrangement for measuring the temperature of the target mirror, C, also should be noted. The
temperature is read with a thermometer or RTD, K, inserted in
the cooling rod, F, so that the bulb of the temperature
measuring device is entirely within the thermometer well in
fitting, I. The stud to which the stainless steel mirror is
silver-soldered is a part of the base of the thermometer well,
and as there is no metallic contact between the thermometer

4.1.5 To measure the pressure of the gas within the apparatus or the deviation from the known existing barometric
pressure.
4.1.6 The apparatus should be constructed so that the cold
spot, that is, the cold portion of the apparatus on which dew
is deposited, is protected from all gases other than the gas
under test. The apparatus may or may not be designed for use
under pressure.
4.2 The Bureau of Mines type of dew-point apparatus3
shown in Fig. 1 fulfills the requirements specified in 4.1.
Within the range of conditions in Section 1, this apparatus is
satisfactory for determining the dew point of gaseous fuels.
Briefly, this apparatus consists of a metal chamber into and out
of which the test gas is permitted to flow through control valves
A and D. Gas entering the apparatus through valve A is
deflected by nozzle B towards the cold portion of the apparatus,
C. The gas flows across the face of C and out of the apparatus
through valve D. Part C is a highly polished stainless steel
target mirror, cooled by means of a copper cooling rod, F.
The mirror, C, is silver-soldered to a nib on the copper
thermometer well fitting, I, which is soft-soldered to the
cooling rod, F. The thermometer well is integral with the
fitting, I. Cooling of rod F is accomplished by vaporizing a

3
Deaton, W. M., and Frost, E. M., Jr., Bureau of Mines Apparatus for
Determining the Dew Point of Gases Under Pressure, Bureau of Mines Report of
Investigation 3399, May 1938.

D 1142 95 (2000)
conditions as nearly as possible. The most satisfactory method
is to cool or warm the target mirror stepwise. Steps of about
0.2F (0.1C) allow equilibrium conditions to be approached
closely and favor an accurate determination. When dew has
been deposited, allow the target mirror to warm up at a rate
comparable to the recommended rate of cooling. The normal
warming rate usually will be faster than desired. To reduce the
rate, crack valve H momentarily at intervals to supply
cooling to the cooling tube, F. Repeat the cooling and warming
cycles several times. The arithmetic average of the temperatures at which dew is observed to appear and disappear is
considered to be the observed dew point.

well and the cooling tube, other than through its base, the
thermometer or RTD indicates the temperature of the mirror
rather than some compromise temperature influenced by the
temperature gradient along the cooling tube as would be the
case if this type of construction were not used. The RTD will
include suitable electronics and display.
4.2.2 Tests with the Bureau of Mines type of dew-point
apparatus are reported3 to permit a determination with a
precision (reproducibility) of 60.2F (60.1C) and with an
accuracy of 60.2F (60.1C) when the dew-point temperatures range from room temperature to a temperature of 32F
(0C). It is estimated that water dew points may be determined
with an accuracy of 60.5F (0.3C) when they are below 32F
(0C) and not lower than 0F (17.8C), provided ice crystals
do not form during the determination.

NOTE 3If the watervapor content is to be calculated as described in


6.2, the gas specimen should be throttled at the inlet valve, A, to a pressure
within the apparatus approximately equal to atmospheric pressure. The
outlet valve may be left wide open or restricted, as desired. The pressure
existing within the apparatus must, however, be known to the required
accuracy.

5. Procedure
5.1 General ConsiderationsTake the specimen so as to be
representative of the gas at the source. Do not take at a point
where isolation would permit condensate to collect or would
otherwise allow a vapor content to exist that is not in
equilibrium with the main stream or supply of gas, such as the
sorption or desorption of vapors from the sampling line or from
deposits therein. The temperature of the pipelines leading the
specimen directly from the gas source to the dew-point
apparatus, and also the temperature of the apparatus, shall be at
least 3F (1.7C) higher than the observed dew point. The
determination may be made at any pressure, but the gas
pressure within the dew-point apparatus must be known with
an accuracy appropriate to the accuracy requirements of the
test. The pressure may be read on a calibrated bourdon-type
pressure gage; for very low pressures or more accurate
measurements, a mercury-filled manometer or a dead-weight
gage should be used.
5.2 Detailed Procedure for Operation of Bureau of Mines
Dew-Point ApparatusIntroduce the gas specimen through
valve A (Fig. 1), opening this valve wide if the test is to be
made under full source pressure (Note 3), and controlling the
flow by the small outlet valve, D. The rate of flow is not critical
but should not be so great that there is a measurable or
objectionable drop in pressure through the connecting lines and
dew-point apparatus. A flow of 0.05 to 0.5 ft3/min (1.4 to 14
L/min) (measured at atmospheric pressure) usually will be
satisfactory. With liquefied refrigerant gas piped to the chiller
throttle valve, H, crack the valve momentarily, allowing the
refrigerant to vaporize in the chiller to produce suitable
lowering in temperature of the chiller tube, F, and target
mirror, C, as indicated by the thermometer, K. The rate of
cooling may be as rapid as desired in making a preliminary
test. After estimating the dew-point temperature, either by a
preliminary test or from other knowledge, control the cooling
or warming rate so that it does not exceed 1F/min (0.5C/min)
when this temperature is approached. For accurate results, the
cooling and warming rates should approximate isothermal

6. Calculation
6.1 If an acceptable chart showing the variation of watervapor content with saturation or water dew-point temperatures
over a suitable range of pressures for the gas being tested is
available, the water-vapor content may be read directly, using
the observed water dew-point temperature and the pressure at
which the determination was made.
6.2 If such a chart is not available, the watervapor content
of the gas may be calculated from the water dew-point
temperature and the pressure at which it was determined (see
Note 3), as follows:

FIG. 2 Equilibrium Water Vapor Content of Natural Gases

D 1142 95 (2000)
W 5 w 3 10 6 3 ~Pb/P 3 ~T/T b!!

6.3 A correlation of the available data on the equilibrium


water content of natural gases has been reported by Bukacek.5
This correlation is believed to be accurate enough for the
requirements of the gaseous fuels industry, except for unusual
situations where the dew point is measured at conditions close
to the critical temperature of the gas. The correlation is a
modified form of Raoults law having the following form:

(1)

where:
W = lb of water/million ft3 of gaseous mixture at pressure
Pb and temperature Tb;
w = weight of saturated water vapor, lb/ft3, at the water
dew-point temperature, that is, the reciprocal of the
specific volume of saturated vapor (see Table 1);
Pb = pressure-base of gas measurement, psia;
P = pressure at which the water dew point of gas was
determined, psia;
t
= observed water dew-point temperature, F;
T = Rankine (absolute Fahrenheit scale) water dew point,
t + 460, at pressure P; and
Tb = base temperature of gas measurement, tb + 460.

W 5 ~A/P! 1 B

(2)

where:
W = watervapor content, lb/million ft3;
P = total pressure, psia;
A = a constant proportional to the vapor pressure of water;
and
B = a constant depending on temperature and gas composition.

NOTE 4Example 1:
Given: Water dew point = 37F at 15.0-psia pressure.
What is the watervapor content million ft3 of gas (gas measurement
base of 60F and 14.7-psia pressure)?
From Table 1 the specific volume of saturated water at 37F is 2731.9
ft3/lb, from which:
w = (1/2731.9) = 0.000 366 0 lb/ft3
and
W = 0.000 366 0 3 10 6 3 (14.7/15.0) 3 [(460 + 37)/(460 + 60)]
= 342.8 lb/million ft3
Example 2:
Given: Water dew point = 5F at 14.4 psia.
From Table 2, the specific volume of saturated water vapor with respect
to ice at 5F is 11 550 ft3/lb from which Wice, 5F = 0.000 086 6, but the
observed water dew point was in equilibrium with subcooled liquid water
at 5F. From Table 2 (data from International Critical Tables4), the vapor
pressures of subcooled liquid water and of ice at 5F (15C) are 1.436
mm and 1.241 mm Hg, respectively.
Since the vapor pressure of subcooled liquid water is greater than ice at
the same temperature, the weight per cubic foot of water vapor in
equilibrium with liquid water will be proportionately larger than the value
calculated from the specific volume read from the table, which is for
equilibrium with ice.
Hence,
Wliq., 5F
= W ice 5F3 (1.436/1.241)
= 0.000 086 6 3 1.157
= 0.000 100 2 and
W = 0.000 100 2 3 10 6
3 (14.7/14.4) 3 [(460 + 5)/[460 + 60)]
= 91.5 lb/million ft3

NOTE 5Values of B were computed from available data on methane,


methane-ethane mixtures, and natural gases.

6.3.1 Table 2 lists values of the constants A and B for natural


gases in the temperature range from 40 to 460F (40 to
238C).
6.3.2 Tables 3-5 list values of watervapor content
from 40 to 250F (40 to 121C) and from 14.7 to 5000 psia
(101 to 34 475 kPa), covering the range of most natural gas
processing applications.
6.3.3 A convenient graphical representation of the data in
Tables 3-5 is illustrated in Fig. 2.6 The moisture content values
given can be corrected to base conditions other than 14.7 psia
(101 kPa) and 60F (15.5C) by the same equations given in
Table 2.
7. Precision and Bias
7.1 No precision data is available for this test method,
however, the Committee is interested in conducting an interlaboratory test program and encourages interested parties to
contact the Staff Manager, Committee D03, ASTM Headquarters.
8. Keywords
8.1 gaseous fuels; natural gas
5
Bukacek, R. F., Equilibrium Moisture Content of Natural Gases, Research
Bulletin 8, Institute of Gas Technology, 1955. Reports work sponsored by the
Pipeline Research Committee of the American Gas Association.
6
Complete sets of these charts covering the entire range of pressures and
temperatures of Tables 3-5 may be purchased from the Institute of Gas Technology,
1700 S. Mount Prospect Rd., Des Plaines, IL 60018.

4
International Critical Tables, Vol III, National Research Council, McGraw-Hill
Book Co., Inc., New York, 1928, pp. 210211.

D 1142 95 (2000)
TABLE 1 Vapor Pressures and Specific Volumes of Saturated Water Vapor at Various TemperaturesA
Vapor Pressure of Liquid Water

Specific
Volume of
Saturated
Water Vapor
ft3/lb

Vapor Pressure of Ice

Temperature,
F

Temperature,
F

Vapor
Pressure of
Liquid Water,
psia

Specific Volume of
Saturated Water
Vapor, ft3/lb

mm Hg

psia

mm Hg

psia

1.139

0.022 02

0.958

0.018 52

14 810

1
2
3
4
5

1.195
1.251
1.310
1.373
1.436

0.023
0.024
0.025
0.026
0.027

11
19
33
55
77

1.010
1.063
1.120
1.180
1.241

0.019
0.020
0.021
0.022
0.024

53
56
66
82
00

14
13
12
12
11

080
400
750
140
550

51
52
53
54
55

0.184
0.191
0.199
0.206
0.214

85
82
01
44
11

1
1
1
1
1

644.2
587.6
533.2
480.9
430.6

6
7
8
9
10

1.505
1.573
1.647
1.723
1.807

0.029
0.030
0.031
0.033
0.034

10
42
85
32
94

1.308
1.374
1.446
1.521
1.599

0.025
0.026
0.027
0.029
0.030

29
57
96
41
92

11
10
9
9
9

000
480
979
507
060

56
57
58
59
60

0.222
0.230
0.238
0.247
0.256

03
21
65
36
35

1
1
1
1
1

382.2
335.6
290.9
247.8
206.3

11
12
13
14
15

1.883
1.970
2.057
2.149
2.247

0.036
0.038
0.039
0.041
0.043

41
09
78
56
45

1.681
1.767
1.856
1.950
2.050

0.032
0.034
0.035
0.037
0.039

51
17
89
71
64

8
8
7
7
7

636
234
851
489
144

61
62
63
64
65

0.265
0.275
0.285
0.295
0.305

62
19
06
24
73

1
1
1
1
1

166.4
128.0
091.0
055.4
021.1

16
17
18
19
20

2.345
2.450
2.557
2.607
2.785

0.045
0.047
0.049
0.051
0.053

35
37
44
63
85

2.151
2.260
2.373
2.489
2.610

0.041
0.043
0.045
0.048
0.050

59
70
89
13
47

6
6
6
5
5

817
505
210
929
662

66
67
68
69
70

0.316
0.327
0.339
0.351
0.363

55
70
20
05
26

988.03
956.19
925.51
895.94
867.44

21
22
23
24
25

2.907
3.032
3.163
3.299
3.433

0.056
0.058
0.061
0.063
0.066

21
63
16
79
38

2.740
2.872
3.013
3.160
3.310

0.052
0.055
0.058
0.061
0.064

98
54
26
10
01

5
5
4
4
4

408
166
936
717
509

71
72
73
74
75

0.375
0.388
0.402
0.415
0.430

84
79
14
88
04

839.97
813.48
787.94
763.31
739.55

26
27
28
29
30

3.585
3.735
3.893
4.054
4.224

0.069
0.072
0.075
0.078
0.081

32
22
28
39
68

3.471
3.636
3.810
3.989
4.178

0.067
0.070
0.073
0.077
0.080

12
31
67
14
79

4
4
3
3
3

311
122
943
771
608

76
77
78
79
80

0.444
0.459
0.475
0.490
0.507

61
61
05
94
29

716.62
694.51
673.16
652.56
632.68

31
32
33
34
35

4.397
4.579
...
...
...

0.085
0.088
0.092
0.096
0.099

02
66
30
07
98

4.373
4.579
...
...
...

0.084 56
0.088 54
...
...
...

3
3
3
3
2

453
301.9
178.0
059.2
945.5

81
82
83
84
85

0.524
0.541
0.559
0.577
0.596

11
42
22
53
36

613.48
594.95
577.05
559.76
543.07

36
37
38
39
40

...
...
...
...
...

0.104
0.108
0.112
0.117
0.121

04
23
58
08
73

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

2
2
2
2
2

836.4
731.9
631.7
535.7
443.5

86
87
88
89
90

0.615
0.635
0.656
0.677
0.698

73
63
09
13
74

526.94
511.35
496.29
481.73
467.66

41
42
43
44
45

...
...
...
...
...

0.126
0.131
0.136
0.142
0.147

55
54
70
04
56

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

2
2
2
2
2

355.1
270.3
188.9
110.8
035.8

91
92
93
94
95

0.720
0.743
0.767
0.791
0.816

95
77
22
30
04

454.06
440.91
428.19
415.89
403.99

46
47
48
49
50

...
...
...
...
...

0.153
0.159
0.165
0.171
0.178

28
18
28
59
12

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

1
1
1
1
1

963.8
894.6
828.2
764.4
703.1

96
97
98
99
100

0.841
0.867
0.894
0.921
0.950

44
53
31
80
03

392.48
381.35
370.58
360.15
350.06

A
The values for vapor pressure, from 0 to 32F, were calculated from data in the International Critical Tables.4 All other values were taken from Harr, Gallagher, and Kell,
NBS/NRC Steam Tables, National Standard Reference Data System, 1984, p. 9. Data on specific volumes of saturated water vapor from 0 to 32F were obtained from
Goff, J. A., and Gratch, S., Low-Pressure Properties of Water from 160 to 212F, Heating, Piping, and Air Conditioning, Vol 18, No. 2, Feb. 1946, pp. 125136.

D 1142 95 (2000)
TABLE 2 Values of Constants A and B
(Base Conditions = 14.7 psia, 60F)
Temperature,
F

Temperature,
F

Temperature,
F

40
38
36
34
32
30
28
26
24
22

131
147
165
184
206
230
256
285
317
352

0.22
0.24
0.26
0.28
0.30
0.33
0.36
0.39
0.42
0.45

70
72
74
76
78
80
82
84
86
88

17
18
19
21
22
24
25
27
29
31

200
500
700
100
500
100
700
400
200
100

7.17
7.85
8.25
8.67
9.11
9.57
10.0
10.5
11.1
11.6

180
182
184
186
188
190
192
194
196
198

357
372
390
407
425
443
463
483
504
525

000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000

74.8
77.2
79.9
82.7
85.8
88.4
91.4
94.8
97.7
101

20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2

390
434
479
530
586
648
714
786
866
950

0.48
0.52
0.56
0.60
0.64
0.69
0.74
0.79
0.85
0.91

90
92
94
96
98
100
102
104
106
108

33
35
37
39
42
45
47
50
53
57

200
300
500
900
400
100
900
800
900
100

12.2
12.7
13.3
14.0
14.6
15.3
16.0
16.7
17.5
18.3

200
202
204
206
208
210
212
214
216
218

547
570
594
619
644
671
698
725
754
785

000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000

104
108
111
115
119
122
126
130
134
139

000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000

143
148
152
157
162
166
171
177
182
187

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2

050
150
260
380
510
650
810
970
150
350

0.97
1.04
1.11
1.19
1.27
1.35
1.44
1.54
1.64
1.74

110
112
114
116
118
120
122
124
126
128

60
64
67
71
76
80
84
89
94
100

500
100
900
800
000
400
900
700
700
000

19.1
20.0
20.9
21.8
22.7
23.7
24.7
25.8
26.9
28.0

220
222
224
226
228
230
232
234
236
238

1
1
1
1

816
848
881
915
950
987
020
060
100
140

20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38

2
2
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
5

560
780
030
290
570
880
210
560
940
350

1.85
1.97
2.09
2.22
2.36
2.50
2.65
2.81
2.98
3.16

130
132
134
136
138
140
142
144
146
148

106
111
117
124
130
137
144
152
160
168

000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000

29.1
30.3
31.6
32.9
34.2
35.6
37.0
38.5
40.0
41.6

240
242
244
246
248
250
252
254
256
258

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

190
230
270
320
370
420
470
520
570
630

000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000

192
198
204
210
216
222
229
235
242
248

40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58

5
6
6
7
7
8
9
9
10
11

780
240
740
280
850
460
110
800
500
300

3.34
3.54
3.74
3.96
4.18
4.42
4.66
4.92
5.19
5.48

150
152
154
156
158
160
162
164
166
168

177
186
195
205
215
225
236
248
259
272

000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000

43.2
44.9
46.6
48.4
50.2
52.1
54.1
56.1
58.2
60.3

260
280
300
320
340
360
380
400
420
440

1
2
3
4
5
7
9
11
14
18

680
340
180
260
610
270
300
700
700
100

000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000

255
333
430
548
692
869
1090
1360
1700
2130

60
62
64
66
68

12
13
14
15
16

200
100
000
000
100

5.77
6.08
6.41
6.74
7.10

170
172
174
176
178

285
298
312
326
341

000
000
000
000
000

62.5
64.8
67.1
69.5
72.0

460

22 200 000

NOTE 1To correct A and B to other base conditions, multiply each by:
~Pb/14.7! 3 @519.6/~tb 1 459.6!# 3 ~0.998/Zb!

where:
Pb = absolute base pressure, psia;
tb = base temperature, F; and
Zb = compressibility factor under base conditions.

D 1142 95 (2000)
TABLE 3 Equilibrium Water Vapor Contents of Natural Gases Above the Critical Temperatures
(lb/million ft3 where Pb = 14.7 psia, tb = 60F)
Temperature,

Total Pressure, psia

14.7

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

40
38
36
34
32

9.1
10.2
11.5
12.8
14.4

1.5
1.7
1.9
2.1
2.4

0.88
0.98
1.1
1.2
1.3

0.66
0.73
0.80
0.90
0.99

0.55
0.61
0.68
0.74
0.82

0.49
0.54
0.59
0.65
0.72

0.44
0.49
0.54
0.59
0.65

0.41
0.45
0.50
0.55
0.60

0.39
0.43
0.47
0.51
0.57

0.37
0.41
0.45
0.49
0.54

0.36
0.39
0.43
0.47
0.51

30
28
26
24
22

16.0
17.8
19.8
22.0
24.4

2.6
2.9
3.2
3.6
4.0

1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2

1.1
1.2
1.3
1.5
1.6

0.91
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3

0.79
0.87
0.96
1.1
1.2

0.72
0.79
0.86
0.95
1.0

0.66
0.72
0.79
0.87
0.95

0.62
0.68
0.74
0.81
0.89

0.59
0.64
0.70
0.77
0.84

0.56
0.61
0.67
0.73
0.80

20
18
16
14
12

27.0
30.0
33.1
36.7
40.5

4.4
4.9
5.4
5.9
6.5

2.4
2.7
3.0
3.3
3.6

1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6

1.5
1.6
1.8
1.9
2.1

1.3
1.4
1.5
1.7
1.8

1.1
1.2
1.4
1.5
1.6

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.4
1.5

0.97
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

0.92
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3

0.87
0.95
1.0
1.1
1.2

10
8
6
4
2

44.8
49.3
54.6
59.8
65.7

7.2
7.9
8.7
9.5
10.4

4.0
4.3
4.7
5.2
5.7

2.9
3.1
3.4
3.7
4.1

2.3
2.5
2.8
3.0
3.3

2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8

1.8
1.9
2.1
2.3
2.5

1.6
1.8
1.9
2.1
2.3

1.5
1.6
1.8
1.9
2.1

1.4
1.5
1.7
1.8
2.0

1.3
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.9

0
2
4
6
8

72.1
79.1
86.8
95.1
104

11.4
12.5
13.7
15.0
16.4

6.2
6.8
7.4
8.1
8.8

4.5
4.9
5.3
5.8
6.3

3.6
3.9
4.3
4.6
5.1

3.1
3.3
3.6
4.0
4.3

2.7
3.0
3.2
3.5
3.8

2.5
2.7
2.9
3.2
3.4

2.3
2.5
2.7
2.9
3.2

2.1
2.3
2.5
2.7
3.0

2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8

10
12
14
16
18

114
124
136
148
161

17.9
19.5
21.3
23.2
25.2

9.6
10.5
11.4
12.4
13.5

6.9
7.5
8.1
8.8
9.6

5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.6

4.7
5.1
5.5
5.9
6.4

4.1
4.5
4.8
5.2
5.7

3.7
4.0
4.5
4.7
5.1

3.4
3.7
4.0
4.3
4.7

3.2
3.5
3.7
4.0
4.4

3.0
3.3
3.5
3.8
4.1

20
22
24
26
28

176
191
208
226
246

27.4
29.8
32.4
35.1
38.1

14.6
15.9
17.2
18.7
20.2

10.4
11.3
12.2
13.2
14.3

8.2
8.9
9.7
10.5
11.3

7.0
7.5
8.2
8.8
9.5

6.1
6.6
7.2
7.7
8.3

5.5
5.9
6.4
6.9
7.5

5.1
5.5
5.9
6.3
6.8

4.7
5.1
5.5
5.9
6.3

4.4
4.8
5.1
5.5
5.9

30
32
34
36
38

276
289
313
339
367

41.3
44.7
48.4
52.4
56.6

21.9
23.7
25.6
27.7
29.9

15.4
16.7
18.0
19.4
20.1

12.2
13.2
14.2
15.3
16.5

10.3
11.1
11.9
12.9
13.9

9.0
9.7
10.4
11.2
12.1

8.0
8.7
9.3
10.0
10.8

7.4
7.9
8.5
9.2
9.8

6.8
7.3
7.9
8.5
9.1

6.4
6.9
7.4
7.9
8.5

40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58

396
428
462
499
538
80
624
672
721
776

61.1
66.0
71.2
76.7
82.6
89.0
95.7
103
111
119

32.2
34.8
37.5
40.3
43.4
46.7
50.2
54.0
57.9
62.1

22.6
24.4
26.2
28.2
30.3
32.6
35.0
37.6
40.3
43.2

17.8
19.2
20.6
22.2
23.8
25.6
27.4
29.4
31.5
33.8

14.9
16.0
17.2
18.5
19.9
21.3
22.9
24.5
26.7
28.1

13.0
13.9
15.0
16.1
17.3
18.5
19.8
21.3
22.8
24.4

11.6
12.5
13.4
14.4
15.4
16.5
17.7
18.9
20.3
21.7

10.6
11.3
12.2
13.1
14.0
15.0
16.1
17.2
18.3
19.6

9.8
10.5
11.2
12.0
12.9
13.8
14.8
15.8
16.9
18.0

9.1
9.8
10.5
11.2
12.0
12.9
13.8
14.7
15.7
16.8

60
62
64
66
68

834
895
960
1030
1100

128
137
147
157
168

66.6
71.4
76.5
81.8
87.6

46.3
49.6
53.1
56.8
60.7

36.2
38.7
41.4
44.3
47.3

30.1
32.2
34.4
36.8
39.3

26.1
27.9
29.8
31.8
33.9

23.2
24.7
26.4
28.2
30.1

21.0
22.4
23.9
25.5
27.2

19.3
20.6
22.0
23.4
25.0

17.9
19.1
20.4
21.8
23.2

70
72
74
76
78
80

1180
1260
1350
1440
1540
1650

180
192
206
220
235
250

93.7
100
107
114
122
130

65.0
69.4
74.0
79.0
84.2
89.8

50.6
54.0
57.6
61.4
65.5
69.7

42.0
44.8
47.7
50.9
54.2
57.5

36.2
38.6
41.1
43.8
46.7
49.7

32.1
34.2
36.4
38.8
41.3
44.0

29.0
30.9
32.9
35.0
37.3
39.7

26.6
28.4
30.2
32.1
34.2
36.3

24.7
26.3
28.0
29.8
31.7
33.6

D 1142 95 (2000)
TABLE 3 Continued
Temperature,

Total Pressure, psia

14.7

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

82
84
86
88

1760
1870
2000
2130

267
285
303
323

138
148
157
167

95.6
102
108
115

74.2
79.0
84.1
89.4

61.4
65.3
69.5
73.8

52.8
56.2
59.7
63.5

46.7
49.7
52.8
56.1

42.1
44.8
47.6
50.5

38.6
41.0
43.5
46.2

36.7
37.9
40.3
42.7

90
92
94
96
98

2270
2410
2570
2730
2900

344
366
389
413
439

178
189
201
214
227

123
130
138
147
156

95.0
101
107
114
121

78.5
83.3
88.4
93.8
99.5

67.4
71.5
75.9
80.5
85.3

59.5
63.1
67.0
71.0
75.2

53.6
56.8
60.3
63.9
67.6

49.0
51.9
55.0
58.3
61.8

45.3
48.0
50.9
53.9
57.0

100
102
104
106
108

3080
3270
3470
3680
3900

466
495
525
557
589

241
256
271
287
304

166
176
186
197
209

128
136
144
152
161

105
112
118
125
133

90.4
95.8
101
107
114

79.7
84.4
89.3
94.5
99.9

71.6
75.9
80.2
84.9
89.7

65.4
69.2
73.1
77.4
81.7

...
...
...
...
...

110
112
114
116
118

4130
4380
4640
4910
5190

624
661
700
740
783

322
341
360
381
403

221
234
247
261
276

170
180
191
201
213

140
148
157
165
175

120
127
134
142
149

106
112
118
124
131

94.7
100
106
112
118

86.3
91.2
96.2
102
107

...
...
...
...
...

120
122
124
126
128

5490
5800
6130
6470
6830

828
874
923
974
1030

426
449
474
500
528

292
308
325
343
361

225
237
250
264
278

185
195
205
216
228

158
166
175
185
195

139
146
154
162
171

124
131
138
145
153

113
119
125
132
139

...
...
...
...
...

130
132
134
136
138

7240
7580
7990
8470
8880

1090
1140
1200
1270
1330

559
585
617
653
684

382
400
422
446
468

294
308
324
343
359

241
252
266
281
294

206
215
227
240
251

181
189
199
210
220

162
169
178
188
197

147
154
162
171
179

...
...
...
...
...

140
142
144
146
148

9360
9830
10 400
10 900
11 500

1410
1480
1560
1640
1720

721
757
799
840
882

492
517
545
573
602

378
397
419
440
462

310
325
343
360
378

264
277
292
307
322

231
243
256
269
282

207
217
229
240
252

188
197
207
218
229

...
...
...
...
...

D 1142 95 (2000)
TABLE 4 Equilibrium Water Vapor Contents of Natural Gases Above the Critical Temperatures
(lb/million ft3 where Pb = 14.7 psia, tb = 60F)
Temperature,
F

Total Pressure, psia


100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

150
152
154
156
158

12
12
13
14
14

14.7
100
700
300
000
700

1810
1910
2000
2100
2200

928
975
1020
1070
1130

633
665
697
732
767

486
510
534
561
588

397
417
437
458
480

338
355
372
390
409

296
311
325
341
357

264
277
290
305
319

240
252
263
276
289

160
162
164
166
168

15 400
...
...
...
...

2300
2410
2540
2650
2780

1180
1230
1300
1350
1420

802
841
883
922
967

615
644
676
706
740

502
526
552
576
604

427
447
469
490
514

374
391
410
428
449

333
349
366
382
400

302
316
332
346
363

170
172
174
176
178

...
...
...
...
...

2910
3040
3190
3330
3480

1490
1550
1630
1700
1780

1010
1060
1110
1160
1210

775
810
847
885
925

633
661
691
722
754

538
562
587
613
640

470
491
513
535
559

419
437
457
477
498

379
396
414
432
451

180
182
184
186
188

...
...
...
...
...

3640
3800
3980
4150
4340

1860
1940
2030
2120
2210

1260
1320
1380
1440
1500

967
1010
1060
1100
1150

789
821
860
897
936

670
697
730
761
794

585
609
637
664
693

521
542
567
591
617

471
491
513
535
558

190
192
194
196
198

...
...
...
...
...

4520
4720
4920
5140
5350

2300
2410
2510
2620
2730

1570
1630
1700
1780
1850

1200
1250
1300
1360
1410

974
1020
1060
1110
1150

827
863
900
938
976

721
753
785
818
851

642
670
698
728
757

581
606
631
658
684

200
202
204
206
208

...
...
...
...
...

5570
5810
6050
6310
...

2840
2960
3080
3210
3340

1930
2010
2090
2180
2270

1470
1530
1600
1660
1730

1200
1250
1300
1350
1400

1020
1060
1100
1150
1190

885
922
960
999
1040

788
821
854
889
924

712
741
771
803
835

210
212
214
216
218

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

3480
3620
3760
3910
4060

2360
2450
2550
2650
2760

1800
1870
1950
2020
2100

1460
1520
1580
1640
1710

1240
1290
1340
1390
1450

1080
1120
1160
1210
1260

961
999
1040
1080
1120

868
902
937
973
1010

220
222
224
226
228

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

4220
4390
4560
4730
4910

2860
2980
3090
3200
3330

2180
2270
2350
2440
2540

1780
1840
1910
1990
2060

1500
1560
1620
1680
1750

1310
1360
1410
1460
1520

1160
1200
1250
1300
1350

1050
1090
1130
1170
1220

230

...

...

5100

3460

2630

2140

1810

1580

1400

1260

240

...

...

...

4160

3170

2570

2180

1890

1680

1510

250

...

...

...

...

3770

3060

2590

2250

2000

1800

D 1142 95 (2000)
TABLE 5 Equilibrium Water Vapor Contents of Natural Gases Above the Critical Temperatures
(lb/million ft3 where Pb = 14.7 psia, tb = 60F)
Total Pressure, psia

Temperature,
F

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

4500

5000

100
102
104
106
108

60.4
63.9
67.5
71.4
75.4

45.4
47.9
50.6
53.4
56.4

37.9
40.0
42.1
44.5
46.9

33.3
35.5
37.0
39.1
41.1

30.3
32.0
33.6
35.5
37.3

28.2
29.7
31.2
32.9
34.6

26.6
28.0
29.4
31.0
32.6

25.3
26.6
28.0
29.5
31.0

24.3
25.6
26.9
28.3
29.7

110
112
114
116
118

79.6
84.1
88.7
93.6
98.7

59.4
62.7
66.1
69.7
73.4

49.4
52.1
54.8
57.7
60.7

43.3
45.6
48.0
50.5
53.1

39.3
41.4
43.4
45.7
48.0

36.4
38.3
40.2
42.3
44.4

34.2
36.0
37.8
39.8
41.7

32.5
34.2
35.9
37.8
39.6

31.2
32.8
34.4
36.2
37.9

120
122
124
126
128

104
110
116
122
128

77.3
81.3
85.6
89.9
94.7

63.9
67.2
70.7
74.2
78.0

55.9
58.7
61.7
64.7
68.0

50.5
53.0
55.7
58.4
61.3

46.7
49.0
51.4
53.9
56.6

43.8
45.9
48.2
50.5
53.0

41.6
43.6
45.7
47.8
50.2

39.8
41.7
43.7
45.7
48.0

130
132
134
136
138

135
141
149
157
164

99.8
104
110
116
121

82.1
85.8
90.1
94.9
99.2

71.5
74.7
78.4
82.5
86.2

64.4
67.3
70.6
74.2
77.5

59.4
62.0
65.0
68.3
71.3

55.6
58.1
60.9
63.9
66.7

52.6
55.0
57.6
60.3
63.1

50.3
52.5
55.0
57.7
60.2

140
142
144
146
148

173
181
191
200
210

127
133
140
147
154

104
109
115
120
126

90.4
94.6
99.3
104
109

81.3
85.0
89.2
93.0
97.6

74.7
78.1
81.9
85.7
89.6

69.9
73.0
76.5
80.0
83.6

66.0
69.0
72.3
75.6
78.9

63.0
65.8
68.9
72.0
75.6

150
152
154
156
158

220
231
242
253
265

161
169
177
185
194

132
138
144
151
158

114
119
125
130
136

102
107
112
117
122

93.8
98.0
102
107
112

87.5
91.4
95.4
100
104

82.5
86.2
89.9
94.0
98.0

78.6
82.1
85.6
89.4
93.2

160
162
164
166
168

277
290
304
317
332

202
211
221
231
242

165
172
180
188
196

142
149
155
162
169

127
133
139
145
151

116
122
127
132
138

108
113
118
123
128

102
107
111
116
121

97.1
101
106
110
115

170
172
174
176
178

348
363
379
396
413

253
263
275
287
299

205
214
223
233
243

177
184
192
200
208

158
165
171
178
186

144
150
156
163
169

134
139
145
151
157

126
131
136
142
148

120
124
130
135
140

180
182
184
186
188

432
449
470
490
511

313
325
340
354
369

253
263
275
286
298

217
226
236
245
256

194
201
210
218
227

177
184
191
199
207

164
170
177
184
192

154
160
167
173
180

146
152
158
164
171

190
192
194
196
198
200
202
204
206
208

531
554
578
602
626
651
678
705
734
763

384
400
417
434
451
469
488
507
528
548

310
323
336
350
364
378
393
408
425
441

266
277
288
299
311
323
336
349
363
377

236
246
256
266
276
286
298
309
321
334

215
224
233
242
251
260
271
281
292
303

199
207
215
224
232
241
251
260
270
280

187
194
202
210
218
226
235
243
253
262

177
184
191
199
206
213
222
230
238
248

210
212
214
216
218

793
824
856
889
924

569
591
614
637
662

458
475
493
512
532

390
405
420
436
453

346
359
372
386
401

314
325
337
350
363

290
301
312
323
335

271
281
291
302
313

256
266
275
285
296

10

D 1142 95 (2000)
TABLE 5 Continued
Temperature,
F

Total Pressure, psia


3500

4000

220
222
224
226
228

959
996
1030
1070
1110

1000

687
713
739
767
795

1500

551
572
593
615
637

2000

469
487
504
523
542

2500

415
431
446
462
479

3000

376
390
404
418
433

347
360
372
386
400

324
336
348
360
373

4500

306
318
328
340
352

230

1150

824

660

561

495

448

413

385

363

240

1380

985

787

668

589

532

490

456

430

250

1640

1170

932

790

695

628

577

538

506

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11

5000