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BRIGHTNING LIVES

POWERING PROGRESS

STUDY ON TRANSFORMERS
A PROJECT REPORT
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING
OF
MECHANICAL AND AUTOMATION ENGINEERING
BY
SOURABH SINHA
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF
MR. SANJAY KUMAR
(SENIOR PRODUCTION ENGINEER IN TRM DEPTT.)
BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED,BHOPAL,INDIA.

Submitted to:Mr.Mahendra verma


A.S.E , AUUP

Guided by:-

Submitted by:-

Mr.Sanjay Kumar

SourabhSinha

(Sr. Production Eng.)

Enrollment No.A12405411019

TRM Division.

Study Report On:

Transformers

DECLARATION

I Sourabh Sinha declare that this project report entitled report on a original piece of work
and submitted by me to words partial fulfillment of my B.Tech (MECHANICAL
ENGNEERiNG) graduate program (industrial training), under the guidance of
Mr. Sanjay Kumar (Sr.Poduction Eng.) TRM division BHEL, BHOPAL.

DATE 18/06/ 2014

_________________
SOURABH SINHA
Enrollment No.- A12405411019
B.TECH (MECHANICAL ENGG.)
AMITY UNIVERSITY, NOIDA(U.P.)

Acknowledgement

"There are times when silence speaks so much more loudly than words of praise to only as
good as belittle a person, whose words do not express, but only put a veneer over true
feelings, which are of gratitude at this point of time."
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my industrial mentor Mr. Sanjay Kumar for
his vital support, guidance and encouragement, without which this project would not have
come forth. I would also like to express my gratitude to the staff of the Transformer
Department for their support during the making of this project.

____________
Submitted by:Sourabh Sinha (A12405411019)
B.TECH (MECHANICAL ENGG.)
AMITY UNIVERSITY, NOIDA(U.P.)

ABSTRACT

BHEL manufactures the heavy machineries and it makes the product according to the
customers requirement and the requirements are like weather it can work in humid, high
temperature, low temperature and some of the requirements are like it could work in nuclear
plants and many more conditions.
The development of the Indian heavy electrical machinery industry is directly linked to the
Performance of the Power sector in India. With Indias development, the need for more and
Better Power supply has become essential for industries to grow. Thus with increasing focus
on capacity expansion in the Power sector, the heavy electrical machinery manufacturing
industry is expanding vigorously.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
SR. NO.

SECTION
01.

INTRODUCTION

02.

CORE PUNCH

03.

INSULATION

04.

WINDING

05.

COIL AND POWER ASSLY

06.

TECHNICAL DIVISION

07.

INSTRUMENT

CHAPTER 2

08.

BCM

CHAPTER 3

09.

CPM

CHAPTER 1
TRM

PAGE

TRM
TCB
Transformer

Capacitor

Bushing

TRANSFORMERS
Power Transformers upto 420kV class, 50/60 Hz 930 MVA, 3-phase Bank.
Power Transformers upto 420kV class, 50/60 Hz 400 MVA, 3-phase Unit.
HVDC Converter Transformers and Smoothing Reactors.
500 MVA, 500kVDC, 3 winding, 1- Phase. Convertor Transformer.
254 MVAR, 360mH, 1568A, 500 kVDC 1 Phase Smoothing Reactor.

INSTRUMENTS TRANSFORMERS
Current transformers up to 400 kV.
Capacitor voltage Transformer up to 420 kV.
REACTORS
Gapped core Shunt Reactors up to 420 kV class, 125 MVAR 3 Phase Unit.
Series and Neutral Grounding Reactors.
Controlled Shunt Reactor up to 420 kV class, 80 MVAR 3 Phase Unit.
Major Consumers of BHEL:
National

International

NTPC

TNB, Malaysia

PGCIL

PPC, Greece

NJPC

MEW, Oman

NHPC

OCC, Oman

NLC

GECOL, Libya

NPCIL

Trinidad & Tobago

NEEPCO

New Zealand

APTRANSCO
APGENCO
JPPCL
ALL State Electricity Boards

Tanzania etc

CORE PUNCH

Ferrous
Material

M/C
Comp

CRGO

Lamination
Preparation

B.O. Insulation
Component
In House
Insul. Comp.
Fabrication
Component

Assembled
Core
Core
Building

To Next Process

Core Manufacturing Process:


CRGO Imported

Slitting Machine

Cropping Machine

Stacking / Arranging

Setting (Job)

Core Building

Clamping
Lifting

Tapping

Curing

Test (2KV / 10KV)

Shift to Assembly / Tank

Types of CRGO Silicon Steel Used


CRGO Type

Lamination Size

Losses (Watts per Kg)

M4

0.27 mm

1.00 W/Kg

MOH

0.27 mm

1.00 W/Kg

ZDKH 90

0.27 mm

0.90 W/Kg

ZDKH 85

0.23 mm

0.85 W/Kg

CRGO Imported from:


1) Nippon Steel Corporation, Yawata Works (Japan)
2) VIZ-Stal Ltd., Etakerinburg (Russia)
3) POSCO

Slitting Machine (Sequence of operation):


Drawing / Q plan
Size / Grade CRGO
Burr Level 20 micron
Steel width within tolerance
Every 500m width check Burr Gauge
Scrap and Buckling

Cropping Machine (Sequence of operation):


Revised drawing / QA Plan checked
Every 100 sheet parameter check
After completion of assembly of core including curing of resin glass tape,
10 KV AC test between
- Core and End-Frame
- Core and Yoke-Bolts
- End-Frame and Yoke-Bolts

Current CRGO grades used in various projects:

Core Building Project

CRGO Grade Used

BINA Power

ZDKH - 85

TATA Mundra

MOH

PG Sujalpur

MOH

INSULATION SHOP

i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

Materials Used:
Press Board (1mm 50mm)
Perma Wood
Bakelite (2mm 25mm)
Fiber Glass (0.5mm 4mm)
Card Sheet / Gasket (for tanking) (3mm 12.5mm)
GUM Fevicol & Dendroid

List of machines used in Insulation Shop:


i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.
xi.
xii.
xiii.
xiv.
xv.
xvi.
xvii.
xviii.
xix.
xx.
xxi.

Power Press (T-Block)


Crepe Paper Cutting
Embossing m/c
Plate Bending m/c
Cylinder Gumming m/c
Scraffing m/c
Press Board Impregnation Equipment
Shield Ring Milling m/c
Guillitone m/c
RM62 / Drill m/c
Lissing m/c
Weighing Drill m/c
Bend Saw Cutting m/c
Angle Hot Press
Circular Saw
Hydraulic Press m/c (300T / 500T)
Pneumatic Platform - 4
Structural Platform 8
Steam Oven 2
Vacuum Drying Vessel 2
EOT Cranes (50/10 T, 25/5 T)

COIL WINDING

PICC / CTC
Moulded Comp.
B.O. Insul.
Component
In House
Insul. Comp.

Wound Coil
Coil
Winding

To Process

Copper imported from:


Sr. No.

M/S

From

Dimension

01.

Precision Wires Ltd.

Silvassa

7.00 x 2.05 mm

02.

Bhandari Power Lines Pvt. Ltd.

Manipal

10.05 x 1.40 mm

03.

BPCL Conductors Pvt. Ltd.

Mandideep

1.90 x 7.50 mm

04.

Sam Dong Co. Ltd.

Japan

2.05 x 9.60 mm

05.

Chandra Proteco (CP Transco)

Coil Pre-Heating:
100 oC (min 95 oC oven temperature)
Duration 3 Hours

Types of Winding:
Disc and Interleaved
Helical, Spiral and Inter-Wound Helical

Copper Conductors:
PICC Bunched
GLUED
CTC-GLUED

2.00 x 4.15 mm

COIL ASSEMBLY AND POWER ASSEMBLY

Wound Coil
Coil
Assembly

Moulded Comp.

Assembled Coil
To Process 4

B.O. Insul
Comonent.
In House
Insul. Comp.

General Winding Arrangement:


TAP
LV
HV
LV

TAP

HV

LV

HV

TAP

Transformer Oil Properties (Ascoryl / OM 16 / Pyroclor)


-

High insulating
Low Viscosity
Low Surface Tension
Optimum Cooling Point
Low Decomposition
Material used: SRBP Synthetic Resin Best Paper

TECHNICAL DIVISION
(VAPOR PHASE DYING PLANT)

Capacity
Autoclave Size
Max Loading
Transformer Rating

: 430 KW
: 12500 x 6000 x 6000
: 450 Ton
: 750 MVA, 765 KV

Process:
It is a process of proper drying of insulation of transformer by a perfectly controlled
automatic process, with lowest possible paper de-polymerization and energy consumption.
Basic Equipment of Vapor Phase Drying (VPD) plant:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.

Evaporator system.
Condensation system.
Autoclave.
Vacuum system.
Solvent Pumping system.
Heating system for evaporator and autoclave.
Heat recovery system.
Distillation equipment.
Special water extraction measuring equipment.
Computer aided process.
The whole process is carried out in % stages, which is as explained below:
R1: Preparation:
In this first stage, the oven is prepared for the process. The job is let inside the
chamber by means of crane. All the instruments and devices are checked for correct
operation. The oil filling pipe is placed in position. Thermocouple is attached to the core
of the transformer for temperature monitoring; drain plug is connected by steel pipe, etc.
Finally, the door is closed and clamped by hydraulic pump.

H1: Heating Up:


The heating process is started after initial preparation. Pressure of 7mBar is
maintained within the autoclave. The capacity of solvent tank is 12,000 L and a minimum of
5,000-6,000L is maintained during the process. The heating cycle is of 48-60 Hrs and 2-3
intermediate pressure lowering (IPL) of 1.5-2 Hrs is applied in between.
The job temperature is maintained between 105oC 125oC.
P1: Fine Pressure Reduction:
V1: Fine Vacuum:
When water is obtained at 50mL/hour is obtained for three hours in three
simultaneous reading at 105oC 125oC temperature and 0.2 Torr pressure, the solvent is
closed down through valves.
The job is flooded with oil and it is soaked for a minimum of 12Hrs.
A1: Aeration:
The vacuum inside the clave is broken down and air is let inside. Oil is
drained from the job and it is sent to the assembly unit for servicing.
Post servicing, the job is let in for P2 process. This is generally carried out
by conventional process only. The ob is heated to 100 +/- 5oC 0.2 torr vacuum pressure.
When simultaneous 3 reading of 50mL/hour of water is obtained for 3 hours, the job is
sent to Testing department for further process in oil-filled condition.
Transformer Oil Properties (Ascoryl / OM 16 / Pyroclor)
-

High insulating
Low Viscosity
Low Surface Tension
Optimum Cooling Point
Low Decomposition

Advantages of VPD:
01. Fast, uniform heating up of the material to be dried.
02. Substantial reduction in the drying cycle of the transformer compared to conventional
process.
Sr.

Conventional Process

VPD Process

1st Process

12 to 15 days

5 days

2nd Process

07 to 08 days

3 days

03. Little de-polymerization of insulating material.


04. Optimum and homogeneous dring quality, since the heating process takes place in
practically air free atmosphere, i.e. NO2.

BCM
Following are the products of Bushing Manufacturing Division:

52KV TO 525 KV OIP condenser Bushings up to 3150 amps. Rating.


25 kV, up to 300 amps. Bushing for Indian Railways.
Bushing for miscellaneous applications such as bushings, roof bushings, T.G.
bushings etc. To suit customer requirements.
SRBP cylinders for transformer application up to 1400 mm I/D, up to 2400 mm long.

Bushing Core Winding

Assembly

Processing

Leakage Test

Testing

Pinking

Bushing Core Winding:


The Core of bushing is hollow copper conductor. It is wrapped up with a layer of
insulation and aluminum foil, alternatively, to form parallel capacitors. This is done so as to
reduce the electrical field stress, which would otherwise occur and cause breakdown.
A center terminal is then taken out from aluminum foil for testing purposes (2KV
test). This ready core is then treated in oven to remove moisture content for 48 hours at
around 100oC. It is then delivered to the Assembly Line for further process.
Assembly:
Following materials are generally installed in a complete assembly of
bushing, in order from bottom to top:

Bottom End Nut


Bottom Sealing Plate
Bottom Porcelain
O - Ring
Flange
O - Ring
Top Porcelain
O - Ring
Top Cap
Top Cover

The top cover consists of pack assembly which accommodated washer / stud.
Force is applied by compressor and nut is tightened to hold the complete bushing.

Entire assembly is carried out in five stages, which are explained below:
Stage 01: Assembly of bushing in horizontal position
-

Top Porcelain.
Core condenser bushing.
Top cap.
Bottom porcelain.
Sealing item.
Stage 02: Assembly of bushing in Vertical position

Spring pack.
Top cap setting / adjustment.
Stage 03: Vacuum & Impregnation processing

Quality of oil according to specified parameters.


Impregnation of bushing for specified time / temperature / vacuum.
Moisture in bushing according to specified vacuum / temperature.
Correct filling of oil.
Minimum 12hrs of soaking in plant.
Top-up of oil in case of low oil level.
Minimum 5 days of soaking.
Protection from dust.
Stage 04: Post-Processing Checks

Mounting in upright position in fixture.


Gauge mounting.
N2 pressure
Stabilization of pressure at specified oil level.
Rectification of oil, if any.
Stage 05: Assembly of extra items according to design for dispatch

Check Lead / Lead length.


Cable thumble.
Terminal stand.
Painting
Checking of oil in bushing in vertical position.

In N2 pressure test, the bushing is filled up with N2 gas at 1.5 Kg/cm2 and kept under
observation for 12 hours. If any leakage exists, theres a fall in the inside pressure, it is then
identified and rectified. The bushing is then sent to the processing plant for moisture removal
and oil filling.

Bushing Processing Plant:


The processing of bushings is carried out in two forms: Full process and Short
process. The Full process is carried out over bushings which come for processing for the
first time, and the short process takes place for those bushings which have been already
treated once.

For a 420 KV bushing, the typical Full process is:


o

Oven
Start vacuum
o

100 C /
96 hours minimum
0.005 mBar pressure /
48 hours

Temperature 60 C
24 hours
Start oil filling
Drop by Drop
18 20 hours
Stop Heating
Soaking

24 hours

For 245 KV / 145 KV / 72 KV / 52.5 KV bushing, the typical full process


is:
o

100 C /
72 hours minimum
0.005 mBar pressure /
48 hours

Oven
Start vacuum
o

Temperature 60 C
24 hours
Start oil filling
Drop by Drop
18 20 hours
Stop Heating
Soaking

24 hours

For 245 KV / 145 KV / 72 KV / 52.5 KV bushing, the typical short process


is:
o

Temperature 60 C - 65 C
Vacuum

12 hours
48 hours

Start oil filling


Drop by Drop 18 20 hours
Stop Heating
Soaking

24 hours

Soaking Duration:
Rating

Duration

420

KV Bushing

16 Hours minimum

245

KV Bushing

12 Hours minimum

145

KV Bushing

08 Hours minimum

72.5 KV Bushing

04 Hours minimum

KV Bushing

04 Hours minimum

52

Bushing Testing:
Routine and type tests are carried out on bushing according to the requirement and
customers demand. A typical routine test observation on 420 KV bushing is shown below.
The basic device for testing is Schering Bridge, and the parameters C3 and R3 are measured:

Parameter
KV
Capacitance C3
Tan delta
Partial Discharge (internal)

10

122

255

364

420

364

255

122

10

The applied voltage on bushing is increased from 0-420 KV and reduced to zero
again, and readings are taken as shown above. Upon reaching 420 KV, an overvoltage of 630
KV is maintained for a period of one minute and the same parameter readings are taken.

CPM
Following Products are manufactured at the CPM Division:
Sr. No.
01.

Product
Shunt Capacitors

Rating
6.6 KV - 500 KV

02.

Series Capacitors

33 KV - 400 KV

03.

Filter Capacitors

up - 500 KV

04.

Surge Capacitors

up - 40 KV

05.

CVTs

33 KV - 1200 KV

06.
07.

Motor Capacitors
Roof Capacitors

3.3 KV - 11 KV
2000 volts dc

Purpose
improvement of power
Factor
reactive compensation
and voltage regulation
different types of
harmonics filtering
(HVDC)
protection of generator &
Transformers
measuring line metering
& power line carrier
Communication
improving power factor
traction locomotive

Shunt Capacitor banks with all film dielectric impregnated with non PCB Impregnate of
desired ratings from 6.6 to 400 kV complete with manual / automatic control equipment for
Industrial and power system application.
Pole mounted Capacitors for mounting in line with Rural Electrification scheme up to 11
KV
Roof Capacitor in Traction Motor application: 4 microfarad, 2 KV DC
Series capacitors for Reactive compensation and voltage regulation in power system from
33kV to 400 KV
Capacitor to improve power factor of traction substations suitable for Railway
Electrification.
Surge Capacitor for protection of Rotating Machine and Generator transformers winding
15 kV and 40 kV, 0.125 micro farad.
AC filter Capacitor for Harmonic filtering suitable for HVDC application up to 500 kV.
Coupling capacitors / CVT up to 800 kV class for Power line carrier communication
application, meeting and protection.

Manufacturing Process of Power Capacitor:

Element Winding
Testing 4.5 KV
Element Stack Assembly
Pack Testing
Soldering and Wiring
Boxing
VP Plant
Rack / Dispatch

Major raw materials:


Sr. No.

Material

Purpose / Dimension

01.

Polypropylene film

as a dielectric- 9 to 18 microns

02.

Aluminum Foil

5 microns

03.

PXE (Phenyl Xylyl Ethane) oil

as liquid dielectric

04.

Bushing

Capacitor consists of electrode made of 5 microns Aluminum Foil. The dielectric


used is of Polypropylene film having thickness 9 microns to 18 microns. Three layer
dielectrics are used between two electrodes of 5 microns Al Foil.
All these layers of Polypropylene film and Aluminum Foil are wound on a Semi
Automatic winding machine. And then it is pressed to get the capacitor element. This
complete process is done in a dust proof air-conditioned winding room.
All the elements are then tested using element-testing machine. If faulty
elements are detected then they are at once rejected and are separated from the
manufacturing process.
For Power Capacitors, the elements are arranged in an appropriate series or parallel
combination, so as to get desired capacitor rating. The arrangement of the elements is called
a stack. The stacks are again tested in a pack-testing machine.
These stacks are boxed in a steel container of suitable dimensions. This box can be referred
as a Capacitor can. The Can is welded and the appropriate terminals are taken out through the
bushings.
The box is then impregnated by PXE (Phenyl Xylyl Ethane) oil under fine vacuum
and temperature.
Each unit is then routine tested as per relevant IS/IEC. Once the unit passes in the
entire test it is then painted and assembled into a rack. The rack when completed is then
dispatched to the customer.

Testing:
Well Equipped Capacitor test & ultra high voltage laboratory to cope up
with routine & type test requirements as per latest Indian & International for Power
capacitor & coupling capacitor.

ROUTINE TEST as per IS 13925 (1998)


Sr.

TEST

PROCEDURE

1.

Measurement of

Capacitance is measured at rated voltage.

Capacitance.
2.

Capacitor Loss tangent

Capacitor Loss tangent is measured after 48 hrs of stabilization

measurement at rated

or at the end of Thermal Stability Test.

voltage.
3.

4.

Voltage test between

4 times the rated voltage in DC is applied between the terminal

terminals.

for 10 sec.

Ac test terminals and

An Ac Voltage depending on the BIL level of the unit is

container.

applied between shorted terminals and container for 10 sec.


this is applied only for units having all terminals insulated.

5.

Test of Discharge

Discharge resistance shall be measured. The DR shall be

device.

suitable discharge to less than 50 volts from an initial peak


voltage of sqrt of 2 times the rated voltage after disconnecting
from supply. The maximum discharge time shall be 10 min.

6.

Sealing test

A sealing test shall be carried out to demonstrate that the


impregnate does not leak from the capacitor. The test shall be
carried out at 80`c for a period of 4 hours after attaining
container temperature of 80`c.

TYPE TESTS as per IS 13925(1998)


Sr.

TEST

PROCEDURE

1.

Thermal Stability Test

2.

Capacitor loss tangent

a. Capacitor units are placed inside the oven


having 55+- 2`c.
b. An AC voltage equal to 1.2 Un is applied
for 48 hrs.
c. Te value of tan delta measured during last
10 hrs shall not increase by 1x 10-4
Capacitance is measured at rated voltage.
Capacitor Loss tangent is measured after 48 hrs

measurement at elevated

of stabilization or at the end of thermal stability

Temperature

test.

Ac test terminals and

An Ac Voltage depending on the BIL level of

container.

the unit is applied between shorted terminals

3.

and container for 1 min. this is applied only for


units having all terminals insulated.
4.

Lighting impulse voltage test

An Impulse Voltage depending on the BIL

between shorted terminals and

level of the unit is applied between shorted

container.

terminals and container. this test is applicable


only for units having all terminals insulated.

5.

Shorted Circuit Discharge

a. 2.5 times the rated voltage in DC is applied

Test.

between the terminals & then discharged


through a gap situated as close as possible to
the capacitor. The unit shall be subjected to
give 5 such discharge within 10 min.
b. Within 5 min after this test, the unit shall be
subjected to 4.3 times the rated voltage
between terminals for 10 sec.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:


The project which in assigned by HRDC for industrial training is completed in the
given period of time with the help of faculty guides and the very helpful and knowledgeable
team of BHEL. From Bay 1 to Bay 6 we have seen and learned various things which would
surely be very helpful for my future. We have seen how silicon steels are cut in a proper
dimensions with the help of punch and CAM (computer aided manufacturing) and helped in
making core as well and discuss the various parameters while doing work with the high class
engineers like why oil ducts are used? Or why cant we use another material for core? The
industrial faculty guide cleared our doubt thoroughly and helped in collecting data as much
as he can.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION:


The main types of market actors having a direct influence on the decision to purchase a
distribution transformer are electricity distribution companies and end users in industry and
commerce, as well as the engineering firms, energy service companies and consultants who
advise to them in the planning and tendering phases of procurement. These market actors
face different barriers and obstacles with regard to the development, planning, sales and
purchase of energy-efficient distribution transformers. They currently do not receive any
support to realise energy-efficient targets.
Therefore, in order to adequately address and overcome these barriers and obstacles and to
realise the existing energy efficiency potentials in this field, different policies and measures
are needed. These policies and measures should be bundled in an appropriate policy-mix.
The BHEL project proposes:
Changes in the regulatory schemes are needed to remove disincentives and provide incentives to
increase the use of energy-efficiency of distribution transformers by electricity distribution
companies. The income of, and investment by, electricity distribution companies is mainly
controlled by regulation due to the fact that distribution grids are in most cases natural
monopolies. Therefore, the regulation scheme will have a large impact on the investment
decisions of electricity distribution companies, including whether or not to buy energyefficient distribution transformers. The regulatory mechanisms currently in place do not give
any incentives and may even provide a disincentive to the purchase of energy- efficient
distribution transformers by electricity distribution companies. Until changes are made to
these regulatory regimes, additional fiscal or financial incentives will be needed to offset the
current disincentives.
A bundle of "soft" measures such as:
o the requirement for clearly visible nameplate information,

o a labelling scheme,
o the inclusion in energy advice and audit programmes and
o the provision of a toolkit for buyers
would particularly address those market actors who lack information and knowledge or who
tend to follow traditional purchasing routines that do not lead to least-costsolutions. This
particularly affects small and medium industry and commerce, but also some smaller
electricity distribution companies, engineering firms, energy service companies, energy
consultants and planners.

REFERENCESES:
1.
2.
3.

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