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8.

STRUCTURES

*NOTE: SOME OF THE INFORMATION IN THIS CHAPTER IS


APPLICABLE TO PHASE 2 PRELIMINARY DESIGN. THIS
INFORMATION MIGHT CHANGE IN THE PHASE 2 PRELIMINARY
DESIGNREPORT.
8.1

INTRODUCTION

Structureshavebeenredesignedtoconformwithminorrevisionsto
vertical alignment and to match the reduced Electrostar gauge
whichisalsosuitableforanumberofothertraintypesresulting
in:

Reducedconstructioncosts

Reducedconstructiondurationsandprogrammerisk.

More efficient foundation designs have been incorporated, with a


risk sharing/remeasurable mechanism for pile lengths exceeding
the baseline design proposed (in the dolomite areas around
Centurion).

Lateralsupportandcutandcoverdesignsandmethodshavebeen
revised,resultingin:

Reducedconstructioncosts

Reducedconstructiondurationsandprogrammerisk.

GeneralarrangementofRosebankandSandtoncutandcovershas
beencompletelyrevised:

AtRosebanktheoverallareaofthecutandcoverhasbeen
reducedby66%

At Sandton Station, a revisit of the switch track and a slight


lengtheningofthecutandcovertowardsthenorth(uptojust
southofDonSuiteHotel)hasenabledthestationtoberaised
by 7 m (ie platform level at 33 m depth in the axis of the
station).Simultaneously,onsouthernend,asaconsequence
of this raise, the huge and costly underground work for the
backstation (complicated and wide track layout) has been
replaced by a 120 m lengthening of the cut and cover, the
wholebalanceoftheconstructioncostandprogrammebeing

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fullypositive(refertodrawing4028).

(a)

Viaduct construction method has been changed to precast


segmentalconstruction,offeringthebenefitsof:

Reducedconstructioncosts

Reducedconstructiondurationsandprogrammerisk

Improvedqualityoffinish

industrialization of the production, therefore enhancement of


BEEinvolvement

Overpassandunderpassbridges

Thefollowingscheduleillustratestheconfigurationofoverpassandunderpassbridge
structures
OVERPASSES&UNDERPASSES
NO.
South
North

NAME

KMAXIS

Overpasses

N/A

N/A

OvP3

N3offramp

16920

OvP4

N3freeway

17025

OvP5

N3onramp

17135

OvP6

Marlborodrive

17315

OvP7

ThirdRoad

17500

OvP8

Firstavenue

17825

OvP9

Ridgeroad

24715

OvP10

Westroad

25580

OvP11

Dalestreet

27000

OvP12

Newroad

29068

OvP13

K56

29503

OvP14

Douglas

30214

OvP15

K27/K562

33504

OvP16

Brakfontein

37505

OvP17

Freight

37729

OvP18

N1Offramp

38007

OvP19

K54Nelmaplus

39599

OvP20

K109Future

42015

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OvP21

JohnVorster

43718

N/A

OvP22

VonWillich

46168

OvP23

RabbieStreet

46526

OvP24

K103

48928

OvP25

Access to 4VRP 51434


(b)

OvP26

Bourke(a)

57895

N/A

N/A

OvP33

Burnett(a)

60595

OvP34

Festival

60980

OvP35

Hilda

61235

OvP36

Grosvenor

61490

OVERPASSES&UNDERPASSES
NO.

NAME

KMAXIS

West

Overpasses

East

OvP101

N3offramp

1506

OvP102

N3freeway

1595

OvP103

N3onramp

1689

OvP104

Starfieldavenue

1920

OvP105

Thirdroad

1988

OvP106

Firstroad

2769

OvP107

Lovatoroad

9793

OvP108

Chestnutstreet

11980

UnP1

ZinniaDrive

15935

UnP2

KingWillow

32912

UnP3

ROW

34808

UnP4

Sanrand

35030

UnP5

Olievenoutbosch

35567

UnP6

K220

36725

UnP9

Snakevalley

50296

UnP10

R28Ramps

50446

UnP15

Vanderwalt

56580

UnP20

Walker

59000

UnP21

Walkerspruit

59185

South
North

Underpasses

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UnP22

WaltonJameson

59235

UnP23

Lynnwood

59860

West

UnP100a

Zinniadrive

490

East

UnP100b

Zinniadrive

443

N/A

UnP102

Centenaryway(b)

6314

UnP103

Centenaryway(b)

6322

UnP104a

Modderfonteinroad

8574

UnP104b

Modderfonteintroad

8574

TOTAL

(b)

55No

Viaductstructures

Thefollowingscheduleillustratestheconfigurationofviaductstructures
VIADUCTS

SouthNorth

WestEast

NAME

LENGTH

01N/Slanes

352.00

11AW/E1lane

176.00

11BE/W1lane

220.00

11CE/W2lanes

264.00

VIADUCT03

616.00

VIADUCT04

748.00

VIADUCT05

264.00

VIADUCT06

484.00

VIADUCT07

113.00

VIADUCT12

264.00

VIADUCT13

484.00

VIADUCT14

616.00

TOTAL

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84

(c)

Cutandcoverstructures

The following schedule illustrates the configuration differences between cut and
coverstructures
CUTANDCOVERSTRUCUTRES
NAME

LENGTH

CC0

ParkStation

252.00

South

CC1

RosebankStation

669.00

North

CC1bis

SandtonStation

668.00

CC2

Marlboro

123.00

CC2bis

Flyover

128.00

CC3

JohnVorster

1170.00

CC3bis

Centurion

1480.00

N/A

CC5

JeanAvenue

680.00

CC6

BeforeSalvakop

750.00

CC6bis

PretoriaStation

505.00

CC7

PretoriaCentre

585.00

CC8

Muckleneuk

235.00

West

CC11

RhodesfieldStation 370.00

East

CC12

JIAStation

TOTAL

8.2

95.00
7710m

DESIGNOFSTRUCTURESSUMMARY
8.2.1

Introduction

This document gives a summary of structures along the proposed


alignmentoftheGautrainaswellastherelevantdesigncriteria.
Thedocumentisstructuredinthefollowingway:

Generaldescriptionofstructures

DesignCriteria

Viaducts.

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OverandUnderpasses.

CutandCovers.

8.2.2

Generaldescriptionofstructures

A schematic view of all the structures can be seen on the drawing


numberBOMBYVIDWG4100"GeneralSchematicofStructures".
Some exceptions are noticeable, made mainly in the view of better
balance the earthworks as well as to reduce the total length of the
viaducts:

atModderfonteinSpruit(km21,2):dropoftheprofileforearthwork
balance purpose, and replacement of the viaduct by an
embankmentplusaculvert

reinstatementofDouglasRoad(km30,2)insteadofGeorgeRoad
forearthworkbalancepurpose

at Centenary Way (EW km 6,33): drop of the profile in order to


shorten the viaduct and better integrate the Gautrain within the
LimbroPark

8.2.3
(a)

Viaducts

General

A typical 44,0m simple span prestressed concrete deck structure is


considered.Prestressingisbothexternalandinternal(splitapproximately
equally).Thechoiceofsimplespansisrelatedtotherequiredlimitationof
movements between track and deck for railway structures. The
foundationsofeachpieraredesignedtoresisttotraction/brakingforces
persimplespan.
Thedeckstructureisaconcreteboxgirderoftypically10,10mwidth(2
tracks3,5mwidth,Electrostargauge)andconstantheightof3,5m.
Thechoiceof44,0mspansisacompromisebetween:

wider spanned structures which limit the number, location


problems and costs of piers and foundations, but require
significantmeasuresintermsoferectionmethods,and

short spans structures (typically 30,0m) with concrete beams


deck, which are globally more simple to fabricate and erect, but

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multiplytheproblemsofpierlocations(quitelargeincertainareas
of the scheme, considering the dense road layout) and offer a
rather worse integration and appearance on an environmental
pointofview.
The chosen design remains compatible with a good standardisation of
thefabricationanderection.
There is no need of special track dilatation devices for viaducts of this
typeofconstruction,whereasviaductsconceivedasmultiplespanswith
a total length greater than 400m to 500m would have required special
rigidspansandtrackdilatationdevices.
Wesummarizehereaftertypicaldimensionsofthestructure:

Deck: 44,0msimplespans
meanthickness
(concretem/m)

0,59m(2tracks),
0,75m(1track)
reinforcement ratio 170kg/m
prestressing60kg/m.

Piercaps:

4,0mx3,0m
thickness1,50m
reinforcementratio150kg/m.

Piles:

4,0mx3,0m,
thickness0,40m
crosssectionalarea=4,41m

reinforcementratio:90kg/m.

Pilecaps:

reinforcementratio90kg/m:

Typesanddimensionsoffoundationsdependingonsoilconditions
andpierheightreferto8.1.3(b)

(b)

Foundations

The following assumptions have been made for the design of


foundations:

Viaducts05HennopsRiverand06EeufeesRiver(dolomiticzone),
as well as viaducts 12 Modderdontein and 14 (Zuurfontein Road)
onpiles:

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Max.pierheight=13m:
Pilecaps5,70mx7,20mx1,50m.
Piles:4pilesof1,20mdiameterperpier

13m<Pierheight<20,0m:
Pilecaps5,70mx9,2000mx2,50m.
Piles:4pilesof1,20mdiameterperpier

Pierheight>20,0m:
Pilecaps9,20mx9,2mx2,50m.
Piles:6pilesof1,20mdiameterperpier
Theviaduct07overMandelaBoulevardisfoundedondia0,9m
piles,12mdeep

Abutments:

Deepfoundationsonboredpiles:4pilesof1,20mdiameter
perpier

Viaducts:0111Marlboro,03Allandale,04Rielspruit,13Centenary
Way:

Dimensionsofsuperficialfoundations(andshortpilesfor50%
ofpiersonviaducts011103):
5,5m x 7,0m x 1,5m for pier height over ground level
<10,0m.
6,0m x 7,0m x 2,0m for pier height over ground level
between10,0mand15,0m.
7,0m x 7,0m x 2,0m for pier height over ground level
>15,0m.

Typeanddepthoffoundationsareindicatedontheviaductdrawings.
8.2.4

OverandUnderpasses

We have considered mostly precast concrete beam structures for the


deck structure, as obviously the most appropriate to the number of
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bridges (35 out of a total of 55), requiring the highest possible level of
industrialisationandstandardisation.
Reinforced concrete frames are provided in specific cases (total of 20)
becauseoflittleskewangles,lesscompatiblewithbeamdeckbridges.
Besidesthefactthatbridgestructuressupportingtrainloadshavetobe
designedforhigherloads,thechosenstructuretypesdependessentially
onnecessarygaugesandskewangles.Wegivehereafterasummaryof
the different types of overand underpasses we adopted for the
determinationofthenecessaryquantities.

OVERPASSES
deck
deck:ratio
deck:ratio supports:ratio
concrete prestressing reinforcement reinforcement
3
3
3
3
m /m
kg/m
kg/m
kg/m

CHARACTERISTICS

TYPE

3spans,mainspan15m

4spans,twomainspans15m

4spans,twomainspans15m
and22.30m

concreteframe

precast
0.5
prestressed
precast
0.5
prestressed
precast
0.5
prestressed
reinforced 2,5*)incl
concrete
supports

42

80

80

42

80

80

42

80

80

100

100

UNDERPASSES
deck
deck:ratio
deck:ratio supports:ratio
concrete prestressing reinforcement reinforcement
3
3
3
3
m /m
kg/m
kg/m
kg/m

CHARACTERISTICS

TYPE

4A concreteframe
4B

concreteframewithcentral
support

3spans,centralspan20m

4spans,twocentralspans20m

reinforced
concrete
reinforced
concrete
precast
prestressed
precast
prestressed

2.5*)incl
supports
3.0*)incl
supports

100

100

100

100

0.65

42

150

100

0.65

42

150

100

Complete schedules of overpasses (Annexure 8D) and underpasses


(Annexure8E)aregivenintheannexuresafterthissection.

8.2.5

CutandCovers

Wehaveconsideredtwotypesofstructures,dependingonthepossible
constructionmethodology:

Whentherearenoconstraintstoostringentintermsofland,usual
concreteboxesarecastinplaceinopencut,eithersloped(withsoil
nailingandgunitewhererequired),orverticalwithtemporarypiling.

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In very constrained urban context, and in deep conditions, the


designenableslateralsupportsolutionstobeincorporatedintothe
permanentstructure,inorderto:

reducetheconstructioncosts

improve the construction efficiencies and ease the


programmedurations

minimizethestructuralfootprintsinurbanareas

toimprovetheaccomodationoftraffic

For the1st case (concrete boxes cast insitu in open cuts), three tyoical
crosssectionshavebeenconsidered:

2 twin boxes (one box for one track, 4.72m internal width)
partiallyinCC2bisandCC11

1 box with central wall (for 2 tracks, 9.74m internal width) ,


which is the general case, the central wall acting as
intermediate support (optimisation ofthe concrete structure),
and improving simultaneously the safety in separating the 2
tracks

1boxwithoutcentralwall(for2tracks,8.84minternalwidth).
partiallyonCC6bisandCC7

Thicknessofwalls,slabandroofsaredirectlyfunctionoffillheightabove
thecutandcoverstructure.Wegivehereafterasummaryofthisforthe3
differenttypesofcutandcovers:

Thicknessofwalls,slabandroof
2twinboxes

Box
with Box
without
centralwall
centralwall

Heightoffill<5,0m

Doesnotexist

0,50m

0,90m

5m<Heightoffill<11,0m

0,70m

0,70m

1,20m

Heightoffill>11,0m

Doesnotexist

0,90m

1,50m

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In the second case (lateral supports are incorporated into permanent


structures):

the lateral supports, temporarily anchored, are constructed,


dependingonthegeologicalconditions,eitherwithdiaphragmwalls
(CC0 & CC12) or withpiles walls (typically at2,5 m spacing) with
guniteinbetween(CC1,CC1bis,CC2,CC3,CC7)

thetopandintermediateslabsareconstructedwithprecastgirders
and200mmslab

The others structures take into account specific design constraints


(launchingshaftforTBM,3trackssectionsetc).
8.2.6

8.3

Annexures:StructuresSummaries
Annexure8A:

ViaductsSummary

Annexure8B:

CutandCoversSummary

Annexure8C:

TypicalBridgeTypes

Annexure8D:

Overpasses

Annexure8E:

Underpasses

STRUCTURESDRAWINGS
SeeVolume2ofPhase1.

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ANNEXURE8C:TYPICALBRIDGETYPES
Overpassesandunderpasses:Precastbeamsolution

Structuraltype

Thestructuraltypesproposedareclassifiedasfollows

Type1

Overpassstructurewith800mmdeepbeamsand200mm
insitutopslab.Deckwidthstosuittheroadscrossingover.
Spanstosuitthedepthoftrackbelowroadlevel.

Type2

Overpassstructurewith800mmdeepbeamsand200mm
insitutopslab.Deckwidthstosuittheroadscrossingover.
Spanstosuitthedepthoftrackbelowroadlevel.

Type6

Underpassstructurewith1000mmdeepbeamsand
200mminsitutopslab.Deckwidthstosuitthetracksover.
Spanstosuittheroadwidthsanddepthofroadbelow
tracklevel.

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Type7

Underpassstructurewith1000mmdeepbeamsand
200mminsitutopslab.Deckwidthstosuitthetracksover.
Spanstosuittheroadwidthsanddepthofroadbelow
tracklevel.

Overpassesandunderpasses:Framesolution

Structuraltype.
Thestructuraltypescanbeclassifiedasfollows.

Type4

Overpasseswithdeckwidthstosuittheroadscrossing
over.Spantosuitthewidthoftrackformation.

Type4a

Underpasseswithdeckwidthtosuitthetrackcrossing
over.Spantosuittheroadwidthunder.

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