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CHAPTER 8:

ELECTROMAGNETISM

PUSAT TUISYEN ALFA

8.1 Effect of a Magnet on a Current-carrying Conductor


8.1 Kesan Magnet ke atas Konduktor yang Membawa Arus
8.1.1 Straight wire/ Wayar lurus

Magnetic fields are circular


Medan magnet adalah membulat
Field is strongest close to the wire
Medan yang paling kuat adalah yang
paling dekat dengan wayar
Increasing the current increases the
strength of the field
Peningkatan arus meningkatkan kekuatan medan

To determine the direction of the circular


magnetic fields, use the right hand rule
Untuk menentukan arah medan magnet,
gunakan hukum tangan kanan

8.1.2 Circular coil/ Gegelung membulat

The magnetic field is similar to two straight lines


carrying current in opposite directions
Medan magnet adalah sama dengan dua garis lurus
yang membawa arus dalam arah yang bertentangan
The magnetic field between the wires are straight lines
whereas the ones near the wire are circular
Medan magnet di antara wayar adalah garis lurus di
mana satu wayar yang terdekat adalah membulat.

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8.1.3 Solenoid/ Solenoid

When the number of turns on a coil is increased, it becomes a solenoid


Apabila bilangan putaran pada gegelung meningkat, ia menjadi solenoid.
The magnetic fields are similar to a bar magnet, i.e. magnetic poles on either end
Medan magnet adalah sama dengan magnet bar, cth. kutub magnet__________________
To determine the polarity of the solenoid/ Untuk menentukan kutub solenoid:
Method 1:
Method 2:
Observe the directions of the current flow on either end
Right-hand grip rule
Perhati arah arus mengalir____________
Genggaman tangan kanan
(Ibu jari menunjukkan Utara)

8.1.4 Electromagnet/ Keelektromagnetan

An electromagnet is a magnet made by


winding a coil of insulated wires around a soft
iron core, so that a magnetic field is produced
when a current passes through the coil
Suatu elektromagnet adalah magnet yang
diperbuat oleh ______________
To increase the strength of the
electromagnet:
Untuk meningkat kekuatan electromagnet:
Increase the current/ Meningkatkan arus
Increase the number of turns on the coil/ Meningkatkan bilangan lilitan pada gegelung
Insert a soft iron core in the middle of the solenoid/ Menggunakan teras besi lembut di
bahagian tengah solenoid

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8.1.5 Applications of Electromagnets/ Aplikasi elektromagnet


Electromagnetic lifter/ Pengangkat elektromagnet
Used to lift heavy objects made of steel or steel alloys,
e.g. cars
Digunakan untuk mengangkat objek berat yang
diperbuat daripada keluli atau aloi keluli, cth. kereta
Consists of a soft iron core wrapped by insulated
copper coils
Terdiri daripada teras besi lembut yang dibalut dengan
penebat gegelung kuprum
Soft iron is used as the core because its magnetism will disappear almost instantaneously when
the current is turned off
Besi lembut digunakan sebagai teras kerana kemagnetannya akan hilang dengan serta merta
apabila arus dimatikan.
When the current is switched on, the coils become an electromagnet
Apabila arus dihidupkan, gegelung menjadi elektromagnet

Electric bell/ Loceng elektrik

When the switch is pressed, the direct current flows through the circuit, turning the solenoid into
an electromagnet.
Apabila suis dihidupkan, arus terus mengalir melalui litar, solenoid bertukar menjadi
electromagnet.
The springy metal is attracted towards the electromagnet, and the hammer strikes the gong.
Logam berspring ditark ke electromagnet, dan penukul mengetuk gong itu.
The contacts are no longer in contact, so the current stops flowing and the solenoid is
demagnetized.
Sesentuh tidak lagi dalam keadaan bersentuhan, jadi arus berhenti mengalir dan solenoid
dinyahmagnetkan.
The springy metal will return to its original position, and completes the circuit again.
Logam berspring akan kembali kepada kedudukan asal, dan melengkapkan litar itu semula.
The process is repeated as long as the switch is pressed
Proses diulang selagi suis dihidupkan.

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Electric relay/ Geganti elektrik

When the switch is turned on, the input circuit is completed and the solenoid becomes an
electromagnet.
Apabila suis dihidupkan, input litar itu menjadi sempurna dan solenoid itu menjadi
elektromagnet.
The electromagnet attracts the iron armature which pushes contacts C together.
Elektromagnet itu menarik plat besi dimana menolak sesentuh C.
This closes the output circuit and the electric motor is started.
Ini menutup output litar dan motor elektrik berputar.

Circuit breaker/ Pemutus litar


When too much current flows through the wire, the
electromagnet becomes strong enough to attract the iron catch.
Apabila terlalu banyak arus mengalir melalui wayar,
elektromagnet itu menjadi cukup kuat untuk menarik
..
This disconnects the contacts and stops current from flowing
through.
Ini memutuskan sesentuh dan memberhentikan arus daripada
mengalir.
The reset button is pushed to release the iron catch from the
electromagnet and to close the contacts so that current can flow
through again.
Butang tetapan semula ditekan untuk melepaskan .. daripada elektromagnet dan
untuk merapatkan sesentuh supaya arus boleh mengalir lagi.

Ticker timer/
When connected to a 50 Hz A.C. source, the thin metal
strip becomes an electromagnet with changing polarity.
Apabila disambungkan dengan sumber 50 Hz A.U., jalur
besi nipis menjadi elektromagnet dengan kutub yang
berubah-ubah.
The thin metal strip will be attracted to the
permanent magnetic pole of opposite polarity.
Jalur besi lembut itu akan ditarik ke kutub magnet
kekal yang bertentangan kutub.
Because of the constantly changing polarity, the
iron strip will vibrate with a frequency of 50 Hz.

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Telephone earpiece/ Cuping telinga telefon


Consists of a permanent magnet clamped between two soft iron
cores which are wound with copper wires in opposite directions.
Melibatkan magnet kekal diletakkan di antara dua teras besi
lembut di mana_____________________________
A thin iron diaphragm is fixed in front of the soft iron core.
Diafragma besi lembut diletakkan di hadapan teras besi
lembut.
The microphone converts audio signals to electrical
energy with fluctuating frequency.
Mikrofon menukaran isyarat audio kepada tenaga elektrik dengan frekuensi yang berubahubah.
When the fluctuating current flows through the solenoid, an electromagnetic field with
fluctuating intensity is produced.
Apabila arus yang berubah-ubah mengalir melalui solenoid, suatu medan elektromagnet
dengan keamatan yang berubah-ubah dihasilkan.
The fluctuating pull of the magnetic field on the diaphragm causes the diaphragm to vibrate.
The vibrating diaphragm results in compression and rarefaction of air in its vicinity, producing
sound of the same frequency as that received by the microphone.
Cassette recorder/ Perakam kaset
A cassette recorder has two horseshoe-shaped electromagnets
known as cassette heads.
Suatu perakam kaset mempunyai dua bentuk tapak kuda
elektromagnet dikenali sebagai kepala kaset.
One head functions as the erasing head which
demagnetizes the tape whereas the other acts as the
recording head which records information onto the tape.
Satu kepala berfungsi sebagai kepala-pemadam di mana
menyahmagnetkan pita di mana yang lain bertindak
sebagai kepala perakam yang merakam informasi ke
atas pita.
The magnetic tape is made from a resilient plastic material coated with a magnetic substance
such as magnetic oxides or ferrites.
Pita magnet diperbuat daripada ___________bahan plastic disalut dengan bahan bermagnet
seperti oksida magnet
When recording, audio signals in the form of fluctuating electric impulses flow through the
cassette head, producing a magnetic field with fluctuating intensity.
The cassette head magnetizes the portion of the magnetic tape that goes through the narrow
slit with uniform speed.

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8.2 Interaction Between Current-carrying Conductor and the Magnetic Field


8.2 Interaksi di Antara Konduktor yang Membawa Arus dan Medan Magnet
8.2.1 Interaction of magnetic fields of a current-carrying conductor and permanent magnets
8.2.1 Interaksi medan magnet konduktor yang membawa arus dan magnet kekal
Permanent magnet
Magnet kekal

Current-carrying conductor
Konduktor yang membawa arus

Elastic field
Medan elastik

8.2.2 Determining the direction of the induced force (Flemings Left Hand Rule)
8.2.2 Menentukan arah daya aruhan (Hukum Tangan Kiri Fleming)

The force is increased if/ Daya akan meningkat jika:


Current is increased/ Arus meningkat
A stronger magnet is used/ Magnet yang lebih kuat digunakan
The length of wire in the field is increased/ Panjang wayar dalam medan meningkat
8.2.3 D.C. Motor/ Motor A.T.

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8.3 Electromagnetic Induction/ Aruhan Elektromagnet


8.3.1 Inducing e.m.f. and current/ Aruhan d.g.e dan arus
E.m.f and current can be induced by/ D.g.e dan arus boleh diaruhkan oleh:

Moving a magnet bar in and out of a solenoid


Magnet yang bergerak masuk dan keluar solenoid

Moving a conductor across a magnetic field


Konduktor yang bergerak merentasi medan magnet

E.m.f. and current can only be induced when there is relative motion between a conductor and
magnetic fields that are perpendicular to each other.
D.g.e dan arus hanya boleh diaruhkan apabila adanya gerakan relatif di antara konduktor dan medan
magnet yang bersudut tepat dengan satu sama lain.
8.3.2 Determining the direction of the induced current
8.3.2 Menentukan arah arus aruhan
8.3.2.1 Right-hand Slap Rule
Point all four fingers in the direction of the field and the thumb in the
direction of the motion. The direction of the slapping action gives the
direction of the induced current.
8.3.2.2 Flemings Right Hand Rule/ Hukum Tangan Kanan Fleming

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8.3.2.3 Lenzs Law/ Hukum Lenz


Lenzs Law used to determine the direction of the current flow
Hukum Lenz digunakan untuk menentukan arah arus mengalir
The solenoid will always resist any movement of the magnet relative to the solenoid
Solenoid akan sentiasa menentang mana-mana pergerakan magnet relatif kepada solenoid
When the bar magnet is inserted into the solenoid, the solenoid will try to repel the bar magnet.
Therefore, the polarity of that end of the solenoid will be the same as the bar magnets.
Apabila magnet bar dimasukkan ke dalam solenoid, solenoid akan cuba untuk menolak magnet
bar itu. Maka, kutub pada hujung solenoid akan menjadi sama dengan kutub magnet bar.
When the bar magnet is removed from the solenoid, the solenoid will try to attract the bar magnet.
Therefore, the polarity of that end of the solenoid will be the opposite of the bar magnets.
Apabila magnet bar dialihkan daripada solenoid. Solenoid akan cuba menarik magnet bar. Maka,
kutub pada hujung solenoid akan bertentangan dengan kutub magnet bar.
Method 1: Based on direction of current flow observed at the either end of the solenoid
Berdasarkan arah arus mengalir diperhatikan pada hujung solenoid

Method 2: Using the right-hand grip rule/ Menggunakan hukum genggaman tangan kanan

8.3.3 Determining the magnitude of the induced current (Faradays Law)


8.3.3 Menentukan magnitud arus aruhan (Hukum Faraday)
Faradays Law: the magnitude of the induced e.m.f. is directly proportional to the rate of change
magnetic flux through a coil or alternatively the rate of the magnetic flux being cut.
Hukum Faraday: magnitud aruhan d.g.e berkadar terus dengan kadar perubahan flaks magnet
melalui gegelung atau kadar flaks magnet dipotong berulang kali.
If there is no relative motion between a magnet and a solenoid, there is no electromagnetic induction.
Jika tiada pergerakan relatif di antara suatu magnet dan solenoid, tiada aruhan elektromagnet berlaku.
To increase the e.m.f. and current/ Untuk meningkatkan d.g.e dan arus:
Increase the relative motion/ Meningkat pergerakan relatif
Increase the number of turns on the coils/ Meningkatkan bilangan lilitan gegelung
Increase the magnetic strength/ Meningkat kekuatan magnet
Increase the cross-section area of the wire/ Meningkatkan luas keratan rentas wayar
Insert a soft iron core in between the coils of the wire
Memasukkan teras besi lembut di antara gegelung wayar
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8.3.4 Direct Current & Alternating Current/ Arus Terus & Arus Ulang-alik

Direct current/ Arus Terus


Direct current is usually supplied by
acid-based batteries or dry cells
Arus Ulang-alik biasanya dibekalkan
oleh sel kering.
Direct current is current flowing in one
fixed direction in a circuit
Arus terus adalah arus yang mengalir
pada arah yang tetap dalam litar.

D.C. Generator

Alternating current/ Arus Ulang-alik


Alternating current is generated from a.c.
generators, e.g. hydroelectric power
generators
Arus ulang-alik dihasilkan daripada
penjana arus ulang-alik, cth. penjana
kuasa hidroelektrik.
Alternating current is current whose
magnitude and direction changes
periodically with time
Arus ulang-alik adalah arus di mana
magnitud dan arah berubah mengikut
masa.
A.C. Generator

Factors that affect the magnitude of the induced current in the generators:
Faktor yang menyebabkan magnitud arus teraruh pada penjana:
Magnetic field strength
Kekuatan medan magnet
Number of windings on the armature
Bilangan putaran pada angker
The presence of an iron core in the armature
Kehadiran gegelung keluli pada angker
The speed of rotation of the armature
Kelajuan putaran angker
Area of the armature
Luas angker

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8.3.4.1 Effective voltage/ Voltan berkesan

When two identical light bulbs are connected to a direct current and an alternating current of the
same e.m.f., it is found that the light bulb connected to the d.c. shines with brighter intensity.
Apabila dua mentol yang sama disambungkan ke arus terus dan arus ulang-alik dengan d.g.e.
yang sama, ia didapati mentol lampu yang disambungkan dengan a.t. lebih terang
keamatannya.
To get the light bulb in the a.c. circuit to shine with the same intensity (or the same heating
effect), the voltage of the power source has to be increased.
Untuk mendapatkan mentol lampu pada litar a.u. dengan keamatan yang sama dengan a.t.,
sumber kuasa voltan perlu ditingkatkan.

Effective voltage is typically known as root mean square voltage whereas the actual voltage is
known as peak voltage.
Voltan berkuat kuasa biasanya dikenali sebagai voltan punca-min-kuasa di mana voltan
sebenar dikenali sebagai voltan puncak.

Vrms = root mean square voltage [V]/ voltan punca-min-kuasa [V]


Vpeak = peak voltage [V]/ voltan puncak [V]

8.3.5 Operating Principles of Current-measuring Devices


8.3.5 Hukum Operasi Alat Pengukur Arus
Moving coil meter/ Gegelung meter bergerak
Built on the principle of electromagnetism
Dicipta mengikut hukum keelektromagnetan
When current flows through the coil, the mutual interaction between
the magnet and the coil forms a rotating force that turns the coil and
hence deflects the indicator.
Apabila arus mengalir melalui gegelung, magnet dan gegelung saling
berinteraksi untuk membentuk daya putaran yang menukarkan
gegelung dan memesongkan penunjuk.
Sensitivity can be increased by/ Meningkatkan kepekaan dengan:
Using a stronger magnet
Menggunakan magnet yang lebih kuat
Increasing the windings on the coil
Meningkatkan putaran pada gegelung
Increasing the area of the coil
Meningkatkan luas gegelung
Using a smaller spring constant
Menggunakan suatu spring yang lebih kecil
Using a lighter indicator
Menggunakan penunjuk yang lebih ringan
Only for measuring direct current
Hanya untuk mengukur arus terus
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Hot wire meter/ Meter wayar panas


Built on the principle of heating effect of electric current
Dicipta mengikut hukum kesan pemanas arus elektrik
When current flows through the wire AB, the wire heats up
and expands.
Apabila arus mengalir melalui wayar AB, wayar itu akan
menjadi panas dan mengembang
This causes the thread to be taut and the pulley turns causing
the indicator to deflect
Ini menyebabkan benang itu menjadi tegang dan takal itu
memesongkan penunjuk.
The rate of heating is not directly proportional to the
magnitude of the current, therefore a nonlinear scale is used.
Kadar pemanasan adalah tidak berkadar terus dengan
magnitud arus, maka skala tak linear digunakan.
For measuring direct current and alternating current
Untuk mengukur arus terus dan arus ulang-alik
Moving iron meter/ Meter besi bergerak
Built in the principles of electromagnetism
Dicipta mengikut hukum keelektromagnetan
When current flows through the solenoid, the solenoid is
magnetized, causing iron rods P and Q to be
magnetized with the same polarity.
Apabila arus mengalir melalui solenoid, solenoid
dimagnetkan, menyebabkan batang besi P dan Q
dimagnetkan dengan kutub yang sama.
Therefore both rods repel each other and Q rotates,
causing the indicator needle to deflect.
Maka kedua-dua batang menolak antara satu sama lain
dan Q berputar, menyebabkan jarum penunjuk
terpesong.
For measuring direct current and alternating current
Untuk mengukur arus terus dan arus ulang-alik
Only can measure large magnitudes of current because small currents are unable to induce a
magnetic field because it is strong enough to magnetize the two iron rods
Hanya boleh mengukur arus magnitud yang besar kerana arus yang kecil tidak dapat untuk
mengaruh suatu medan magnet kerana ia cukup kuat untuk memagnetkan dua rod besi.
8.3.5.1 Modifications to a moving coil meter/ Modifikasi untuk menggerakkan gegelung meter
To an ammeter
To a voltmeter

A shunt resistor (very low R)


Added in parallel

A multiplier (very high R)


Added in series

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8.4 Transformer/ Transformer


8.4.1 Basics of a transformer/ Asas transformer

Transformers are used to change the potential difference of an a.c. source.


Transformer digunakan untuk mengubah beza keupayaan suatu sumber a.u.

Vp = voltan primer / input voltan [V]


Vs = voltan sekunder / output voltan [V]
Np = bilangan lilitan gegelung primer
Ns = bilangan lilitan gegelung sekunder

Vp = primary voltage / input voltage [V]


Vs = secondary voltage / output voltage [V]
Np = number of turns on primary coil
Ns = number of turns on secondary coil

8.4.2 Operating principle of a transformer/ Operasi hukum suatu transformer

Input circuit must be connected to a.c.


Input litar mesti disambung dengan a.u.
D.c. is uniform in magnitude and has a fixed direction. Therefore the induced e.m.f. is not
produced in the secondary coil which depends on change in the magnetic flux.
A.t. sentiasa sama dalam magnitud dan mempunyai arah tetap. Maka aruhan d.g.e tidak
dihasilkan dalam gegelung sekunder di mana bergantung kepada arah dalam flaks magnet.
A.c. always has changing direction and magnitude. Therefore the direction and magnitude of
the induced magnetic field in the primary coil also changes, inducing e.m.f. in the secondary
coil.
A.u. sentiasa mempunyai arah dan magnitud yang berubah-ubah. Maka arah dan magnitud
aruhan medan magnet dalam gegelung primer juga berubah, mengaruh d.g.e dalam gegelung
sekunder.

8.4.3 Types of transformers/ Jenis transformer

Step-up transformer
Transformer menaik
Increase the potential difference
Meningkatkan beza keupayaan
Number of turns in the secondary coil
is greater than in the primary coil
Bilangan lilitan dalam gegelung sekunder
lebih banyak berbanding gegelung primer
Current in primary coil is greater than in
secondary coil
Arus dalam gegelung primer lebih tinggi
berbanding gegelung sekunder

Step-down transformer
Transformer menurun
Reduce potential difference
Mengurangkan beza keupayaan
Number of turn in the secondary coil is less
than in the primary coil
Bilangan lilitan dalam gegelung sekunder
lebih sedikit berbanding gegelung primer
Current in primary coil is less than in
secondary coil
Arus dalam gegelung primer lebih rendah
berbanding gegelung sekunder
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8.4.4 Efficiency/ Kecekapan

Sebab P = IV,

Vp = voltan primer/ voltan input [V]


Vs = voltan skunder/ voltan output [V]
Ip = arus dalam gegelung primer [A]
Is = arus dalam gegelung skunder [A]

Vp = primary voltage / input voltage [V]


Vs = secondary voltage / output voltage [V]
Ip = current in primary coil [A]
Is = current in secondary coil [A]

If the transformer is said to be ideal, the efficiency = 100%. Therefore


Jika suatu transformer digelar unggul, kecekapannya = 100%. Maka

8.4.5 Factors that affect the efficiency of a transformer


8.4.5 Faktor yang menyebabkan kecekapan suatu transformer
Factors/ Faktor

Methods to increase efficiency


Kaedah meningkatkan kecekapan
Use thicker copper wires of low resistance
Guna wayar kuprum tebal untuk rintangan yang rendah.
Use coolant to decrease the temperature of the
transformer
Guna penyejuk untuk menurunkan suhu transformer.
Use a laminated iron core where each layer is insulated
with enamel paint to prevent flow of eddy currents
Guna teras besi berlamina di mana setiap lapisan disalut
dengan cat untuk menghalang aliran arus pusar.

Heating effect of current in coil


Kesan pemanasan arus dalam gegelung
2
Power lost as heat P = I R
2
Kehilangan kuasa sebagai haba P = I R

Heating effect of induced eddy currents*


Kesan pemanasan arus pusar teraruh
Eddy currents are generated within the iron
core
Arus pusar dijanakan dengan teras besi.

Magnetization of the iron core


Kemagnetan teras besi
Energy used in the magnetization and
demagnetization of the iron core everytime
the current changes its direction is known
as hysterisis. This energy is lost as heat
which subsequently heats up the iron core.
Tenaga digunakan dalam pemagnetan dan
penyahmagnetan teras besi pada setiap kali
arus berubah arahnya dikenali sebagai
Flux leakage
Kebocoran flaks
Some of the induced magnetic flux from
the primary coil is not transferred to the
secondary coil
Sesetengah flaks magnet yang teraruh
(yang dihasilkan) daripada teras primer
tidak

Use a soft iron core that is easily magnetized and


demagnetized
Menggunakan teras besi lembut dimana mudah
dimagnetkan dan dinyahmagnetkan

Secondary coils are intertwined tightly with the primary


coils
Gegelung sekunder dililit dengan ketat bersama gegelung
primer
Iron core should resemble a closed loop
Teras besi patut menyerupai gelung tertutup

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*Eddy currents: circulating electrical currents that are induced in


electrically conductive elements when exposed to changing
magnetic fields, creating an opposing force to the magnetic flux

8.5 Generation and Transmission of Electricity


8.5 Cara-cara menjanakan kuasa elektrik.
8.5.1 Generation of electricity
Energy
source

Process

Advantages

Disadvantages

Hydro

Dammed waterL
gravitational potential
energy kinetic
energy (rotates
turbine)

Ecosystem imbalance
Safety of nearby residents threatened

Natural gas
and diesel

Natural gas heats up


water steam
rotates turbine
Coal heats up water
under high pressure
steam rotates
turbine
Fission of uranium
heats up water
steam rotates turbine

High cost
Costly and complicated extraction processes
Byproducts: sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide
Air pollution
Non-renewable
Byproducts: carbon dioxide
Serious environmental implications
Enormous investment and technological input
Requires highly trained personnel
Spend nuclear rods still highly radioactive and
indestructible
Storage requires large space
Unpleasant odours

Coal

Nuclear

Biomass

Solar

Wind

Abundant and free


Clean, non-polluting
Water from dams can be
used to:
Irrigate crops
Flood control
Rear fish
Recreaction
Tourist spot
Easy to transport

Can be used to generate


electricity in themal stations
Easy to transport

Small amounts used


No unwanted byproducts

Biomass heats up
water steam
rotates turbine
Solar cells convert
sunlight to electricity

Renewable
Can substantially reduce
wastage of organic material
Free and easily available
Clean, non-polluting
Renewable

Wind rotates turbines

Clean, non-polluting
Suitable for isolated
regions because of no
cabling costs

Absorption of sunlight inefficient at moment


Requires large are
Expensive equipment
Intensity of sunlight highly dependent on latitude,
seasons, weather conditions
Construction of wind turbines require large space
Noisy
Radio and microwaves disruption
Efficient generation only at coastal or mountainous
regions
Inconsistent wind speed

8.5.2 Transmission of electricity/ Pancaran elektrik


To reduce power lost through transmission, electricity is sent at very high voltage
through thick cables of low resistance
Untuk mengurangkan kehilangan kuasa melalui pancaran, elektrik dihantar pada voltan
yang sangat tinggi melalui kabel tebal dengan rintangan yang rendah.
When voltage , current
Apabila voltan , arus
Based on P = I2R, when current , power loss
Berdasarkan daripada P = I2R, apabila arus ,
kuasa hilang .

Power lost
through cables
P = I2R

Power station
P = IV

Current, I
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8.5.3 National electricity grid system/ Elektrik grid sistem nasional

8.6 Electrical Appliances/ Peralatan Elektrik

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