Anda di halaman 1dari 10

CROSS CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING

PAPER
Education: Values and Expectations
In U.S.A

Compiled By :

Abdurrahman Sidiq
Nizar Ridaus Syamsi
Robbi Hidayatulloh

SEKOLAH TINGGI KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN


PERSATUAN ISLAM
BANDUNG, WEST JAVA
INDONESIA
2013

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First, The Writers would say Alhamdulillah (all praise Alloh) for the fluency to our life/activity
and also we still can inhale oxygen to search Alloh sincere. May alloh bless all of us.
Secondly, this paper compiled as for discussion and comprehension on Cross Cultural
Understanding course, guidance by Mrs. Wati Nurhayati S. Pd as a lecturer at STKIP Persatuan Islam
College. And also would say thank you very much to the lecturer that has provided many new
knowledge to us in this course. Also to other person who contribute in succeeding to presence of this
paper.
And the last is an apologize words about the paper lacks. Consciously, we know that our paper
has a lack on organizing the text or maybe the words structure that we conduct. We would say
apologize if there is others mistake on the creation of this paper.

Faram

Bandung , 09 December 2013


Group 9

ABSTRACT

This paper made according to the reference of BEYOND LANGUAGE: Cross Cultural
Communication (Second Edition) book by Deena R.Levine, M.A and Mara B. Adelman, Ph.D. The
content of this paper are discussing a several culture in America for comprehend to our country
Indonesia to distinguish common and uncommon things such as value, habits, customs, education,
religion, beliefs, etc. But in this paper the writers would only just highlighted one comprehensive topic
discussion, and that is about Education: values and expectation.

ii

CHAPTER I
PREFACE

A. Background Issues
In this world, there is various cultures in every country. Cultures make diversity on every
aspect such as religion, beliefs, attitude, education, etc. In Education there must be a lot of differences
relate to our country Indonesia. Therefore we need to know what its diversity in America with
Indonesia that is common or uncommon in our culture. Likewise, our purposes are to get more
knowledge about American culture, also to increase awareness and understanding on American
education values and expectation.

B. Discussion Series
According to the book, there are several materials as follow:
1. Diversity in higher education
2. Active participation
3. The teacher students relationship
4. Trust, honesty, and the honor system
5. Competition and grading
6. Students stress and coping

CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION

EDUCATION:
VALUES AND EXPECTATIONS
IN U.S.A
A. Diversity in Higher Education
American Students diversity in Higher Education through the age, ethnic/race, and
beliefs.
American Students could be young, adult, and middle aged while through the ethnic and
races, they could be White, Non-white, and Chinese, they could be came from abroad or native
country in populations of one large institution. In fact they study together with all diversity in

one institution. The Factor consist a several statement according to other and our opinion as
follow:
1. The Institution in U.S attempting to meet the diverse needs and goals of the students.
(Cited from Deena R. Levine, MA and Mara B. Adelman textbook, chapter 7 Education:
values and expectations)
2. Majority of American culture are emphasize equality in relation, also can be called as
egalitarianism, but this is not the fact because the generalization of the evidence could be
not all discover. Means not every person has the same values.
Furthermore there is a saying in American Culture You are never too old to learn.
Increasingly, young students and older students study together in ones large institution with
their diversity. And it starts when United States receive differences from any cultures thus help
education institutions to appreciate that there are different habits, customs, and attitudes towards
education.

American Colleges and Students Ways.


America's colleges and universities differ in many ways. Some are public, others are

independent; some are large urban universities, some are two-year community colleges, others
small rural campuses. Some offer graduate and professional programs, others focus primarily on
undergraduate education. More than 3,000 colleges and universities have its own specific and
distinct mission. This collective diversity among institutions is one of the great strengths of
America's higher education system.
In Higher Education, as was mentioned on the previous section, there are a variety of
institutions from which to choose in the United States by American students who wish to
continue or extend their education after graduated in High School, it is consist as follow:
1. Public College or University, are typically operated under the supervision of state
governments and are funded, in part, by tax dollars and subsidies from the state. University
is education institution that has graduate programs. First is bachelor degree, also called
Diploma degree, which lead to profession as law, medicine, etc. Secondly is advanced
degree, advanced degree is graduate program which lead to masters and doctorate.
2. Independent College, are typically private Education Institution (non-public college and
non-profit college) that out of government supervision and are funded by independent

arrangement. Independent College has a Diverse in their students, missions, academic


offering and tuition level. Affordable institution without compromising educational quality.
Is a Highly Personal experiences, its marked by faculty who care about student as an
individuals. Flexible in their programs to meet the needs of virtually everyone pursuing
higher education.
3. Urban Universities, defines as having "a campus located in a major urban area and a
substantial number of commuter students. It provides a broad range of undergraduate,
professional, and graduate programs, and makes all levels of higher education more
accessible to students living in the urban community. Through urban-oriented education,
research, and service strategies, an urban university manifests a deep sense of responsibility
to its urban constituencies and attempts to assist them in coping with their problems. (Cited
from the Committee of Urban Program).
4. Community College, also called two years college. Means that the institution intended to
the vocational training or technical field for extend skills. (e.g. Engineer, programmer, etc.).
That college is usually chosen by the students who do not want to receive a specific degree
as their goal, but as for their jobs.
5. Rural Campuses, Rural Campus is an open workshop, to teach, learn and share rural
behavior, culture and Practices. Place of students and Management trainees, researchers to
stay and work in rural environment.
To summarize, American Students have a different interest to pursue their goals. They
have a choice by her/him self to extend their education according to what benefits to their
interest and competences, that would be achieved by them. Not because of pressure, but by
opportunities.
B. Active Participation
The Class activity in college has a several kinds that affect type of participations in which
Instructor, Professor or even students itself that expected during the discussion on course, it
consists as follow:
1. Manner Of learning
In some classes on learning courses, the learning activity could be full role by the
Professors or by the students. Students usually conduct an actual teaching, by presence the

material through the presentations or by facilities/tools that will support on the focuses, and the
professor were only do as the managerial role on the learning activity. That is all for students to
be initiative and responsible to their learning. A professor teaching style also affected to the type
of students participations. Students may contradict with teacher, asking question and even
challenge their ideas.
2. Oral Participation
Oral Teaching determine Students to contribute the course with giving question during the
discussion or provide more additional information about the material, and also give the comprehension
toward the opinion.
Also professors or instructors are expected by student to not only conduct on managerial role
but also do the job (giving lecture) competently as their profession.
3. Attendance
Professor or Instructor also did not appreciate to students who only attend to take an exam, in
other side there is no participation on the learning course. The students could be reputed no interest in
their learning.
C. The Teacher-Students Relationship
In The United States educational system encourages a more liberal, relaxed relation. (Liu &
Meng, 2008). Also, egalitarianism and informality are characteristic of American traits.
The American Professor considers to role changes and did not separate work or study from
socializing. The American Professors compartmentalized his work and social time. Related through in
some activity on several conditions, there is always a role change on students/professors position. For
example, Professors has a several roles in relation to students as follow:
1. As a Teacher
Professor keep do his jobs for giving knowledge and ability to the students in the class
environment. In U.S,

Professor teach with casualness which expresses they talent to

students with easygoing communication, also they more considers students comfortable in
learning to get a lot of more knowledge to make students not to shy, pressure, and unsafe or
etc.
2. As a counselor.
Professor could be more as a teacher they can be a counsel for American Students.
American students usually interactions with professors after class such as, a discussion,
asking about the course, or provide depth comprehension on the course, in indication that
students must realize they is on the subordinate position, students role in some environment.

3. As a friend
Professors in U.S are may establish friendly relationship with students at the outside of the
classroom, such as they can go out for take a lunch and coffee together at the break time and
talk. But keep maintain the teachers role while in the classroom environment.
The teachers-students relationship in U.S are very warm relation, they do not think that I have
more knowledge than you or Im a Veteran. They are very appreciated to diversity and range of any
matter of social. (But remember, this is not all the fact, in majority it was generalized like that.
D. Trust, Honesty, and the Honor System.
Trust and honesty are a set of the Honor system. In American Education, Honor System was
imposed by educational institutions as demands for students to be honest in all areas of schoolwork.
Generally, the strong honor system lies on the student awareness, and mostly on the large
institution that have actual mission. Actual mission means the institution have an honor code in the
way in reaching their goal. Honor code in college is as a grip for student role in way of how they study
and learning in all areas of schoolwork.
Why Should American Education Institution Have Honor System?
American students may have unexpected behavior in their works, such as:
- Plagiarism
Using other people work and submitting it as your own without citing the source. This
concept was tied in cultural beliefs that American believes respect for other people property.
-

American student also consider the lack of citation to reduce tantamount to a stolen idea.
Cheating
Observe at a distance from the book or other person text in quiz, test, and exam.

American students know the sequences if their do thus mostly them, work with integrity.
- Fabrication
Reporting false (lying), or inaccurate data.
- Aiding dishonesty
Provide an unauthorized aid by giving information to another student in test and exam.
- Falsification of records and official documents.
For example, Students provide false information about their prior schooling on their
applications for admission to rake in profits for their individual benefits.
American student usually work with integrity in their areas of schooling. They very appreciate
people work that conducted honestly. In other side College official in American Institutions take these
rules seriously, if students beat the system, students would be punishable accordingly.

What is honor system in U.S academic are look likes?

Honor system in America depends on the policies that imposed by any


educational institution consider to problems that arise on the not honored
behavior of students.
(CLUE: Watch the video of one Institution Honor system)

Two list of Convocation Readings | About Integrity


From Plato: (Crito 49a-b)
Do we say that there is no way that one must ever willingly commit injustice, or does it depend
upon circumstance? Is it true that there is no sense in which an act of injustice is good or
honorable? Or have we jettisoned all our former convictions in these last few days?... Surely the
truth is just what we have always said. Whatever the popular view is, and whether the
consequence is pleasanter than this or even tougher, the fact remains that to
commit injustice is in every case bad and dishonorable for the person who
does it.
From Quran: (Surat Al-Maida : 08)
You who believe! Show integrity for the sake of Allah, bearing witness with
justice. Do not let hatred for a people incite you into not being just. Be just. That is closer to

taqwa. Fear [and respect] Allah. Allah is aware of what you do.
E. Competition and Grading
In some American College, there are cooperative students and competitive students. Both are
related accord to the advantages that would be received by students. For example, students will be
cooperative in relations with their fellow students if In programs or courses that where the degree are
not being pursued or where grades are not given, and the course are taken for credit only (only graded
as pass or fail) there usually being friendly and willing to share information and their note.
Henceforth, competitive students will presence when where such the grading curve is used and
it is common in American University or college, and another reason is they graded by the GPA+ (A
High Grade Point Average) which can determine student competency on the studies and as for the
entrance to superior graduate school. So they usually desire to not share knowledge and information
with other easily by positive way, means students not being individual.
F. Student Stress and Coping
American Students may have some difficulties in their job as a student and sometimes difficult
to adapt their stress. As cited from the book, American or International students have a several matter

to manage their stress and coping difficulties that more comfortable to American culture, it consist as
follow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Exercise regularly
Make certain you get enough sleep during stressful times.
Learn to relax your body, includes your mind.
Set Priorities: think about one concern at a time.
Learn to accept what you cannot change.
Learn to say, NO (i.e., do not let yourself be persuaded to do things you do not want to
do.
Talk it out: share your stress with someone who you trust.
Know your Limits
Take care of yourself.
Make time for fun.
Avoid self-medication with drugs and alcohol.
Develop a support network of friends.

CHAPTER III
CLOSING
EDUCATION: VALUES AND EXPECTATIONS

A. Conclusion
American, they have their own ways but united without concerning diversity especially on
culture, instead, in the concept of American Education.
# Group 9
B. References
- Deena R. Levine, M.A. and Mara B. Adelman, Ph.D., Beyond Language: Cross Cultural
-

Communication, Second edition.


Maryanne Kearny Datesman and JoAnn Crandall, American Ways: An Introduction to
American Culture, Third Edition.