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Presented to the

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO
LIBRARY
by the

ONTARIO LEGISLATIVE
LIBRARY
1980

GESTURES AND ATTITUDES

WARMAN'S WORKS.

E. B.
Practical

"

Cloth, #2.00
Orthoepy and Critique .
"
"
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"
"
Full Mor.

Warman on

How

to

3.00
2.00

the Voice

Read, Recite, and Impersonate

i.oo

8.00

i.oo

Physical Training

Worcester and Webster School Charts

Warman's

Series Worcester's School Dic-

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tionary

Gestures

and

Attitudes

(Delsarte

losophy)

3.00

IN
Critical Analysis of

What

i.oo

Phi-

PRESS.
Poe's " Raven."

to Read, Recite,

and Impersonate.

VJX^cJoo^y-cjL-n--^

V^L).

<3
IA CX/TS-V/>-'>^-<X/-VAJ

GESTURES AND ATTITUDES


f

AX EXPOSITION OF THE

DELSARTE PHILOSOPHY OF EXPRESSION


PRACTICAL AND THEORETICAL

BY

EDWARD

B.

WARMAN

A.M.

AUTHOR OF "THE VOICE HOW TO TRAIN


"

IT HOW TO CARE FOR IT"


PRACTICAL ORTHOEPY AND
TO READ RECITE AND IMPER-

PRINCIPLES OF PRONUNCIATION

CRITIQUE"

"HOW

" "

SONATE" "PHYSICAL TRAINING OR THE


CARE OF THE BODY" "CRITICAL
ANALYSIS OF POE'S RAVEN "

true artist never denies

God
DELSARTE

ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY-FOUR ILLUSTRATIONS


BY MARION MORGAN REYNOLDS

BOSTON
LEE AND SHEPARD
10

MILK

ST.

PUBLISHERS

NEXT "THE OLD SOUTH MEETING HOUSE"

1892

,4-rsACopyright, 1891,

BY EDWARD
All

B.

WARMAN.

rights reserved.

Gestures and Attitudes.

X//I?

mntoetsitg

CAMBRIDGE.
JOHN WILSON AND SON,

PREFACE.
\\ 7E

do not know

of expression.
this

volume.

impossible;

it

all

that

is

We

known

never saw him.

of his philosophy

What we do know, of practical benefit, is in


What we do not know would probably make

An

a larger volume.

We

DELSARTE.

never studied with

We

is

exhaustive treatise

of this

subject

is

as boundless as the ocean.

present our readers with a plain, practical, and com-

prehensive idea of Delsarte's teachings. To make it comprehensive, we have stripped it of its technicalities.
Having

devoted an entire volume to the consideration of the voice

and of

its

and of

its

control,

we purpose

management

as

herein to

treat of the

body,
an instrument for the expression

of thought and sentiment.

by whomsoever written or under whatcontain many of the same sayings. It cannot be

All Delsarte books,

soever

title,

no exception. There are, neverthemany thoughts herein expressed which were not gleaned

otherwise.
less,

This book

is

from any book or taught to us by any instructor, yet they


are

purely

Delsartean.

We

herewith present

them

as

the

conclusions of an earnest and observing student never growing weary in applying the principles inculcated

master.

by the

great

Preface.

the line between what has been


impossible to draw
read and absorbed by us, and
taught to us, what has been
an
as
us
to
what has come
outgrowth from these combined
is

It

hence there

sources;

may

be some paragraphs not credited.

Having taught this philosophy for many years, we relied


not on books or manuscripts when ready "for dictation, but
we drew unreservedly from the Delsarte mental storehouse,
knowing that all goods placed therein had been labelled Delsarte, no matter from what corner of the globe they came.

We

desire not to exalt

credit

the

is

due.

late

Steel

James

To

the

Directly

Professor

Lewis

Mackaye, of

former,

self,

we

but gladly give credit to

B.

Monroe, of Boston,

New York

though

whom

are indebted to the teachings of

and

Mr.

city.

not a pupil

of Delsarte,

we

are

under lasting obligations, not only for a knowledge of the


philosophy, but also for a desire to keep it on the high
plane to which

it

belongs;

while others have endeavored to

degrade it, either from their ignorance of its grand teachings,


or from a desire that the servant should be greater than his
master.

So never-ending and all-absorbing

is

our interest

in

this

grand philosophy that something new, something unwritten,


will

come

to us ere this

printed page,

manuscript is telling its story on the


even
while it is on its way from our little
ay,

Hen to the publishers.

THE AUTHOR.
CHICAGO,

ILL., 1891.

CONTENTS.

We
to

have a right

mm'f

us,

to

by which

ask of a work of art by what method


side of

our character

it

intends to

it

claims

interest

and

fottrincf us.

DELSARTE.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAO1
Portrait of
Fig.

i.

Author

/-Vo/

Delsarte

13

Figs. 2 to 23 inclusive.
"
24 to 29 inclusive.
Fig.
"

of Joints

Opposing Movements

31.

Incorrect Position

79

32.

Correct vs. Incorrect Position

81

33.

Correct vs. Incorrect Position

Figs. 34 to 44 inclusive.
"
45 to 49 inclusive.
50.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

52.

"
53.
54.
55.

"
56.

"
57.

"
58.

"

Poising

Feather Movements

Gesture of Supporting

"51.

59.

Limiting

125

Presenting or Receiving

127

Defining

129

Maintaining

131

Withholding

133

Revealing

135

Revealing mystically

137

Gesture of Declaring

"

62.

64.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

65.

"

66.

119
121

61.

63.

110-114

123

"

"

83

87-107

Defending

Affirmation vs. Negation


"

78

Protecting

60.

"

65-75

30.

"

"

36-61

Correct Position

"

Fig.

Freedom

139
141

Ignoring

143

Denying

'45

Rejecting

147

Secrecy

149

Soothing

151

List of Illustrations.

PAGE
Fig.

Fulness

Soothing

67.

Secrecy

68.

Exaltation

'->

Attitude of Meditation

Exultation

Delicacy

159

70.

Presenting or Receiving

161

: ,.

Exaltation (Part

163

I.)

(Fart II.)
-

73

"

"
>%

"

76.

77.

"

"

"

"

(Part III.)

" Defiance

"

" Re-action

"

"

96.

183

185

Appellation

187

189

"

" Feebleness

191

"

" Familiar

193

"

" Indecision

"

"

Repose (Vulgarity)

Suspense

" Transition

"

"

Anguish (No.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

9&

"

"99-

"

"

"

"

"

"

195
.

"

97.

too.

197

199
i.)

201

(No.

2.)

203

(No.

3.)

205

Repression

207

Pleading

209

Attraction

211

Repulsion

213

Defending

215

"

Listening

217

'

219
22I

i.

102.

179
181

" Salutation

"

" Silence

90.

94-

"

89.

95.

177
.

"

87.

88.

175

(Part II.)

"

85.
86.

173

" Heroic
(Part I.)
"

83.
X4.

171

Ambush

in

79.

82.

169

...

Repose
Force

78.

Si.

167

" Exultation

75.

80.

165

(Part III.)

74.

'"'

153

153

223
General Attention

225

List of Illustrations.

9
PAGl

Fig. 103.
"

"
'

104.

Attitude of Recognition
"
"
Salutation

105.
106.
107.
1

08.

"

"

" Invitation

"

"

Declaration

233

"

" Affirmation

235

"

" Protestation

"

"

Wonderment

23;

109.

"

231

237

no.

"

"

Re-affirmation

241

"

in.

"

" Reconciliation

243

"

112.

"

"

"

"

"

" Malediction

"

"

Remorse

251

"

"

Shame

253

"

" Grief

"

"

"

"

"

" Pathetic Benediction

"
113.

"
1

"
"
"

"

14.

115.
116.
117.
1 1

8.

"
119.

"
'

"

"

"
"
"

"

120.

Resigned Appeal
Accusation

245

247

249

255

Reproach
Tender Rejection

257

259
261

121.

Positive and Negative Assertions

269

122.

Facts of Expression relative to the Mind

273

123.

Bodily Subdivisions

275

124.

Subdivisions

125.

Face and Head Division

279

126.

Bodily Division

279

127.

Imperfect Profile
"
"

28 r

"128.

Man and

Beast

277

281

"

281

130.

Perfect Profile

281

"

"
129.

"
"
"

131.

Direction

132.

Imperfect Perceptions

133.

Perfect Perception

287

134.

Eye-profile

28 9

135.

Three-fold Love

29 T

136.

Vitality vs. Mentality

292

137.

Mentality vs. Vitality

138.

To

"

283

286

"
"

"
4 '

"

secure a Correct Position

2 93
.

List of Illustrations.

PAGE
Incorrect Position

395

140.

Correct Position

397

Fig. 139.

141.

Poising

399

142.

Incorrect Position

401

403

143.

Correct Position

144.

Familiar Repose

405

145.

Sitting

407

"

411

u-S.

Bow
The Hearty Bow
The Society Bow

149.

Stooping

414

151.

Kneeling

417

152.

Self-Consciousness

146.

147.

The

409

Dignified

412

415

150-

"

:3.

Self-Assurance

419
.

420

"
154.

Timidity

421

The true

artist never

grows

old.

DELSARTE.

FRANQOIS DELSARTE.

I.

WHO WAS DELSARTE?


was Delsarte?

FRANCOIS DELSARTE, born Nov.

Solesmes, France, was a master of expresa greater never lived.


We do not dispute

II, 1811, at

sion than

whom

the fact that there have been other masters, but he was the

master.

Previous to his discovery,

art,

destitute of law

and

of science, had had none but chance successes.

Who

was Delsarte

The

who

"

Vive 1'Empereur
Vive Napoleon
when the allied troops were passing
his
town
after
native
the battle of Waterloo.
through
Who was Delsarte? The ragged, orphaned boy who dur?

child

cried

"

ing the severe winter of 1821 in Paris was obliged, owing to

extreme poverty,

his

one

to sleep in a

bitter cold night,

wretched

loft.

In his arms,

he held a younger brother; but when


amazement and

the morning light dawned, he found, to his

sorrow, that he was clasping a lifeless form.

hunger had so weakened his brother's


ance to the intense cold was impossible.
in

the potter's field, his sole mourner

brother,

who,

The pangs of

vital forces that resist-

He

was

hastily buried

being his heart-stricken

sinking almost senseless on the newly

grave, heard a strain

made

of music which awakened within him the

artist's soul.

the spot,
chiffonnier passing in that vicinity was lured to
him a
to
seemed
what
to enrich his treasures by

thinking

bundle of rags.

Stooping to secure his booty, he beheld

Who was

,6

form of

the prostrate

Delsarte?

half-starved

this

child.

Moved

with

the almost lifeless lad within his basket, and


pity, he placed
took him to his own miserable room. From this abode of

master of arts began his career as a ragsqualor the future


picker of Paris.

He

served

wanderings

in

capacity two years;

this

his soul feasted

but during

on the music of*the

all

his

itinerant vocal-

of the military band.


ists, or now and then on the playing
He gathered rags into his basket, but he gathered music
unto his soul.

From

the

street-arabs he

notes of the scale

became

and having

familiar with

the

seven

this foundation, his inventive

genius formulated a system of musical notation whereby he

could

preserve

the

beautiful

melodies to which he had

lis-

tened with such delight.

At twelve years of

age,

charmed by music

of the Tuileries, he was observed

in

the garden

by the then distinguished

professor of music,

Bambini, tracing strange figures in the


sand, which at the solicitation of the master the timid boy
translated into song.
"
origin, he replied,

Upon being interrogated concerning its


Nobody taught me, sir I found it out
;

myself."

Perceiving the genius of the lad, Bambini took

own home.

Thus the

child

rag-picker

left

him

the

to his

garden of

the Tuileries a recognized musician.

During the next two years Bambini's protege made such


rapid progress that Bambini became the pupil, Delsarte the
instructor.

He was now but fourteen years of age; and had every


assurance that the current of his life would run smoothly;
but

it

was suddenly interrupted by the death of

his

kind

Who was

Delsarte?

17

Fortunately, however, Bambini had secure*

protector.

admission into the Conservatory.


Again, with poverty staring him in the

sarte's

He was

face,

he was aloiu

and

friendless.

but,

on the contrary, was shown very little favor, because he


question the methods taught by those professors

not a favorite at the Conservatory,

dared to

having such a reputation. He was right, however, for in after


life he proved the methods to be incorrect and injurious.
In consequence of what they termed his audacity, he \\as
little

given very

opportunity for

public

singing;

the one occasion for which he longed did present


style

and manner were

at the

and when
itself,

so essentially different from that taught

Conservatory that the public were not prepared for

approval.

his

its

There were but two persons in that vast assembly


to appreciate him
but the opinion of these

who were competent

two outweighed a whole theatre of others.


Who were they?
Marie Malibran, the queen of song, and Adolphe Nourrit, the

These two noted personages, knowing full


well the value of words of encouragement, met him in the
king of tenors.

court-yard of the Conservatory, and assured him of the pleasure he had

doubt.

given them, and that his success was beyond a

Marie Malibran

in

was one of

after years

his

most

earnest followers, and attended his course of lectures.

In due time he

left

the Conservatory

but failing to secure

a position, he was forced to humiliate himself to such a de-

gree as to
obtain

ask the

employment

directors
at

for

one of the

diploma, that he
lyric

theatres.

might

This was

disdainfully refused, they remarking that such a genius should

have gravitated to his proper sphere without difficulty or


He nightly importunes the manager of
without assistance.
He had
the Opera House for just one chance to sing.

Who was Deharte?

even been denied the position of call-boy, and now asked


He, ever observfor so much as the privilege of singing.

manager eying him, and


because he was so
looking upon him with supreme contempt
" MonTouched to the very quick, he said
poorly clad.

ed

the
equally sensitive, saw

though

sieur,

my

clothes are poor,

my

art

is

The

genuine."

and thinkmanager, having been annoyed by his persistence,


him
ushers
the
upon
stage being to get rid of him, finally
In so doing,
during the presentation of an opera.
In five minutes the curtain will
he says to Delsarte: "Sing!
made
are
stuff
Show the
of; or if you ever appear
you

tween

acts,

have you arrested as a vagrant."


This beggar, with the manners of a prince, walked to the
With a sad smile and a
piano, jeered by the audience.

here again,

voice

full

will

of tears, he

sang.

of his

rang with bravos.

made

every heart-string was

He

utterances.

The

fires

The people were electrified


the house
he
and
was
recalled, until
again
Again

genius burst forth.

soulful

The long pent-up

left

to

the

vibrate

in

theatre

unison with

the

first

singer

his

of

was an engagement for one


That night, on
year at a salary of ten thousand francs.
bended knee in his wretched attic, the last night in that
Paris.

little

result of that singing

room where he had known more shadow than sunshine,

he poured forth his soul


the

fall

Tppointmcnt
rvatory to

at

the

inform

noteth even

Opera-Comique, he called at the


directors, who had refused him

the

diploma, that they were

ing true genius finding


it

Him who

Next morning, no longer clad in the


beggar, but neatly attired, and armed with

of a sparrow.

habiliments of a

prayer to

in

by showing them

his

its

right

in

their

proper sphere.

commission,

at the

remarks concern-

He

then verified

same time remark-

Who was
"
ing,

How
"

that
in

19

would not give me a recommend


but the public have awarded me this"

Gentlemen,

as a chorister,

Delsarte?

j/0>/

deeply impressed must he have been with the truth

All things

He

come

to

won

soon

him who

but wait

will

"

This was

European reputation; but his


broken by hardships and bad training, gave way, and
he was thus obliged to leave the lyric stage at the early
1830.

voice,

age of twenty-three years. Nevertheless, he was offered even


inducement to appear in tragedy with Rachel at the Theatre
Fran^ais, the

temporary.

manager thinking his vocal difficulties were but


But to him they seemed incurable; hence he

an actor and of a singer to assume the


It may be said that he
functions of a professor.
gave himrole of

gave up the

self

up

to poverty for the sake of constructing a system des-

tined to regenerate art,

music, sculpture, acting,

and to

He summoned up courage

formulate the science of expression.

to search into the laws of an art hitherto left to the

caprice

of mediocrity or the inspiration of genius.


"

After

of

years

unremitting

which took him by turns through


lums,
past

play

prisons,

genius

etc.,

patiently

and

labor

study,

hospitals,

the

unearthing

morgues, asysentiments

study which kept him watching

in the great

study

children

of
at

gardens, weighing humanity every-

public

where and every way,

he

succeeded

in

discovering

and

formulating the laws of aesthetical science."

He

studied

in

years

the construction of the

medical

the

human body.

colleges

He

to

understand

studied a lifetime

its
expression, to convey through the body
He
and
rhythmically the sentiments of the soul.
beautifully

to

formulate

died without arranging that life-work for publication.

Among

his

many

Macready, Barbot,

pupils

Pasca,

were

Rachel, Carvalho, Sontag.

Madelein

Brohan,

Pajol.

Jenny

Who was

20

Delsarte?

Lind took a long journey to hear him and to consult him


about her art.
Among the pupils of pulpit notoriety may
be mentioned such
daire

the latter, in

Hyacinthe and Pere Lacororder to preach a most effectual sermon

men

as Pere

on the crucifixion of the Saviour, erected a rude cross in the


To this cross he attached himself,
basement of his rectory.
and remained

He

thought, suspended eight hours.

in solitary

then passed directly to the sanctuary without rest or nourish-

ment, and delivered one of the most


discourses ever heard in Notre

As

neared

Delsarte

his

eloquent and

thrilling

and fortune

seemed

Dame.
fame

end,

He

was offered an annual salary of $20,000


The King of
found a conservatory in the United States.

within his grasp.


to

him the Guelph


town, Solesmes, was named in

Hanover, recognizing him as an

cross.

street in his native

artist,

sent

his honor.

was

It

1865 that Delsarte was

in

The meeting took

last time.

heard

in

for

public

the

place at the Sorbonne, where

the lectures of the Philotechnique Society were given.


Dur"
we
are
he
the
told
that
remarked, Many persons
evening
ing
feel

confident that they are to hear

ing of the sort, gentlemen


sing,
tell

because

you what

occasion,

we

you.
in

its

divine

more

is

know."

will

the absolute

Art

its

lasting,

shall

me

recite or sing.

not recite, and

show you what

Among many
"

quote but a few.

novelty

divine

things said

aim.

its

essence,

Ah! gentlemen,

upon

divine

shall

us.

There

is

Art
in

there are no

not

this

is

its

teach
divine
action,

pleasures

more noble, and more sacred than those of

Let us glance around

not

count on the novelty

of the things which

in

Noth-

shall

can do than to

the subject of this conversation.

principle,
in

desire less to

art.

a pleasure which

not followed by
disappointment or satiety;

is

not a joy which

Who was

Delsarte ?

does not entail some trouble

some

conceal

not

not an affection which

some

bitterness,

remorse.

21

grief,

and

some

often

Everything
disappointing to in, in.
Everything
about him changes and passes away.
Everything betrays
Even his senses, so closely allied to his being, and
him.
is

which he

to

tray

too

him

sacrifices

their

in

'

familiar,

everything, like faithless servant

turn,

and, to

use

an
'

They go on a

strike

now but

expression

and from that

In

strike,

gentlemen, they never return."


Before closing the sketch of the career of this remarkable

man, we desire

say just a word

to

companion and loving

In

children.

regard to his faithful

in

1833 Delsarte

married

Rosina Andrien, the daughter of the director of the Grand


Opera House. Mademoiselle Andrien was remarkably beautiful,

and only

fifteen

Her

of age.

years

talent as a

pianist

had already won her a first prize at the Conservatory. " She
was just the companion, wise and devoted, to counterbalance
the

flights

of imagination and the

herent in the temperaments of

many

family around
seven children were born to them.
sufficed

tion,

to

bring a

and that

briefly,

momentary
artists."

this

We

transports in-

few years

very young couple;


will

three of the children.

especially

reproduce with marvellous skill


were called the attitudes and physiognomic changes.
while very young, to

deleine delighted in
talent;

the features

making

caricatures,

men-

Marie learned,
what

Ma-

which showed great

of certain pupils and frequenters of the

lectures were plainly recognizable in these sketches made by


Gustave was a child of frank, open face
the childish hand.

and good physique.


father's footsteps,

He

to a certain degree followed in his

but passed away a few years after him, at


It was said of him that while he

the early age of forty-two.

Who was

22

Delsarte?

he had a most
could not approach his father as a dramatist,
heard that
once
had
When
you
Murvcllous quality of voice.
which was guided by his father's grand method, you
It haunted you,
never forgot its sincerity and melancholy.

and

to hear

you impatient

left

Paris with

left

iK-lsarte

his

it

again.

of the war of
refuge, until the close
Solesmes.

town,

Already

ill,

1870, taking

family Sept.^io,

he

1870-71,

was

the

his

in

more

native

and

sad

Nevertheless,
by the misfortunes of his country.
valuable
he
points in his
developed
knowing no idle moments,
methods. His intellect seemed to have lost none of its vigor,

.-rushed

though

his nature

had become more or

laurels,

he

shadowed.

he returned to Paris March

his voluntary exile,

After

less

had

Delsarte

gathered

so

10,

1871.

abundant a harvest of

Fate decreed that he had lived long enough.

reached his sixtieth year, he

trophy of the heart, which

He was no

left

After

was

attacked

When

by hyper-

his rich organization in ruins.

longer the artist of graceful, supple, expressive,

and harmonious movements, no longer the thinker with profound and luminous ideas; but in the midst of this physical

and

intellectual

strong, sweet

ruin

energy.

he had received

in

the

Christian's

believer

in

sentiment
the

retained

its

sacraments which

days of health, he asked for

them

in

the

hour of danger; and many times he partook of that sacrament of love whose virtue he had taught so well.
Finally,
after
life

ing,

having lingered for months in a state that was neither


nor death, surrounded by his pious wife and his weeppraying children, he surrendered his soul to God on the

20th of July, 1871."

Philosophy of Expression.

23

II.

WHAT

IS

MEANT BY THE DELSARTE PHILOSOPHY OK


EXPRESSION?

TT

the

is

means of expressing mental phenomena by the


the sum-total of rules and

play of the physical organs,


laws resulting from the

Expression

is

the

reciprocal action of

mind and body.

manifestation of emotion by natural forms

of motion.

The Delsarte system

is

the law of correspondence

founded on the great principle of


that

is,

every expression of the

every gesture, every posture of the body corresponds


is but the outward expression of, an inner emotion or

face,

or

to,

condition
ness.

of the mind, be

Though

before

and

it

one of beauty or one of ugliwere and will

after Delsarte there

be beings who
alone

rests

conform by intuition to his


the honor of its discovery and of

and of the

ing,

establishment

of the

law, with
its

science

first

him

teach-

upon strong

foundations.

Every movement a man makes


ter,

is

a betrayal of his charac-

an unconscious escape of the condition of his inner life.


There is a revelation in the curl of the
impressions.

the
lip,

the toss of the Kead, the stamp of the foot,

sions.

Movements

that

are

the expres-

jerky, deliberate, passionate, im-

have a language, and that language has found a true


Nowhere in the whole
interpreter in Francois Delsarte.

patient,

Philosophy of Expression.

does he go contrary to natural laws,


range of his philosophy
but gives us a plain, practical guide, that we may understand
those laws and apply the philosophy to our own organism;
and, when necessary, apply our organism to the true philos-

Hence, when any one says he does not believe

ophy.

in

k-lsarte Philosophy of Expression, it is


equivalent to
believe in Nature's* laws.
saying that he does not
iKlsarte insisted strenuously on the value of the possession
i

of his discoveries;

the striking truth of which, he

The

had not been belied by forty years of experience.

condemned by those who

affirmed,

phi-

are

ignorant
losophy is frequently
of his methods or fail to grasp the breadth of his ideas.

To

understand this philosophy


that

triune state,

his

man must be

emotional, and

intellectual,

is,

considered

in

sensi-

and then must be considered the play of the organs


corresponding to those states. Man thinks, loves, and feels.
tive

Mind corresponds with the


emotional

state,

and

life

intellectual

with the

state,

sensitive

soul

with the

None

state.

of

separated from the two others


In the
they interpenetrate and correspond with each other.
the soul turns back upon itconcentric
intellectual state
three terms

self,

can be

and the organism obeys

tional state

has

relations with

eccentric

in

movement.
enjoys

hy oj^cxprcssion,
the outward agencies.

perfect tranquillity.

the

philosophy

revelation

itself;

These three forms

we elsewhere speak

mind, then, that Delsarte's

emo-

In the

the soul lives outside

the exterior world.

give us the trinity of which

Bear

this

soul

the

accentric

In the sensitive state


it

of the

in full.
is

the phi-

inward

by

Everything we produce isTinerely


t!i
what exists in* our mindl
Every stroke of the
formjof
artist's brush is made within ere it
glows on the canvas. In

Philosophy of Expression.

25

the actor, every accent, every inflection, every gesture,

the outer reverberation of the

still

but

is

small voice within.

he-

']

from the object exists prior to the ol


and the outward work is but the material form,
the

idea as separate
itself,

effect of the

spiritual

idea or spiritual

form.

THK

\i

<
i

PRECEDES THE EFFECT.

.stop

by the

know the
_m must make
.0

ud not even

think

,hould be so thoroughly

Art

is

an act by which

life lives

again in that which in

itself

has no

life.

DELSARTE.

gi*

The above

Bear
:>hy

the

of

outward

a^

the form of what


artist's

note was found on Dakarte's desk after his death.

..

brush

is

made wu

Philosophy of Expression

27

III.

WHAT

THE OBJECT OF THE DELSARTE PHILOSOPHY

IS

OF EXPRESSION?

fHE

human body should be put under

such control that there

freedom of one's

is,

self

perfect control,

will be a genuine freedom


that
from one's self, that it may no
;

longer be a slave to any law, but that the law shall

h,i

becomes a part of the being.


Genuine freedom and power and originality in the practice

fully manifested

that

itself

it

of any art spring from a mastery of the principles that underlie

that

art,

the mastery of the

two kinds of freedom,

freedom

of

There are

root-ideas.

freedom of knowledge, and the


Ignorance is the curse of God

the
"

ignorance.

knowledge the wing whereon we

make you free."


The object of this philosophy

fly to

heaven."

"

The

truth

shall

which
the

will insure

to furnish

is

the true freedom.

principles of this

philosophy

First,

you that truth


you must master

second, there will

be a

period during which you will consciously apply those principles;

as

third,

the

result

of habitual application,

apply them spontaneously and unconsciously.


to

think of the

apparent mechanism.
rules of an art, but he

them

his

own.

of what he

is

you
Hence it

application,

The
doing.

divert
is

the

If

you

will

you stop

thought by the

not enough to

know

the

who would master them must make

actor or orator should

not even think

The method should be

so thoroughly

Philosophy of Expression.

2%

make the action appear to flow forth sponta/mastered as to


a fountain. When before the public,
ncously, as water from

/
/

whether

stage,
recall

\
I

sacred

the

at

desk, or on

rostrum, or on the

the

or rather make no effort to


you should forget all rules,
Your motto there should be heart-work, not
them.

head-work.

You may ask, Why study art's rules and formulas? Because, as we have endeavored to show, much of your work
will

cling

to

"

you without conscious thought.

Inspiration

may be yours, without bodily power to express. Demosthenes and Talma were creators but we all know their struggles
;

Then, in the
conquer the bodily powers in expression."
"
words of Delsarte,
may we have a quick percepticm^jin
t<>

eager heart perfected by the

by the

body under the

powers."
The author

in

his

tion of the situation,

have

been

inner

inspiration

on

attained

to results
It

and

intellect,

direct

guidance

finely dealt with

of_J:hose

platform work can, with a

I,

passive

coming whence I know


had not aimed at."

full

apprecia-

My

best results

subject,

obeyed an

exclaim with Delsarte,

when

"

higher

not,

and urging me

should be the object and effort of the creature to repro-

duce the work of the Creator.

The

late Professor

Shoemaker,

of Philadelphia, aptly illustrated a principle of this philoso" When God


phy, and demonstrated its object, when he said,

made man he breathed

into

him the breath of

life,

and

in

was the germ of divinity; and in proportion as


man becomes invested with the divine breath,
in propor-

that breath

tion as

he has much of

God

within

canvas, the printed page, or the

may he hope

him,

breathe into his art divine breath, be

human

it

in

voice.

the

to

marble, the

And no

other

Philosophy of

power of

art will

so

divine

reflect

29

Ji.\-f>rcssion.

power

as

Thr

repose,

highest power is mastery, and the highest ma


mastery; and of self-mastery repose is the emblem.
orator,

next to

God

himself,

needs to

and to possess the world he must


hand, his
soul;

foot,

his

eye, his

his

itself

The
world;
his

himself,

first

breath,

then art shall have linked

possess

the

sc-lf-

body,

his

mind, his

with divinity."

During the most terrific storm upon the ocean we may


presume, and rightfully too, that notwithstanding the rolling
of the billows mountain high, down, deep

bosom

all

is

The

in old

quiet and in almost perfect repose.

on the wing requires more power


the poising

down

is

object,

a perfect

then,

emblem of

of this

The

eagle

to poise than to fly;

but

repose.

Delsarte

that perfect mastery bf self of

ocean's

philosophy is to gain
which repose is the emblem.

An

artist

shows no

effort.

DELSARTE.

Philosophy of Expression.

31

IV.

WILL NOT THE DELSARTE PHILOSOPHY OF EXPRESSION


MAKE ONE MECHANICAL?
"TV/TAKE one mechanical?
ods

Why

No.

should

"All

it?

art

presupposes rules, procedures, mechanism, and methwhich must be known."


A man is never thoroughly

taught until he has forgotten

how he

how he

walks without thinking

learned

learned

to

just as a

walk, or

as

man
one

speaks correctly without stopping to parse every sentence he


Mechanism is never apparent in an artist.
utters.
"

Goethe

All art must be preceded by a certain me-

says,

chanical expertness."
that the

mechanism

It

will

is

in

proportion to

this

or will not be apparent.

expertness

Does

one's

We should not
knowledge of music make him mechanical?
take our standard from the many novices in the profession, but
from the few

artists.

One may study

every gesture and

study them

atti-

he can reproduce
volume,
them perfectly
but when upon the stage or rostrum he
be
should not
conscious of his gestures or his attitudes, but
tude given

in this

till

by

sufficient

control

he

preparatory work

may

express
After
as

The thought
itself

through

serious

taught

by

getting

his

body under

have the blessed assurance and sweet con-

sciousness that they are


est art.

in

all

will

when

flow into and

tested
fill

by the high-

the being, and

various agents.

its

on the philosophy of expression


how can one consider the system

reflection

Delsarte,

correct

Philosophy of Expression.

j2
mechanical

in

"

result?

Do we

consider the

beauty of a rose mechanical because

into

hard

make

through which

soil

it

must force

the ground flexible for the

make the

to

its

clay,

of which we

are

we

blossoming

soften and sod the

itself into

being?

We

tender rootlets, as we aim

made,

plastic to the inner

The music of the spheres


emotion revelatory to the soul.
might be echoing in the soul of some inspired master; but
without

an

how could he convey

instrument,

its

wonderful

vibrations to his fellow-souls?


"

Beneath

the

rind

of

this

mechanism,

this

play of the

Beneath these tangible forms


hidden, and will be revealed." Consider,

organs, dwells a vivifying spirit.

of art the divine


then, that
finish

lies

mechanism

is

essential to acquire finish;

need not be mechanical.

but the

Philosophy of Expression.

33

V.

WHY
\ \

DID DELSARTE NOT PUBLISH HIS PHILOSOPHY


OF EXPRESSION?

7"E will answer that question in his

* *
k

ever any one urged

When

am

old.'

me

own words:

to publish,

Old age has come, and

"

When-

invariably replied,
finds

me

less

still

disposed to publicity than ever."

To

his

as follows

"
:

am

more than one

for

than
or

very intimate friend the King of Hanover he wrote

in idea.

if I

The

shall

title

moment

at this

meditating a book, singular

reason, which will be no less novel in form

know

succeed

not what fate has

in

of this book

is

seeing
to

be

it
'

in store for this

in print

My

during

my

work,

lifetime.

Revelatory Episodes

or,

The History of an Idea Pursued for Forty Years.' "


He seemed to have a presentiment that he should not complete his work.

Toward the

Alas

the

close of the

dream of

his

life

was never realized

war of 1870-71, during his voluntary


two daughters wrote at his dicta-

exile in his native town, his

"
tion the manuscript entitled
Episodes of a Revelator." These
"
"
were
historic
the
summary of the progressive
Episodes

development of a vast work. He went to the fountain-head


whence the stream was freely flowing. In his preparation of
"
I cut short the preliminaries to set forth,
this work he writes,
plainly and simply, the final results of

At

this

my

observations."

point ends the book which Delsarte was destined

never to complete.

Philosophy of Expression.

34

But what of his manuscript?

Is

it

not to be had?

Yes.

was carefully preserved by Madame Delsarte. It was written on sheets of paper, scraps of paper, and in many instances
It

on doors,

window-casements, and other objects.

chairs,

by the indefatigable
York
Werner, of New
city, who is ever
all

been

collected

mulgate Dclsartean truths.


title

of

"

Delsarte's

Own

This article

Words."

It

is

Edgar

publisher,
0^1

has

It

S.

the alert to pro-

appears

under

the

the only published

record of the writings of the founder of this grand philosophy.

Then, again, his sayings and theories and practices have


become known to us through the pen of some of his famous
Students of this philosophy versed in the French

pupils.

language have the privilege of reading his words in his native

Many

tongue.

their translation

Then

it

of his sayings, however, have been distorted in


into the English.

need not be said that Francois Delsarte did not leave


True, he did not leave a perfectly written

a perfect system.

system, but principles from which a perfect system

Are the teachings of Jesus Christ any


because Christ did not write them?

deducted.

may be
less

true

Jom of

Jon.

35

VI.

FREE GYMNASTICS FOR FREEDOM OF JOINTS.


r

I "M-IK

very

trol

first

step toward getting the

to acquire

is

Freedom of

body uiulu

Joints.

Precision, harmony, and ease, the three cK-mi


The body
cannot exist until this freedom is secured.
:

educating as well as the mind.


serve

how awkward

are

This

is

no

trivial

work.

<

movements of laboring-men

the

Rigidity and

consequence of stiffened joints.


no means synonymous terms.

Other

in

ar<

repose

things

the greater the freedom of the joints, the

)b-

being

equal,

more cultured

the

individual.

Strengthening the centres and freeing the circumference

is

one of the fundamental principles of the Delsarte philosophy.


As a current of water rushes through a channel uncloggi-d

which may be termed 'nervous


system; hence the necessjt;.

obstacles, so one's thought,

by

force,' rushes

having

all

the

accomplish
art

has

through the

its

channels

of

expression

laborious

period.

Days, weeks, months of daily

necessary ere one

will readily arrest the vital

practice

may be

force at

any given portion of the body.

freedom of any
at that joint,

Following

To

free.

But the perfection of every

requires labor.

this

perfectly

When

joint, the flow of vital force

seeking the

must be an

the wrist, elbow, shoulder, neck, hips, etc.


are

exercises,

fully

illustrated,

which,

if
]

tised daily, will give freedom to the principal joints of the


body. To these are sometimes added the eyelids and jaw.

Freedom of Joints.

FIG.

2.

EXERCISE.
FINGERS.

Place the arms as


force

in

the

shown

move

all

Rest.

in the illustration.

Put

sufficient

forearms and hands to differentiate the

while thrusting the hands

Take the

Thrust.

life

fingers

up and down.

so completely out of the ringers as to re-

rigidity therefrom.

Freedom of

FIG.

Joints.

37

3.

EXERCISE.
WRISTS.

Put* sufficient

from side to

force

side.

Thrust

in

the

in

and

out.

Rest.

forearms to

thrust

Arrest the vitality at the wrist.

the

hand<

Freedom of Joints.

FIG. 4.

EXERCISE.
WRISTS.

I'ut

Thrust up and down.

sufficient force in the

and down.

Rest.

forearms to thrust the hands up

Arrest the vitality at the wrist.

Freedom of

FIG.

Joints.

39

5.

EXERCISE.
WRISTS.

Put
inward.
lifeless,

sufficient

force

in

Whirl inward.

the

Rest.

forearms

Arrest the vitality at the wrists.


as if they

were

to

whirl

the

hands

Imagine the hands

tied to the wrists.

Freedom of Joints.

FIG.

6.

EXERCISE.
WRISTS.

Put sufficient force


ward.
lifeless,

in

Whirl outward.

the forearms to whirl the hands out-

Arrest the vitality at the wrists.


as

if

Rest.

tied to the wrists.

Imagine the hands

Freedom of

FIG.

Joints.

7.

EXERCISE.
ELBOW.

Bend the body


side.

Raise

the

Thrust backward and forward.

to

right

the

left,

arm

till

placing the
the

elbow

Rest.

left
is

to

The forearm and hand should hang

lifeless

the

even with the

Put strength in the upper arm, arresting the


the elbow, and move it backward and forward.

shoulder.
ity at

hand

vital-

from the elbow.

Freedom of Joints.

FIG.

8.

EXERCISE.
ELBOW.

Bend the body


side.

Raise the

shoulder.
ity at

Thrust backward and forward.

Rest.

to the right, placing the right


left

Put strength

the elbow, and

arm
in

till

the elbow

is

hand

to the

even with the

the upper arm, arresting the vital-

move

it

forearm and hand should hang

backward and forward.


lifeless

from the elbow.

The

Freedom of

FIG.

Joints.

43

9.

EXERCISE.
SHOULDERS

Take the

life

Impulse to the

left.

out of the entire arm,

Rest.

both arms.

Arrest

the vitality at the shoulders.

Put
the

sufficient

body

arms

to

strength in the chest and shoulders to twist

quickly,

sway

freely,

by one impulse,

to the

left.

Allow both

but bring the body back to position.

not repeat the impulse

till

the arms have ceased swaying.

Do

Freedom of

44

Joints.

FIG. 10.

EXERCISE.
SHOULDERS.

Take the

life

Impulse to the

right.

out of the entire arm,

Rest.

both arms.

Arrest

the vitality at the shoulders.

Put sufficient strength in the chest and shoulders to twist


the

body

quickly,

arms to sway

Do

by one impulse,

freely,

to the right.

Allow both

but bring the body back to position.

not repeat the impulse

till

the arms cease swaying.

Freedom of

Joints.

45

FIG. ii.

EXERCISE.
NECK.

Drop

the

Forward;

head forward

raise.

as

Backward;

raise.

low as possible,

the

lower

the better, for strengthening the muscles of the neck and for

giving ease to the various


the

firm

Keep
body
Drop the head backward

movements of the head.


the

exercises

in

all

as

low as possible.

for

Avoid

the

neck.

jerkiiu-s-

Freedom of Joints-

FIG.

12.

EXERCISE.
NECK.

Drop the head


and drop

it

Left; raise.

raise.

Right;

sidewise to the right;

sidewise to the

left.

sway or bend, or the head to

Do

turn.

then

raise

not allow the

it

slowly

body

to

Freedom of

Joints.

47

FIG. 13.

EXERCISE.
NECK.

Drop

Circle to the left

rest.

Circle to the right

the head forward as low as possible.

around, starting

it

toward the

left side.

Then

rest.

Roll

it

reverse

entirely
it.

Freedom of Joints.

FIG.

14.

EXERCISE.
NECK.

Turn

to the right

Turn the head very slowly

to the

left.

Front.

to the right until a perfect pro-

producing the same


Keep the head erect, the body immovable.
This stretching of the muscles gives great flexibility.

file

is

formed;

then to the

left,

result.

of Joints.

49

FIG. 15.

EXERCISE.
WAIST.

Stand
the

erect,

Forward

erect.

Backward

erect.

with the weight of the body on both

body forward and backward

muscles were powerless to sustain


or front of erect position.

from the waist


it

after

it

feet.

as

Drop
if

the

passes slightly back

Freedom of Joints.

FIG. 16.

EXERCISE.
WAIST.

Stand
the

Right side

erect, with the

body

erect.

Left side

feet.

from the waist

sidewise to the right and left

erect position.

erect.

weight of the body on both

the muscles were powerless to sustain

beyond

it

after

it

Drop
as

if

passes slightly

Freedom of Joints

FIG. 17.

EXERCISE.
WAIST.

Stand

erect.

right to left

and

Turn

Turn or
left

to the Right;

twist the

to right.

Do

left.

Right;

left.

body as far as possible from


move the feet.

not

Freedom of

Joints.

FIG. 18.

EXERCISE.
HIP.

Stand

Paw with

erect, with

Back;

up.

Front; drop

body on the

the weight of the

the right foot

by

first

drawing

it

far

left

back, then raising

the knee quite high and pushing the foot forward.

Take the

life

out of the limb and allow

it

to

foot.

drop heavily.

l-i-catom

of

FIG.

Joint*.

53

19.

EXERCISE.
HIP.

Stand

Paw

Back;

erect, with the

with the

left

foot

up.

Front; drop.

weight of the body on the right

by

first

drawing

it

far back, then

raising

the knee quite high and pushing the foot forward.

Take the

life

out of the limb and allow

it

to

foot.

drop heavily.

Freedom of Joints.

54

EXERCISE;.
Fig. 20.

KNEE.

Stand

erect, with the

Raise the right knee

Take the

life

till

Up

drop.

Up

drop.

weight of the body on the

left foot.

the calf of the limb touches the thigh.

out of the limb and allow

it

to

drop heavily.

FIG. 20.

Freedom of Joints.

56

EXERCISE.
Fig. 21.

KNEE.

Stand
foot.

the

erect,

Raise the
thigh.

with
left

Take the

drop heavily.

'u h

down.

the weight

knee
life

till

Up; down.
of the

body on the

right

the calf of the limb touches

out of the limb and

allow

it

to

FIG. 21.

Freedom oj Joints.

58

EXERCISE.
Fig. 22.

ANKLE.

Stand

erect, with the

Shake the

foot.

Rest.

weight of the body on the

left foot.

Raise the right foot from the floor, and put sufficient strength
in

the limb to shake the foot.

FIG. 22.

Freedom of Joints.

6o

EXERCISE.
Fig 23.

ANKLK.

Stand

left

foot.

Rest.

weight of the body on the right foot.


foot from the floor, and put sufficient strength

erect, with the

Raise the
in

Shake the

the limb to shake the foot.

FIG. 23.

All art must be preceded by a

certain mechanical expertness.

GOETHE

Opposing Movements.

63

VII.

OPPOSING MOVEMENTS.
"

I^HE

law of opposition

is

a very essential one in the con-

Much

sideration of gesture.

practice should be

i;ivcn

and rhythm of these movements.

to the time

The hand opposes

the head.

The forearm opposes the torso.


The upper arm opposes the legs.

When

the

movement
from the

When

the

movement

is

arm movement
from the neck.

elbow, the

bodily

arm movement
is

is

is

from the

When

movement

the

wrist,

bodily

arm movement

the
is

from

the

is

waist.

from the shoulder, the bodily

from the ankles.


be taken to make

Sufficient practice should

all

movements

of opposition perfectly simultaneous.

The law of opposition

enforced

will

produce
ease.
and
precision, harmony,

sufficiently

the three elements of grace,

The head and hand should move

simultaneously.

Bow

head toward the hand, and the hand toward the head.

the

64

Opposing Movements.

EXERCISE,
Fig. 24

HEAD AND RIGHT HAND


HEAD AND LEFF HAND

Erect; bow.

Erect; bow.

Erect; bow.
Erect, bow.

FIG. 24.

Opposing Movements.

66

EXERCISE.
Fig. 25.

HEAD AND RIGHT HAND.


HEAD AND LEFT HAND.

Turn the head


the back of the

turn back to

hand,

palm.

to the left

Face; turn.

Face

turn.

Face; turn.

Face

and the hand

turn.

to

the right

head opposes the back of the hand

position

till

the

face

till

then

opposes the face of the

FIG. 25.

Opposing Movements.

68

EXERCISE.
Fig.

HEAD AND RIGHT HAND.


HEAD AND LEFT HAND.

Combine

the

alternating them.

26

Erect; bow; up; turn; face.


Erect;

bow; up;

turn; face.

two movements of bowing and turning by

FIG. 26.

Opposing Movements.

EXERCISE.
Fig. 27.

HEAD AND HANDS.


Bring both hands
to the

in front

Erect; bow.

Erect; bow.

of the face

hands and the hands to the head.

and bow the head

FIG. 27.

Opposing Movements.

EXERCISE.
Fig. 28.

HEAD AND RIGHT HAND.


HEAD AND LEFT HAND.

Bow

the

Erect; bow; extend.

Erect;

bow;

head and hand simultaneously

extend.

then raise the

elbow to the height of the shoulder, at the same time depresthe wrist leading,
sing the wrist and pushing out the hand,
hand
erect.
the
nearly

FIG. 28.

Opposing Movements.

74

EXERCISE.
Fig. 29.

HEAD AND HANDS.


Place both
simultaneously.

hands

in

Keep

front,

Erect;

bow;

extend.

and bow the head and hands

the face to the front as the arms are

extended, but allow the body to sway backward.

FIG. 29.

7 rut

ease in acting comes from art, not chance.

POPE.

Correct

vs.

Incorrect J'osi,

VIII.

CORRECT

^I^HE

position

rise

is

vs.

INCORRECT POSITIONS.

perfect

if,

when standing

ward from the ankles or bending at the


Take a profile view of yourself before
and you

erect, yot

from your heels without swaying your both


waist.

a full-length mirror,

detect the slightest swaying

will

when you attempt

to rise.

were placed perpendicularly by the side of your


body when you are standing in a correct position, it would
indicate a direct line from the ear to the ankle, passing
If a stick

through the shoulder, elbow,

You
30 and

also

will

hip,

perceive that

and knee.

the stick, used as in Figures

31, forcibly illustrates Correct vs. Incorrect Position.

To SECURE CORRECT
Stand erect;

Do

incline

the

POSITION.

body forward

rather

than

back-

it from the ankle.


active chest, an
Remove and
Keep
rigidity.
Draw back the
raised and fixed, independent of the breath.

ward.

not bend the body, but incline

avoid

knees,

resting

and abdomen.

hips,

toward the

all

ball of cne foot,

upon

Throw the weight of the body


so much so that you are still

so
'/our heels, but bearing your weight

lightly

thereonXthat you would not hurt a child's fingers were they


placed underneath.

FIG. 30.

Correct.

FIG. 31.

Incorrect.

Correct

So

Incorrect Positions.

vs.

EXPLANATION.
Stand

against

shoulders,

When
tion,

and

the

wall,

head

against the wall


as

entirely

you

are

touching

draw

you

not

in

will

in

the

be

the

chin

heels,

toward

limbs,

the

hips,

chest.

an uncomfortable posicorrect one.


Free yourself
in

from the wall by swaying forward, not bending, mov-

ing only at the ankle-joints,


wall.

FIG. 32.

keeping the heels against the

FIG. 32.

Correct vs. Incorrect Positions.

EXPLANATION.
Place the

thumbs on the

hollow of the hips.

as

abdomen

You

erect
to

will

as

hip-joints,

Bend forward,

passes back far enough for

Stand

you

you

move too

far

position

this

upon

and the fingers

at the waist,

till

to see the toe of

can without

find

standing too heavily

FIG. 33.

the dress

each shoe.

the

allowing

in the

hips

or

forward.

uncomfortable,

the heels.

for

Sway your

forward from the ankle-joint, as in Fig. 33.

you

entire

are

body

FIG. 33.

as
shall become a second nature,
advance so far that art
to well-bred men.
polished manners
SCHILLER.

I hope to

Poising.

IX.
POISING.
/

>
Tr HE body

should be perfectly poised

When

the

in

all

of the

attitudes

of

transi

grace.
weight
body
from one leg to the other, it should seek that perfect poise
at

is

once.

When

one

loses

physical balance he

his

lose his mental balance, for the

An
calling

orator should
attention

make

to

consciousness of the

the

all

very likely to

moment.

the changes of position without

change,

act.

is

in

fact,

without

The body should be

his

own

subject

to

the thought being expressed, and should perfectly harmonize


in its

movements.

Poising.

EXERCISE.
Fig. 34-

POSITION.

Poise forward.

Correct normal position


foot.

is

When poising forward


Do not raise the

not bend.

the toes or heel.

POSITION.

Poise backward.

always over the centre of the


or

backward, the body should

feet

from the

floor,

either

at

FIG. 34.

gg

Poising.

EXERCISE.
Fig- 35-

POSITION.

Rise

down.

Rise

.<

If correct

position

is

fixed

down.

"

down.
><

attained, the rising

on the toes can

be accomplished without swaying the body forward,


Rise as high as possible.
test of correct position.

Do
lux-Is,

good

sway the body back, or sink heavily upon the


but touch them gently to the floor when descending.
not

Keep the weight of the body over the centre of the feet.
The word " fixed " signifies that the body should remain
poised some

little

time before passing "down."

FIG. 35.

Poising.

EXERCISE.
Fig. 36-

POSITION.

Right

left.

Right;

left.

"

balance.

Left, balance.

<(

Position.

Transfer the weight of the


so firmly as to give

full

Balance by taking

swaying the
as steadily as
feet.

body
if

body from

foot

action to the hips,

the free

to the

side,

foot

to foot, settling

harmonic poise.

from the

floor

without

and stand, a moment or

the weight of the

so,

body were borne by both

FIG. 36.

Poising.

92

EXERCISE.
Fig. 37-

POSITION.

Forward

with the right foot; raise the left heel.

Whether the weight of the body

is

cast

Position.

on one foot or

both, there should be a perfect poise of the body.

impulse

in

of honor.
of

lifting.

floor.

stepping should be

felt

from the chest,

The

first

the seat

There should be a sense of lightness of body,


Do not move the ball of the left foot from the

FIG. 37.

Poising.

94

EXERCISE.
Fig. 38-

Forward

POSITION.

When
the

raise the right heel.

stepping forward, do

foot

prominent.

move

left

indicates,

Do

not

but

not follow the

straight

allow the

Position.

forward.

abdomen

direction

Keep
to

the ball of the right foot from the floor.

lead.

the

that

chest

Do

not

Poising.

EXERCISE.
F'g- 39-

POSITION.

In

the

drop very

position
easily.

Forward

right

given

in

The

that

is,

drop the

this

left heel.

exercise,

Position.

the

heel

should

step should be a very short one,

so short as not to require


free leg;

the

removal of the foot of the

the leg bearing no weight.

FIG. 39.

Poising.

98

EXERCISE.
Fig. 40.

Forward

Drop
one,

foot

the

heel

so short

as

left;

drop the right

easily.

not to

The

step

heel.

Position.

should be a very short

require the

removal of the right

FIG. 40.

IOO

Poising.

EXERCISE.
Fig. 41.

POSITION.

The
foot

is

Forward

right

left

length of the step should


lifted

The

foot follow.

now be

and follows the advancing

into the position designated


there.

free

foot

rests

Position.

increased

foot.

by the dotted
lightly on the

floor.

the free

should drop
not be placed

It

lines,

FIG. 41.

102

Poising.

EXERCISE.
Fig. 42.

POSITION.

Be sure
at

Forward

left

right foot follow.

to feel a lifting sensation

Position.

from the chest.

Secure

once the perfect poise on the advanced foot, lifting the


and dropping it into the position designated by the

free foot

dotted

lines.

FIG. 42.

Poising.

104

EXERCISE.
Fig. 43-

Forward

POSITION.

As

this position

ing a

more

floor,

touch

perfect

almost a

length,

the

it

is

place

it

right

left

foot follow, free.

Position.

given, largely, for the practice of securpoise,

stride.

against

we

advise a step

of considerable

After removing the free foot from


the

leg in

advance, but do not

again to the floor until stepping

back to position.

FIG. 43-

io6

Poising.

EXERCISE.
FIG. 44.
POSITION.

Remove
leg in

Forward

the free

left

foot

right foot follow, free.

from the

advance, but do not touch

floor,
it

Position.

place

it

against the

again to the floor until

stepping back to position.

Keep

just as perfect a position with the

one foot removed

from the floor as though the weight of the body were on


both

feet.

FIG. 44.

All art

is

nature better understood.

POPE.

Feather Movements.

109

X.

FEATHER MOVEMENTS.

T) AISE

both arms straight

forty-five degrees.

that each arm, from the

Fancy

and that each hand

is

an angle of about

front to

in

The hands should be


elbow

a feather.

limp,

to the wrist,

As you

is

raise the

lift

a stick,

arms and

as
pass them gently down, the hands should float lightly,
as
and
would
a
feather on the end of a
gracefully
lightly

When

stick.

they reach the desired height, the hands should

move above

not

pressed

as

but the wrists

the wrists,

they again pass

down,

the

should be de-

hands

remaining

in

down by the wrists,


just as the atmosa
would
act
feather
if
so circumstanced.
upon
pheric pressure
When the hands move from side to side, the same caution
position

holds
in

till

good,

pulled

the wrists should

As

lead.

the hands

come

from the side movement the wrists should almost touch

each other.

When

they pass back, instead of down, as rep-

resented in the illustration, the palms are turned out as they

go from the body.


But few of the feather movements are given,
sufficient,
however, to show the benefit that may be derived from the

may be

practice.

Others

Plucking

imaginary

baskets, or
tiful

chosen, at the option of the pupil.

flowers,

weaving them

into

tossing

them

into

imaginary garlands,

imaginary
a beau-

is

and valuable exercise.

The designs may be magnified


with the taste of the pupil.

to

any

size,

in

accordance

Feather Movements.

10

Out

FIG. 45-

EXERCISE.
WAVE THE

HANDS.

HALF WAY

UP.

Out

Up; down.
;

in.

Out

Up; down;

back.

Up; down.
in.

half up.

Out;

in.

Feather Movements.

FIG. 46.

EXERCISE.
PLACE THE HAND.

Forward

circle

extend

toss.

Place the right hand against the chest, and raise the elbow
to the level

of the hand.

fingers following the

line

Move

the hand to the right, the

indicated.

The

side

of the wrist

palm of the hand is toward the earth. When


arm has almost unfolded, the tips of the fingers describe
small circle, which, when complete, will entirely unfold

leads as the

the
a

the arm.
is

up.

When

the circle

is

complete, the palm of the hand

The whole arm now moves

moves upward

as

to cast the object

if

to the right,

and the hand

holding an object, and then turns as

away.

if

Feather Movements.

12

FIG. 47-

EXERCISE.
PLACE THE HAND.

Place the

left

Forward;

hand against the

circle; extend; toss.

chest,

moving the arm

for-

ward as indicated by the line. Describe a small circle, extend the arm, and toss the hand as if to cast away an object
The small circle should be made by
it had been
holding.
the hand only, not

by a movement of the arm.

Feather J lavements.

FIG. 48.

EXERCISE.
PLACE THE HANDS.

Bring both hands


the

Forward

the

movement with each one

circle

extend

same position
separately.

when making
The arms will now
as

Move both hands

forward sim-

ultaneously, and follow the lines as designated.

The move-

necessarily cross at the wrist.

melt with the one hand should correspond exactly with the

molement

of the other.

-.

Feather Movements.

FIG. 49.

EXERCISE.
Neck

PLACE THE HANDS.

Bring both hands up in front as

When

at the required

bowl

in

Fig. 45, palms down.

45 degrees

height

base.

the hands

turn

quickly, so that the palms face each other, the hands almost
upright.

Move them

easily

and gracefully down the neck and around

the bowl of the urn, just as

palms.

When

the

if

lightly

touching

ing against the base.


little

with the

hands reach the base of the urn, they

now they move as if lightly pressThe whole movement ends with the

turn completely over, and

palms up, the

it

fingers touching each other.

OF

OKTURE

Free the avenues of expression from everything that interrupts

of thought, and then


scious

free the thought until

of your gestures and

attitudes.

the

you are totally uncon-

XI.

PRINCIPLES OF GESTURE.
r

-*

HE

majority of the gestures herewith given are

use

of an

imaginary cube;

each

b;.

requiring a

gesture

special side of the cube and a special action of the hand.

Other of the gestures are represented by the use of the


upright stick or the
tangible object
ture in a

is

manner

circle.

helpful
to

in

We

impressing the

words;

the

use

of the

form of the ges-

be the more readily retained.

Other things being equal, a picture


than

that

find

is

an impression through the

than through the ear.

longer

eye

remembered

more

lasting

n8

Principles of Gesture.

FIG. 50.

SUPPORTING.

The hand should be


the

case

of

flat,

supporting

and the fingers together,

heavy

object.

as

in

The arm, being

brought up toward the chest, the


pendant
As it reaches the chest the hand
back of the wrist leading.
turns over and gives the desired gesture.
at the side,

is

first

FIG. 50.

Principles of Gesture.

20

FIG. 51.

PROTECTING.
Bring the arm toward the chest, the back of the wrist leading; but instead of turning the hand over, it remains palm

down, and

in

this

form

is

placed over the cube, signifying

a covering, a shelter.

Raise the hand higher than the cube, and allow


scend to the required position.

it

to de-

FIG. 51.

Principles of Gesture.

I22

FIG. 52.

DEFENDING.
up from the

Bring the hand

The hand

line.

give

an

air

in

an almost straight

not brought to the front, as

of rejection

placed as a wall
is

is

side

when

carried

of defence, guarded

to

by

the

it

side.

the body.

would
It

a great difference between protecting and defending.

tection

is

much

the stronger term.

my

includes

the walls;

"roof.

may

house, or protect you under

walls of

but

the

walls

may

is

There
Pro-

defend you by the


its

The

roof

without

the

roof.

exist

FIG. 52.

Principles of Gesture.

124

FIG. 53.

LIMITING.

The cube

encompassed on two sides with the hand, inThe hand is brought up toward the
dicating limitations.
chest, and then in position, with the palm toward the side of
is

the cube, the fingers toward


to the earth.

the

front, the side

of the hand

FIG. 53.

Principles of Gesture.

126

FIG. 54.

PRESENTING OR RECEIVING.

The commonest form of gesture

is

the

one of receiving

/The hands should not be curved up in presThe fingers


entation, as a beggarly element is thus indicated.

or presenting.

should not

be

presentation.

separated,

We

deal

as

with

one

could

thoughts

not maintain
as

we

deal

the

with

Bring the hand up in the usual manner


it
over, but lowering the hand more than
directed, turning
tangible

in

objects.

supporting.

FIG. 54.

Principles of Gesture.

128

FIG. 55.

DEFINING.

You may

define

ing the cube.

one

finger.

It

Bring the hand to the front as usual; but

stead of turning
side.
will

^All

any or all sides of the cube by turnmay be done with the entire hand, or with

the

it

completely over,

gestures

should

it

is

in-

turned only on the

ascend to such a point as

give an opportunity for the

gesture to

proper place, thus avoiding angularity.

descend to

its

FIG. 55-

Gesture.
Principles of

I30

FIG. 56.

MAINTAINING.
forward as usual, and turns over,
does not pass so low
it
descending lower than presenting;
the cube, just as we would
however, but that it can maintain

The hand

is

brought

maintain anything

we

affirm.

FIG. 56.

Principles of Gesture.

132

FIG. 57.

WITHHOLDING.
the one as
There are two forms of arrogant affirmation,
of
a
form
in
the
command
other
given below; the
(which
we give elsewhere). The hand is not turned over when

brought forward, but descends with the palm down, as though


withholding the

reasons

cube

in

is

withheld

like

for

making the

manner.

affirmation.

The

FIG. 57.

Principles of Gesture.

134

FIG. 58.

REVEALING.

The hand
from

its

back, so

placed
front,

is

now brought up above

position
that

there

holds

it

at the

side.

need not be

by the

wrist

It

should

lifted

to

depression.

the object plainly in view,

withholding nothing.

the

head,

pass

its

far

straight

enough

position, but

The palm,

be

facing

thus revealing

all,

FIG. 58.

136

Principles of Gesture.

FIG.

59-

MYSTICALLY REVEALING.
Bring the hand directly up from its position at the side;
and \vlien raised above the head, the hand turns, as if to conceal an object, or for the
is

entirely out of sigal.

purpose of mystifying.

The cube

Principles of Gesture.

FIG. 60.

AFFIRMATION
faces of the cube are

The

upright stick

no longer

an affirmation, we make that which coin-

cides with the divine law;

that

ing this idea.

any one

When we

violates

may

that law, he breaks

that

it

we

estab-

set

it

line.

perpendicular.

Rejection and

ignoring are

We

with the side of the hand,

as a feather.

is,

is

up; when
or knocks it down.

we

in a direct line,

mental.

matters; we throw them down: it


trivial matters; we toss them off,

out.

it,

it

words express-

all

reject with the palm of the hand,


emotive and
we ignore with the back of the hand,

elements of negation.
vital

upright,

etc., are

be illustrated by the standing up of a stick; that

All negation crosses

we deny

is

establish a law,

affirm a thing, I place

is, if I

it

is,

"State," "law," "statute,"

lished.

requisition, but the

in

used.

is

When we make

This

NEGATION.

vs.

We

deny simple

We

requires force.
as

reject

heavy

We

ignore

though they were

light

we

them

statements:

strike

Declaration also includes the element of negation


cross

the line of affirmation.

that

FIG. 60.

AFFIRMATION

vs.

NEGATION.

Principles of Gesture.

140

FIG. 61.

DECLARING.

As

affirmation should be

all

so

right,

ular line.

we would

everything opposed

As we would

made

in

a direct

line,
upshould cross the perpendic-

hurl an offensive object from us, so

hurl from us an unjust accusation, declaring

it

was

not so.

Bring the hand directly to the chest,

and carry
as

if

it

horizontally to the right,

the seat of honor,

exposing the palm,

exposing the charge preferred against you.

FIG. 61.

Principles of Gesture.

142

FIG. 62.

IGNORING.

We

desire

to

ignore the affirmation that has been

hence the back of the hand


upright

stick.

of rejection.

We

is

brought
This

toss off trifles.

in
is

made;

contact with the


the slightest form

Bring the hand to the chest as usual.

FIG. 62.

Gesture.
Principles of

FIG. 63

DENYING.

The

side of the

the

upright stick,
its

movement

is

now brought in contact with the


The force of the hand in
affirmation.

hand

very

denial of a statement.

chest as usual.

is

slight,

just

as

See Fig. 60.

one would use

in

the

Bring the hand to the

FIG. 63.

Principles of Gesture.

FIG. 64.

REJECTING.

The

stick that

law that

is

tions.

as

erected, the affirmation that

established,

to overthrow
service,

is

it

it.

is

very strong

The palm

of the

hand

requires strength to cast

See Fig. 60.

hence
is

it

is

made, the

requires

power

now brought

down heavy

in

obstruc-

Bring the hand to the chest as usual.

FIG. 64.

Principles of Gesture.

148

FIG. 65.

SECRECY.
Bring the hand

in front as usual.

fying secrecy, only the


It

moves from

a circle.

hand

is

In illustrating or signi-

required

in

the

side to side, as if describing the

See Fig. 67.

movement.

upper arc of

FIG. 65.

Principles of Gesture.

FIG. 66.

SOOTHING.
Soothing calls into action the affectionate nature; hence
are the most prominent
2d and 3d
the two middle fingers
in the giving of this gesture, as they are the agents of the
heart or emotional nature.

Bring the hand

in front,

and pass

the fingers lightly over the imaginary arc of a circle reversed

from the one representing the movement for secrecy.


Fig. 67.

See

FIG. 66.

Principles of Gesture.

FIGURES 67 AND

Face the
No.

i.

No.

2.

No.

3.

One

Secrecy.

hand, palm down.


"

"

Both hands, side down.


"
"
"
"

Fulness.
1

4.

No.

5.

Exaltation.

No.

6.

Exultation.

Exultation

One
"

radius.

palm leading.

the victory won, the hurrah.

signifies,

Short radius.
"

leading on to victory.

"

"

Once more unto

the breach, dear friends,

"
!

Example of Exultation:

When

hand, back leading.


"

signifies,

Example of Exaltation
once more

Long

Delicacy.

" Exaltation "

Short radius.

Soothing.

No.

"

each of the following movements -

for

circle

68.

giving No.

or intellectual delicacy

4, if
if

"

Hurrah

the hands

downward,

hurrah

move upward,

it is

the

victory

is

ours."

it is an expression of moral
an expression of physical delicacy.

FIG. 67.

FIG. 68.

I will knock

unceasingly at the door of facts.

I will
question

every.

phenomenon.
DELSARTE.

GESTURES AND ATTITUDES.

He who

in earnest studies o'er his

part

Will find true nature cling about his heart;

Up

to the

And

darts

sensation
face the quick
its

meaning from

flies,

the speaker's eyes,

Love, transport, madness, anger, scorn, despair,

And

all the passions, all the soul is there.

LLOYD.

XII.

GESTURES AND ATTITUDES.


TT

should

be distinctly understood that gestures and

tudes, as hereafter represented, are given but

many

forms

allowable;

therefore

let

no one

atti-

one of the

think

that

if

he has occasion to give any of them, he must restrict himthe one form given in this volume.
Nevertheless, in

self to

whatever form given,


the underMeditation, for instance,
hold
that
the
relative
is,
lying principles
good
position of
the head and body to each other, and of every member of
;

the

body

as regards the

meditative or reflective principle,

concentration and contraction.

Every dramatic expression


outgrowth

human

of

heart

these

may

is

represented herein, or

representations.
find

some of these

avenues.

everything that

will

Every

feeling

of

is

an
the

its

particular expression through


Free the avenues, therefore, from

interrupt the flow of thought, and

then

free your thongJit until you are totally unconscious of your

gestures or attitudes.

and

Gestures

Attitudes.

FIG. 69.

MEDITATION.
that is, many posiThere are many forms of Meditation,
while there is but one relative
hands and arms,

tions of the

position

of the

head

toward the body.

expressed by concentration

together, the brows knit, the lips close

As

the weight of the

and hands are brought


dropping of the head.

body
into

All

meditation

is

the hands or arms are brought

settles

more

firmly.

on the heel, the arms

position simultaneously with the

FIG. 69.

Gestures

160

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 70.

PRESENTING OR RECEIVING.
Pass from the attitude of Meditation into that of Presentation

or

extending
to

Receiving.
the arms

Step forward, raising


simultaneously.

the

the

As you

movement of

present your thought,


be the same as if presenting a tangible object.

head

step

and

forward

the hands will

FIG. 70.

Gestures

62

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 71.

EXALTATION.
PART

The

FIRST.

gesture and attitude of Exaltation

is

divided, for the

convenience of the pupil, into three sections.


Part First requires opposition of head and

hand.

the hand outward to the right simultaneously with

ment of the head

to the

left.

Turn

the move-

FIG. 71.

Gestures

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 72.

EXALTATION.
PART SECOND.

Opposition of the arm and body


sion.

the

is

required for this divi-

Step to the right simultaneously with the movement of

arm

as

shown

in

the

illustration

palm of the hand opposing each other.

the

face

and the

FIG. 72.

Gestures

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 73-

EXALTATION.
PART THIRD.

This movement completes the attitude by the opposition


of head and hand, and somewhat of the arm and body.

The hand

is

now

given a quick curve to the

acts simultaneously with the


left;

the

movement of

the

right,

which

head to the

back of the head and the back of the hand now

oppose each other.

An

heroic

impulse

is

felt

at the shoulders that causes

the

and as the right hand descends toward


the head, a strong impulse will be felt to extend to the left
foot and make strong the left leg, though bearing no weight

body

to rise slightly;

upon

it.

FIG. 73-

Gestures

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 74.

EXULTATION.
Opposition of head and hand changes Exaltation to Exul-

The hand, having made a small


now sweeps back on that same circle to
having turned to the left, now turns back

tation.

As

the

to the

left;

right,

the head,

to the right.

exultation cannot be photographed (being a continuous

movement of

The

circle

the hand), the position of exaltation

completion of ex#/tation

is

is

repeated.

the preparation of ex^/tation.

FIG. 74.

170

Gestures

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 75.

REPOSE.
Repose may be represented in various forms. The mind
and the muscles should be in a state of rest. The weight
of the body should
feet or foot.

be nicely poised over the centre of the

FIG. 75.

and

Gestures

172

Attitudes.

FIG. 76.

FORCE
The
tion,

attitude here
it

is

given

IN

is

AMBUSH.

expressive of very strong emo-

the volcano just previous to the eruption.

Back of the body the left hand clasps the right hand,
the thermometer
which is strongly contracted the shoulders
;

of passion
set;

rise; the lips

vital

slightly part, or are firmly

the brows lower, the upper lids

the breathing

is

labored.

rise,

the eyes protrude,

P'IG. 76.

Gestures

174

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 77-

HEROIC.
PART

The Heroic
three

ment,
Part

Turn

attitude, like that of Exaltation,

The same movement

parts.

save that

FIRST.

we change

the side

calls

the

hand

simultaneously.

for

to

right

each section,

to a forward

somewhat stronger

opposition
the

given in

movement

the Heroic calling for a


first

is

divided into

is

of

and

only
the

head

head

and
to

move-

situation.

hand.

the

left

FIG. 77.

Ges lures and Attitudes.

FIG. 78.

HEROIC.
PART SECOND.

Opposition of the arm and body


sion.

the

Step

hand

forward

and

arm

simultaneously
as

shown

in

is

required for this divi-

with

the

movement

the illustration,

and palm of the hand opposing each other.

the

of

face

FIG. 78.

and

Gestures

Attitudes.

FIG. 79.

HEROIC.
PART THIRD.

Heroic attitude, turn the hand quickly


curving it down and then up till the back of

To complete
to the right,

the

the

hand comes almost

head.

The head

to the right.

in

contact with

turns to the

left,

in

the

crown of the

opposition to the hand

Feel the opposition, spoken of in part third of

Exaltation, between the right

hand and the

left foot.

FIG. 79.

Gestures

So

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 80.

DEFIANCE.
Pass directly into the attitude of Defiance,

weight of the body up and back

ened without removing the


to a firm
is

position

till

the

by

casting the

leg

is

and the right leg


advance of the left;

foot,

slightly in

left

firm, manifesting the spirit of defiance.

straight-

is

brought

the chest

FIG. 80.

and

Gestures

182

Attitudes.

FIG. 81.

RE-ACTION.

The weight of the body


that

is

position

the

placed
is

such as to give

limb that

is

farthest back;

is

forward

the support of the

body

is

now cast wholly on the leg


but the knee is bent, and the

and immediately
placed farthest back, and takes

little

in the

support;

same weak way.

FIG. 81.

and

Gestures

Attitudes.

FIG. 82.

APPELLATION.
Bring the palm of your hand toward the face as

oning to some one at your


the person to

whom you

right.

beckon.

Keep

if

beck-

the eye fixed on

FIG. 82.

Gestures

86

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 83.

SALUTATION.
Pass directly from Appellation to Salutation,

hand down as
and the body

NOTE.

if

will

to

shake hands;

the

move backward very

The arm

is

by

head

casting the

will

move up

slightly.

the type of the whole

man

the hand

and wrist corresponding with the head and neck, the forearm and elbow with the torso and waist, the upper arm and
shoulder with the lee and ankle.

FIG. 83.

Gestures

88

and

Attitztdes.

FIG. 84.

SILENCE.

The

index-finger of the

and

of speech,

left

signifies

hand seeks the

lips,

the portal

thereby that they must be kept

closed.

The

hand represents repression, the arm extending


somewhat back, as if to silence a person standing behind or
right

at the side

of you.

FIG. 84.

Gestures

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 85.

FEEBLENESS.

One who
is

is

weak assumes strong

attitudes,

and one who

strong assumes weak attitudes.


When one is feeble or is seized with vertigo, the

separated, in

feet are

order to give greater support to the body.

FIG. 85.

Gestiires

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 86.

FAMILIAR REPOSE.
Place the feet wider apart than in feebleness.

tendency
the vest
is

There

is

protrude the abdomen, to put the thumbs in


The position
pocket, or to place the arms akimbo.
to

unrefined and exceedingly vulgar.

FIG. 86.

Gestures

194

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 87.

INDECISION.
Pass from Familiar Repose
divided on both feet

the weight of the

to Indecision,

body equally
by removing the weight of

the body, for instance, to the right foot just

the

left

foot of

seeks the

lips.

any weight.

The head drops

enough

to relieve

as the index-finger

FIG. 87.

and

Gestures

196

Attitudes.

FIG. 88.

SUSPENSE.
Indecision includes an element of Suspense, and vice versa.

When

a decision

made and

has been

upon, but the thought

is

re-arrested,

is
it

about to be acted
creates

the

attitude

of Suspense.

The hand

passes

moves upward

in

down

in

opposition.

determination,

At

passes into the realm of Suspense.

this

and

juncture

the

body

Indecision

FIG. 88.

Gestures

198

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 89.

TRANSITION.

The
avoid

object of gaining ease in the transitory position

movements of the

superfluous

feet

when

is

to

desiring to

retrace your steps.

you

Suppose

when

in the attitude

head to the
left

were

foot,

left,

called,

from

of Suspense:

if

the

opposite

direction,

facing right, turn your

then cast the weight of your body over the


removing either foot entirely from the

without

floor.

Then turn your head

to the

right without removing either foot entirely from the

floor.

to the right

and pass the body

FIG. 89.

Gestures

2OO

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 90.

ANGUISH.
MILD FORM.

Anguish
grees;

lower

may be

in

represented

the milder the anguish, the

the

clasped.

hands,

The

and the

stronger the

less

various

higher the

tightly

will

forms

or

de-

head and the


hands

the

be

anguish, the higher will be the

the head
they be clasped
droops in proportion to the depth of the anguish.
The action of the head and hands should be simultaneous.

hands and the jnore tightly

will

FIG. 90.

202

Gestures

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 91.

ANGUISH.
STRONG FORM.

Clasp the hands more tightly and raise them to the chest,

dropping the head simultaneously with the movement of the


hands upward.

FIG. 91.

2Q4

Gestures

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 92.

ANGUISH.
STRONGEST FORM.

Clasp the hands still more tightly, and drop the head still
lower as the hands are raised higher. Make sure that the

movement of
of the hands.

the head

is

simultaneous with the movement

FIG. 92.

Gestures

2o6

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 93.

REPRESSION.
Without unclasping the hands,
is

still

slowly.

of the

hands

there,

but now

The head
hands
will

in

will

the

controlled,

inasmuch as the anguish


pass

move up during

opposite direction.

be toward the earth.

them down

the entire

quite

movement

The palms of

the

FIG. 93.

Gestures

208

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 94.

PLEADING.

Of

the

score

or

more forms of expressing pleading, the

open hand or hands denote the element of


the closed or clasped hands denote anguish.

ing
tude,

parallel

To

movements of the arms and body

body should first retroact,


movement of the arms; then

the

forward

receiving, while

forward while the arms are extended.

in

the

avoid makin

opposition

this

to

body should

atti-

the

move

FIG. 94.

Gestures

2io

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 95.

ATTRACTION.
Bring

the back

of

the

hand

simultaneous.
shoulder,

the

movement of

As

this is

law of
the

toward

the

face,

stepping

body and arm are


a movement of the arm from the

forward so that the movements

opposition

of

the

requires

body from the ankle.

corresponding

FIG. 95.

Gestures

212

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 96.

REPULSION.

As

Salutation

and

Appellation are opposing

movements,

so are Repulsion and Attraction.

Move

the hand forward, from the

toward the object repelled;


in

opposition to

the

forward

attitude

of Attraction,

body will move backward


movement of the arm. The

the

movements of the body and arm should be simultaneous.

FIG. 96.

Gestures

214

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 97.

DEFENDING.
Imagine a child

You

raise the left

your left, and his enemy to your right.


hand to defend him, the right hand repels

at

the assailer, and your

body assumes the

spirit

of defence.

FIG. 97.

Gestures

216

and

GROUP

Attitudes.

FIRST.

FIG. 98.

LISTENING.
Eye

The

following group of gestures represents the pantomimic

expression

as

explained with

The whole group


is,

from.

14

each

member

of

the

group.
should be given successively; that

without passing to position after the

The

first

one

is

given.

r-rpression should keep pace with the z;;/pression.


At the sound of approaching footsteps to the right, turn

the eyes in the opposite direction.

FIG. 98.

2i8

Gestures

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 99.

LISTENING.
Face

The sound

of the footsteps

from.

is

nearer.

the unseen object, placing the head in a


attitude.

Turn the

more

face

from

perfect listening

FIG. 99.

Gestures

220

and

Attitudes.

FIG. ioo.

LISTENING.
Eye

As

the object

gets

still

direction of the footsteps.

toward.

nearer, the eye

turns toward the

FIG. TOO.

and

Gestures

222

Attitudes.

FIG. 101.

LISTENING.
Face

The
eyes.

face

Make

follows

the

toward.

the direction of

movement

slowly.

the

movement of

the

FIG. 10 r.

Gestures

224

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 102.

GENERAL ATTENTION.

As

sound of steps reaches the door, the whole body


manifests great interest, and in consequence is turned in that
the

direction,

and advances a

step.

FIG. 102.

Gestures

226

and

Altitudes.

FIG. 103.

RECOGNITION.

The door

is

as an old friend.

opened.

The one who

warm welcome

extending of the arms, with the

is

enters

is

recognized

shown by the

partial

open hands turned upward.

FIG. 103

228

Gestures

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 104.

SALUTATION.

friendly

salutation

hand toward the


position as

shown

face

as

is

given.
in

Bring

the

Appellation, then

in the illustration.

palm of the

down

to

the

FIG. 104.

Gestures

230

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 105.

INVITATION.

The

Salutation

is

followed

by a

cordial

Invitation.

Bring

the palm of the hand as shown in the illustration, slightly

bending the body from the waist


ment of the arm from the elbow.

in opposition to the

move-

FIG.

105.

and

Gestures

Attitudes.

FIG. 106.

DECLARATION.
See
is

the invitation

is

'not

accepted, the friendly greeting

not reciprocated.

An

unjust charge

As

the hand

ration, the

is

made.

Declare

and arm are extended

body sways back

it

false.

in

in opposition.

making the Decla-

FIG.

06.

Gestures

234

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 107.

AFFIRMATION.

Add

Affirmation

to Declaration.

brought back

toward

Affirmation, as

shown

the
in

chest,

The hand and arm


and

the illustration.

pass

at

once

to

are

an

FIG. 107.

Gestures

236

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 108.

PROTESTATION.
Finally

express a most earnest Protestation against such

charges.

The hand

is

brought up toward the chest, and

palm down,

as

in

ever,

much more

Rejection;

rapidly.

the

movement

is

is

turned

made, how-

FIG.

08.

and

Gestures

238

Attitudes.

FIG. 109.

WONDERMENT.
Being
believe

ment

struck

with

amazement

that

such

a friend

could

such a charge, the whole body expresses Wonderthe hands open, and

are held in
are affected

by the very force of the surprise


the position as illustrated. The lips and the eyes
in proportion to the degree of Wonderment.

FIG. 109.

240

Gestures

and

Attitudes.

FIG. no.

RE-AFFIRMATION.
Finding

Protestation

and

Affirmation

strongly Re-affirm that the charge

is

The hand is again brought toward the


is much stronger than the former

mation

wholly

ineffective,

untrue.
face,

one.

and

this Affir-

FIG. no.

Gestures

242

and

Attitudes.

FIG. in.

RECONCILIATION.

Reconciliation

now

takes place;

that

is,

a self-surrender

as well as the surrender of the will of the other person.

The body sways back

slightly

and the arms drop to the

side, indicating the mental as well as the bodily attitude.

Here ends the

first

group.

FIG.

IT

i.

Gestures

244

and

Attitudes.

GROUP SECOND.
FIG. 112.

RESIGNED APPEAL.
Group Second,

like

Group

First, tells

its

own

story

with

each subsequent action. First, we are in great sorrow, and


an Appeal is made, not to an individual on our own plane,
but to the Great Ruler of
to

the

superior.

all,

an Appeal from the inferior

In this

Appeal there

turned

palm out; the

is

a strong

element

of Resignation.

The hands

are

head, are turned upward.

eyes,

and not the

FIG.

Gestures

246

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 113.

ACCUSATION.

We
we

accuse an individual of the cause of our sorrow, and

lay that Accusation openly before him, just as

we would

place the tangible evidence in proof of our assertion,


the position of the hand.

Bring the hand straight to


the shoulder.

its

position,

straight

hence

up from

FIG. 113.

and

FIG.

Attitudes.

14.

MALEDICTION.

Our feeling
we call down
wronged

The
bent as

has

reached a state of desperation in which


upon the head of him who has thus

curses

us.

right
if

to

arm

is

raised,

and the fingers are separated and


The left hand is in sym-

clutch an object.

pathy with the

right.

FIG. 114.

Gestures

250

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 115.

REMORSE.

We

are filled with

Remorse when we

realize that

much

of

our sorrow is due to our own weakness and misjudgment.


The hand settles down on the organ said to be the seat
of conscience.

FIG. 115.

252

Gestures

and

FIG.

1 1

Attitudes.

6.

SHAME.
.We cover our eyes in Shame.
The head moves upward while the hand moves downward,

FIG.

1 1

6.

Gestures

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 117.

GRIEF.

Our head drops with


Parallelism

move

in

together.

the

is

Grief.

unavoidable,

same

direction,

as

the

though

head and
as

The eyes remain covered with

hand

one object;
the hand.

now
hence

FIG. 117

256

Ges hires and Attitudes.

FIG. 118.

REPROACH.

We

Reproach ourselves
The hand drops to the
portion to the

movement

be given very slowly.

our misjudgment.
chest, and the head

for

of the

hand.

rises in

pro-

This attitude should

FIG.

8.

and

Gestures

258

Attitudes.

FIG. 119.

TENDER REJECTION.

would render us aid and sympathy, but we are


inconsolable. We Reject his helpfulness with a Tender feelfriend

ing toward him.

When

the elbow

is

raised

arm should unfold gradually,

to

the

height of the hand, the

the palm of the hand turned

This Rejection should be made very slowly. The


head and body should turn toward the left, in opposition to
the hand and arm moving toward the right.
outward.

FIG. 119.

Gestures

260

and

Attitudes.

FIG. 120.

PATHETIC BENEDICTION.

Though we Reject him, we

are not unmindful of the kindly

motive which prompts him to act; hence in our deep grief,


we call down blessgrief that can be borne only alone,
ings

upon him.

from Rejection to Benediction by turning the head


and body to the front at the same time that the right arm
Pass

brought forward. The right hand should droop from the


wrist, and the elbow bend slightly, so as to bring the hand
is

toward

the

wrist leading,

head.

As

the

hand

is

the head rises and the

pressed

forward,

body sways back.

the

FIG. 120.

The
traces

artist,

of his

traveller on this earth, leaves behind

him imperishable

being.

DELSARTE.

Gestures

and

Attitudes.

263

XIII.

SUMMARY OF GESTURES AND A1TITUD!


ARRANGED FOR CLASS-WORK OR FOR THE CONVENIENCE OF PRIVATE
PRACTICE.

NOTE.

of

class

costume, give a very


in

representing

young

ladies,

and

artistic

and

picturesque

arrayed

classic

in

Grecian

entertainment

statuesque

manner

when
these

various emotional attitudes.

These figures have been arranged with a special view


such exercises.
In order to

each

pupil

They
secure

in

harmony

perfect

representing

character

MEDITATION.
{ PRESENTATION.
f

EXALTATION.
EXULTATION.

[REPOSE.

{FORCE

IN AMBUSH.

HEROIC.
DEFIANCE.
RECOIL.

class

mentally

between the giving of the command and

for

blend naturally as grouped.

will

its

exercise,

let

count three,

execution.

264

Gestures

and

Attitudes.

APPELLATION.
SALUTATION.
SILENCE.

FEEBLENESS.
FAMILIAR REPOSE.
INDECISION.

SUSPENSE.
TRANSITION.

ANGUISH, I,
REPRESSION.
PLEADING.

2,

3-

ATTRACTION.
\ REPULSION.
( DEFENDING.
f

from.
EYE
from.
FACE
toward.
EYE
toward.
FACE
GENERAL ATTENTION.

RECOGNITION.
SALUTATION.
INVITATION.

DECLARATION.
AFFIRMATION.
PROTESTATION.

WONDERMENT.
RE- AFFIRMATION.
I

RECONCILIATION.

Gestures

and

Attitudes.

ki-:su;M-;i> APPEAL.
ACCUSATION.

MALEDICTION,
REMORSE.
SHAME.
GRIEF.

REPROACH.

TENDER REJECTION.
PATHETIC BENEDICTION.

265

Excellence in any department can be attained only by the labor of a


lifetime.

It

is

not purchased at a lesser price.

SAMUEL JOHNSON.

MISCELLANEOUS DESIGNS.

Miscellaneous Designs.

268

XIV.

THE LAW OF ALTITUDE.

T^HE

all

rises,

shall

active

negative

positive assertion

Not

falls.

is

only

this

endeavor

agents of the eye.

below the

fall

assertion

all

by the hand, but even by the upper eyelid, as


to show when we speak of the three

exemplified

we

teaches us that

law of Altitude

of assertion

All negative gestures of assertion

level of the shoulder-line;

rise

all

positive gestures

The

above the level of the shoulder-line.

greater the degree of positiveness to be expressed, the higher

above the

level

fully illustrated
tail.

When

will

by

carried

former,

positive

dog the

of expression.

expressive agent

and tenacious, up
timid,

between the
a

the agent

animals, their

when cowardly and


is

rise

it

legs.

latter.

is

dropped
bull

goes
;

the

This

is

being the
tail

when very

but

timid,

forcibly illustrates

the

FIG. 121.

THE LAW OF ALTITUDE.

Positive and Negative Assertions.

Miscellaneous Designs.

270

XV.
FACTS OF EXPRESSION RELATIVE
*

TO THE MIND.

INDUCTION (mental), reverence (emotive),


(vital),

penetrate

all

emotive faculty

man

is

instinct

thy

is

faculty in

man

in

is

man

conscience

induction

is

the highest emotive

is

they

the

first

the highest

faculty in

in

faculty

the highest vital faculty in animal

Instinct

others

other,

the highest vital faculty

The highest mental

judgment.
;

from each

all

other qualities.

The highest mental


in

removed

farthest

Though

spring.

and sensation

are the three leading elements from which

is

form of intelligence

animal

is

animal

sympa-

sensation.

in the child,

when

he cannot yet know by induction. Instinct is an unconscious


form of the mind. Some persons come to conclusions through
that

instinct,

ble

as

the

methods.

is,

jump

at

conclusions

them; yet they are often

of

those

who proceed by

as relialogical

telligence

Judgment is a practical sense in the mind


is the
mind in the heart
while intuition is

intelligent

part

of the

emotive

nature, or

the

mind of

in-

the
the

heart.

While Delsarte was a

devout

Christian

and

reverenced

every true Christian principle, his statement in regard to


conscience has a tendency to rouse opposition in one at first
but on due consideration, and judging by the
hearing it
;

philosophy of the

chart,

there

will

be

decided

leaning

Facts of Expression relative

Mind.

to the

271

toward the Delsartean principle that conscience is not always


One can conscientiously do a wrong, bc<
a safe guide.
the

conscience

much

safer

intuition;

the

chart,

is

creature

of education.

Intuition

You cannot

guide than conscience.

park-v with

you can parley with conscience. By nii-mng to


it will
be observed that when the emotive nature

penetrates the mental, the mental being predominant,

it

be-

comes conscience.

When

mental

the

it

being predominant,

When

the

predominant,

When

it

penetrates

becomes

it

predominant,

it

three

emotive

intuition.

the

mental,

the mental

being

vital,

the vital being pre-

instinct.

penetrates the

emotive, the emotive being

penetrates

the

the

vital,

vital

being

becomes sympathy.

Let us study these nine


whence they come.

The

the

becomes sentiment.

emotive

the

emotive,

becomes judgment.

the vital

predominant,

When

it

becomes

the

the mental penetrates the

dominant,

When

vital

penetrates

faculties

attributes of the

great

more

closely,

and see

Deity are wisdom, love,

and power.
Love added to power becomes zeal.
Love added to wisdom becomes tact.

Wisdom added
Wisdom added

of

becomes

aspiration.

Power added

to

power becomes sagacity.


love becomes benevolence.

Power added

to

wisdom becomes

to

discretion.

form the six perfecting virtues in man, and


turn develop a group of nine others, which form the base

These
in

to love

all

faculties

faculties

Miscellaneous Designs.

272

Love perfected becomes reverence.


Tact perfected becomes intuition.
Aspiration perfected becomes conscience.

Wisdom

perfected becomes induction.

Sagacity perfected becomes judgment.


Discretion perfected

becomes

instinct.

Power perfected becomes sensation.


Benevolence perfected becomes sympathy.
Zeal perfected becomes sentiment.

Hence

the nine faculties as represented on the chart.

FIG. 122.

FACTS OF EXPRESSION REL/.TIVE TO THE MIND.

Miscellaneous Designs.

274

XVI.
FIG. 123.

BODILY SUBDIVISIONS.

THE

subdivision of the

sions of the

head and the

body, showing the three subdivirelative expression of each.

Also the subdivisions of the torso and the relative expression of each.

Also the subdivisions of


pressions of each.

the

limbs

and the

relative

ex-

O\\xv

Fore

FIG. 123.

BODILY SUBDIVSIONS.

Miscellaneous Designs.

276

XVII.
FIG. 124.

MAN
INTUITION

mind of the

is

BEAST.

the intelligence of our emotive nature,

the

heart.

Intelligence

The

vs.

is

the

mind

in the heart.

man is induction.
emotive in man is conscience.
animal or vital in man is judgment.

highest mental in

The highest
The highest

The

highest mental in animal

The

highest emotive in animal

The

highest animal or vital in animal

is
is

instinct.

sympathy.
is

sensation.

The highest form of the emotive element is reverence.


The highest mental form of the emotive is intuition.

The

highest animal or vital of the emotive

is

sentiment.

Miscellaneous Designs.

278

XVIII.
FIGURES 125 AND

DIVISIONS OF

HEAD.
"

FACE.
"

THE HEAD,

126.

FACE,

AND BODY.

i.

Mental

Temporal.

2.

Emotive

Parietal.

3.

Vital

Occipital.

i.

Mental

Frontal.

2.

Emotive

Buccal.

3.

Vital

Genal.
<.

BODY.
"

i.

Mental

2.

Emotive

Epigastric.

3.

Vital

Abdominal.

Thoracic.

w
a

^
<.
2.

3
to

<*

Miscellaneous Designs.

280

XIX.
FIGURES

127, 128, 129,

AND

130.

FACES.

THREE INCORRECT PROFILES


No.

i.

vs.

ONE CORRECT.

An

over-development of the mental faculat the expense of the two others; tendency,

Concave.
ties

insanity.

No.

2.

Straight.

An

over-development of the volitional facexpense of the two others


tendency

ulties at the

may

be upright, but a perverted idea of upright-

ness,

a justness leading to unjustness, the severity

characteristic of a martinet.

No.

3.

Convex.
at

the

An

over-development of the vital faculties


tendency,
expense of the two others
;

sensuality.

PERFECT.
No.

4.

that is, the


Concave, plus convex, plus straight
mental and the vital play in equilibrium about
the upright line.
The law of perfection is the
;

law of equilibrium.

becomes wrong.

we should mentalize
mental.

Every faculty over-developed

To have
the

a perfect
vital,

and

development
vitalize

the

FIG. 127.

Imperfect

Profile.

FIG. 128.

FIG. 129.

Imperfect Profile.

Imperfect Profile.

FIG. 130.

Perfect Profile.

Miscellaneous Designs.

282

XX.
FIG.

131.

DIRECTION.
LENGTH, BREADTH, THICKNESS.

THE

child

is

if

and answers the question

in

point upward.

points

upward,

And

may be

pointing
will

be

learned

may

differ,

the earth.

And

are

earthly things, that


spiritual,

same, but

Yet

in

little

toward God.

child

lives

in

China

there

all

practical

Though

pointing

from the

parts of the

globe the

each case the direction

in

is

from

in

the

lesson

to

be

direction

they

centre,

from

we go from the earth or


material, we go toward the

proportion as
is,

If a

same manner, though he

the

illustration.

this

they

the

so on different

the

different.

from

relative.

direct opposition to the child in the

in

is

it

United States.

of course

point toward heaven, he will intui-

asked to

But

tively

is

every case, away from the centre.

in

Upward means,
little

and direction

idea of distance

FIG. 131.

Direction.

Miscellaneous Designs.

284

XXI.
FIGURES 132 AND

133.

PERCEPTIONS.

THREE IMPERFECT

vs.

ONE PERFECT.

THREE CLASSES OF THINKERS.


LET

us seek to discover the law that

governs perception.
There are three co-essential factors of perception,
light, an
We cannot dispense with any of these
object, and the eye.
factors

for

if

we

had

with which to illuminate.

nothing to

we should have nothing


Without an object, we should have

not

light,

Without the eye, we should have nothing

see.

with which to see.

Corresponding to these three co-essential


factors of perception, we have the three grand factors of

God, Cosmos or Nature, and

the universe,

the light, Nature the object, and

Let us study

still

more

Man

closely the

God

Man.

is

the eye.
relation of these, each

we have

en-

deavored to represent the three groups of thinkers,


When
materialist, the rationalist, and the mysticist.

the

with

vital

the

two others.

In

the

following chart

predominates over the mental,

When

the mental predominates,

we have the
thing.

When

rationalist,

the

the mysticist,
relation

to

the

or

who

we have

that

is,

substitutes

the metaphysical,

reason

for

mystic or emotive predominates,


religionist.

light

All these

and the object.

the

the materialist.

are

wrong

It will

every-

we have
in

their

be observed,

by consulting the chart, that the materialist places the object

Miscellaneous Designs.
between himself and the
the

None

of

these

comes

beautiful

Nature

The sun

never

below the

Nature on a
distinctly

is,

level

when

his

and science form a


Religion

reflects

with

God

It

is

man.

Man

is

uim

to

that

infernal.

is

The

our vision.

to

form a right-angled

man

underneath,

perceives

clearly

and
and

above him.

trinity.

the

way

above,

it

may be

Art

said that

reflects

art,

religion,

the object,

nature.

Science discovers the re-

the light.

reflects,
is

below;

God

place

God,

lation of things,

the universe.

everything

the

object, but that which illuminate-,

same connection

this

from

horizon

hence, the perfect


that

triangle,

from

illuminates

eye must not only see the


the object;

and

rain,

Light,

because

above,

to the individual.

never
is

correct.

is

from

comes the good

In

rationalist places hi:

The mysticist places the


object and the light.
between himself and the object.

between
light

The

light.

285

purely and simply, the things in

why and

the wherefore, or the lumi-

nous eye corresponding to the light. Take from religion its


Neither art, nor
art and science, and it is inharmonious.
science, nor religion can be complete without the other two.

God

is

reflect

the cfeator, and


his

creative

we

power.

based upon science, then you

reflect

art

in

art

so

far

with

your
have the perfect

Inspire
will

his

as

we

religion

trinity.

1W \oxxa\\5Y

FIG. 132,

Imperfect Perceptions.

FIG. 133

Perfect Perception.

Miscellaneous Designs.

288

XXII.
FIG. 134.

PROFILE VIEW OF THE EYE.

THE
The

pupil of the eye


iris

of the eye

is

is

one third the diameter of the

iris.

one third the diameter of the globe.


appears a straight line drawn

In the chart of the eye

through the centre.

All

negative or subjective;
positive or objective.
lid rises;

upper

all

In

in all negative

lid is

activity

activity
all

below the central

line

is

above the central

line

is

expression

positive

expression the upper

i.

Shows

No.

2.

The

lid

drops to the top of the

No.

3.

The

lid

covers one half of the

No.

4.

The

lid

covers one ninth of the pupil,

5.

No.

6.

No.

7.

No.

8.

No.

9.

upper

falls.

The

the agent of the will in the mind.

No.

No.

lid

the

all

the white of the eye,

Frantic Desire.
iris,

iris,

Eagerness.

Animated Attention.

Calm Attention.

The lid covers one third of the pupil


Indifference.
The lid covers two thirds of the pupil
Introspection.
The lid covers eight ninths of the pupil,
Somnolence.
The lid covers all the pupil and the iris,
Prostration.
The eye is entirely closed,
Sleep or Death.

FIG

134.

Eye-profile.

Miscellaneous Designs.

2 go

XXIII.
FIG.

135.

THREE-FOLD LOVE.

THERE

elements

God, neighbor, self.


Love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and thy neighbor as thyself." We cannot obey the first and disobey the
are

three

in

love,

"

last.

We

this threefold principle

have illustrated

by

the old-

fashioned balance, or scales, with neighbor on one side, self

on the other, and

the

of self

however,

the

love

there

no

likelihood

true

is

perpendicular

central

is

of

lost,

outweighs
its

pointing to
the *love

tipping

and we

God and man. It is only when


beam is upright. Our neighbor
or bless.

lever

fail

the
in

of

God.

neighbor,

other way,

our

If,

duty

the

toward

the scales balance that the


is

he

whom we

can serve

FIG.
Three-fold Love,

135-

God, Neighbor,

Self.

FIG. 136.
Vitality vs. Mentality.

FIG. 137-

Mentality vs. Vitality

The
well,

talent

of

success is nothing

and doing well whatever you

more than doing what you can do


do, without a thought of fame.

LONGFELLOW.

DELSARTEAN TRINITIES;
OR,

MAN AS A TRIUNE
THEORETICAL,

BEING.

Know,

then, thyself;

presume not God

The proper study of mankind

is

to scan

man.
POPE,

XXIV.

DELSARTEAN

TRINITIES.

THEORETICAL.
r

"HE

-*-

with

Delsartean
the

not

to

that

it

is

our purpose to deal

not with the philosopher,

teacher.

the

say

and

philosophy;

philosophy,

teachings,

enough

pages treat of the theoretical side of the

following

during

We

will

pause,

the

life

of

with

the

however,

long

Delsarte

Francois

one could point to him and say with* truth, " There is the
There was not a
great master of expression of the world."
thought that found
having with
sarte,

it

action, which,

subsequent

by him

transferred

students

legacy,

as if

to the

the most skilful

it

when

printed

by Del-

and

page, or wrought upon canvas

To

artist.

those of us w ho
r

faithful

he

followers,

though not perhaps

so

to

with the key furnished

great

by

has
a

this

great

rich

this

left

degree

itself in

by

have been ear-

but so

the expression,

master,

we

can,

sitting or walking with you, or talking to you, divine

the thought that has not yet found


it

seen

had been given vocal expression, or

faithfully does the impression register


that,

if

could not as quickly, as readily, and as accurately be

divined

nest

mind of a human being,

into the

way

its

has been telling

accurate

its

agencies.

time-worn, well-beaten

every individual

who

of that

lie

pathway

story

We

by

are

its

vocal expression,

other and stronger and

now about

path,

a path

to

travel

travelled

for

more

on an
perhaps

old,

by

these pages; but the

beauties

hidden to the casual observer.

Having

peruses

Delsartean Trinities.

300
travelled

pleasant and

this

soul-enchanting route for many


our footsteps many, many a time, we
familiar with its objects of interest and

years, having retraced

more or

are

less

beauty.

Hence, to the searcher

vices

the

that

by

our ser-

offer

we have had ^o pass

years of labor through which

in clear-

driftwood of prejudice and objectionable tech-

the

away

ing

we

after truth

capacity of guide or* interpreter, assuring him


the acceptance thereof he will avoid the many

in

nique that have so long been a barrier to those whose time

and

opportunity have not

golden harvest, then,

is

been ample

the

for

The

task.

yours, reader.

Before proceeding on our journey, it is essential that we


should come to a general understanding of what constitutes ex-

The

pression.

inner

man

known only by expression;

is

by what we know outwardly.

is,

man

from

differs

Whatever

there

is

is

its

spread

light

laid

an

outer.

Let us see where the inner


is

Myself

in the earth

away

an old

expression,

is

my

not

I,

not

garment

it

body.
is

the nest, the soul

of endless

day."

soul

demands a new

away

the old one,

fold duties

it

the

wings and soar away

When

deeming

it

has performed

that cling around

it,

and

just

as

bird

so-called,

our friends

soul.

impatient

into the resplendent

death,

casket,

restless

only

which

for

no further use, the casket which contained the

"The body
to.

be

shall

remains of

the

the

that

sun-

appears, the
tenderly

lay

sacred on account of the mani-

and they cherish the memories


the fond mother cherishes the

memories that linger around the little worn shoe and the little
worn stocking. Why? Because they have become endeared

by

their association with the


world-journeying tenant.

Let
Is

it,

inward,

then, be

understood that when we speak of what

we symbolize what

is

upward, heavenly.

When

Delsartean Trinities.

we speak of what
ward,

and

we symbolize what

outward,

Thus,

earthly.

"

is

"

inward

"

and " upward,"

downward," are correlative terms.


"

we mean those forms

pression
indicated

by

down-

is

"

outward
"

Therefore, by

of manifestation

"

ex-

which are

We

should not expect much


had no impression
neither

the laws of Nature.

from one who

expression

301

has

should we expect a good performance from one who has not

had a clear perception of that

by a

illustrated

The
the
sion,

child

be performed.

to

school

in

during

This

oral

his

well

is

exercises.

teacher gives him a mathematical problem which, as

and you

will readily perceive

Suppose the teacher

with the thought.


"

problem
self at

How many

6 per cent

Mark the boy's expreshow much he is impressed

he repeats.

or was,

custom,

is

will

years

it

interest?"

compound
way

the thought and sees his

states

the

take $500 to

clearly,

following

double

it-

If the pupil possesses

he repeats the question

quietly and assuredly; but in the absence of the knowledge


"
How many years,
he will boldly and loudly repeat it thus
:

how many years will it take


take
how
many years will it take $500
$500
This
to double itself at 6 per cent compound interest?"
idea
how
to
solve
has
no
of
the
result,
boy knows nothing

how many
to

years will

double

it

itself

the problem, but reiterates

it

with an

air

of assumed knowl-

edge, waiting for some one to tell him. This we know to


be true both by observation and experience. The first boy
possesses the knowledge, and shows it by the quality of the
voice;

the second

boy assumes

by the quantity of his voice.


man, only a little more so.

it

The

public

long while

in

the

As

speaker

who

has

saying

that

nothing,

knowledge, and
is

the

boy, so

shows
is

the

nothing to say, but takes a

grows more and

more

Delsartean Trinities.

302

vehement and demonstrative the more shallow becomes

When

each

moment

for

thought.

pause
and if

he. can

find

succeeding

struggle

some new thought


it

nowhere

is

to

he

else,

his

over, he

pass

seeks

will

that way,

for

it

in

glass of water, or perhaps in the use of the kerchief when


wiping the perspiration from his heated brow. Listen to the

who upon

orator

a certain occasion soared to a dizzy height

on the wings of eloquence, and when he had completed his


aerial flight, he hurled forth, in a
grandiloquent manner,
"
this sublime thought
My friends, by the most careful
:

research,

by

most

the

and

study,

diligent

by the

most

thorough investigation, it has been discovered that those


and those towns and those villages and those hamcities
have a large number of people in them have a
greater population than those cities and those^ towns and
those villages and those hamlets that have a less number
that

lets

expression devoid of impression


people in them,"
hence but on the surface, or words as words, not thoughts

of

as

thoughts.

Let us bear

makes the most

noise."

loudest tick that

is

are

by no means

It

that

"

an empty wagon

not always the clock with the

is

the best.

scarce;

mind

in

Such speakers

as the foregoing

they belong to the class that mis-

take motion for emotion, and perspiration for inspiration.

The
bound.

perfection of oratory
It

requires

work

as

is

not to be reached at a single

well

as

knowledge.

We

often

there is no royal highway to knowledge.


none other than the royal highway, for only
ay, kings and queens
kings and queens can walk therein,
made so through the office of one's own mentality. There

hear

it

said

Surely there

that

is

are three degrees to be conferred


in this superior realm;

first,

the

upon
trial,

all

who would

that

is,

reign

the planting

Delsartean Trinities.
of the roots

second, the initiation,

303

that

is,

the enlighten-

ment of those who enter the sacred place of Nature;


the

that

consummation,
Before the

enter.

the

is,

perfection

we must have

fruits

of

third,

those

As

the roots.

who
is

it

with the seed

in the earth, so it is with


everything that we
our own souls and our own minds. This is the phi-

plant in

losophy of the divine method

Having come
pression,"

ing in
this

we

to a general understanding of the

will

reference

philosophy.

rian

term

"

ex-

endeavor to come to the same understandthe

to

Some

trinity

of expression

as

applied to

teachers have discarded this

on the basis of

idea,

Nature.

in

its

being

trinita-

It

misleading.

the

is

very tripod upon which rests this grand and solid structure,

and when taught in accordance with the teachings of DelIt was never taught by the master
sarte, it cannot mislead.
a

as

doctrinal

Nature,

true

with

"

the

reverse

is

a manifest

co-essential,

part

of

interpenetrat"

"

not confound the term

trinity

each object being independent of the other;

triplicity,"

true

is

trinity

things,

Do

and co-existent.

ing,

trinity.

a unity of three

of

It

trinity.

ceive of anything in Nature that

is

is

impossible to con-

not a

In order

trinity.

must possess at least one form


anything may
of trinity,
Common to all
length, breadth, and thickness.
the facts of the universe, we have trinity, opposition, and
that

it

exist,

evolution.

Let

us

look

for

principle of the
in
all

this

world

science,

trinity.

a
to

What

moment

system

lies

universal
all

is

things

requisite

Three expressions are

in

at

law of

the

the

formula which
possible.
for

requisite^

the

trinity.

The

statement that there

may be

This

is

applied to

formula

is

the

formation of a trinity?

each presupposing and im-

Delsartean Trinities.

304

Each of the three terms must imply

plying the other two.


other

the

Each of the three forms must imply the

two.

There must also be an absolute co-necessity be-

other two.

Thus, the three principles of our being,


life,
a
form
Because
life
and
soul,
trinity.
Why?

tween them.
mind, and

mind

and the same

are one

Soul and mind are one and

soul.

Life and soul are one and tlj


same mind.
the same life.
The number three was held sacred by the ancients, it being

thought the most perfect of all numbers, as having regard


The Chinese take the
to the beginning, middle, and end.

and harmony,

to signify union

triangle

man, the heaven, and the

to

is

good of

of inestimable value to
"

comply with the

injunction,

Having a perfect knowledge of

thyself."

chief

earth.

This philosophy of expression

any one who wishes

the

you

self,

Know

will

be

the better able to analyze the mental, emotive, and vital natures
also

that

of those
enable

to

you

desire

you

studied

this

whom you come

with

to

fully

Salvini, the great

three

for

teaching of the great master.


entranced,

as

you

contact.

yourself with

identify

portray.

philosophy

in

will

characters

Italian actor,

under

years

It

the

direct

Those of you who have

sat

needs must have, know that his expres-

through the various channels other than speech, was


such that words were superfluous.
The late unfortunate
sion,

John McCullough began his most successful career as an


actor after he had begun the study of this philosophy, some
ten years before his death.
Edwin Forrest, about two years
prior

to

his

death,

thrown floods of
has

given

own

art

me

than

said:

light

upon

a deeper
I

''This

my

insight

mind.
into

had myself learned

philosophy has
In fifteen minutes it

Delsarte

the

philosophy of

in fifty years

my

of study."

Delsartean Trinities.

Mary Anderson
a

more

herself to

this

study for

We

perfect posing of the character of Galatea.

assured
the

diligently devoted

305

who study

of you

those

that

of familiarizing

purpose

this

yourselves

feel

philosophy for

with

its

principles

to be as the very

key of Nature. The study is a


and
we
doubt
not but that it will readily
charming one;
will find

it

commend
the

the

as

as

after

portal

we

trust

the

until

interesting,

desire

and your very life-blood

infatuation,

but pleasurable sensations.

culiar

knowledge dawns on

portal

of knowledge,

unfolding

grow intensely

inkling of

first

and

mind;

inquiring

the

in

itself,

It

is

passed

become

tingle with
true,

will

subject

have

shall

will

is

its

pe-

may be

this

accomplished under the direct guidance of the living teacher; but we will endeavor to breathe life into the
dead words upon the printed page, and make them speak
better

for us.

Come

we

with us as

introduce these

trinities

one by one,

and show you the significance of each. We do not purpose


giving all the trinities that have come under our notice,
there

is

dwell

at

call

limit to

scarcely any

length upon some

especial attention to those

topics,

and

gestures,

as

we have

emotive, and

emotional

affective,

by

its

order,

divisions

the

that

is,

give;

but we will

bearing most on our leading

is

a triune being; that

mental

"

mental,

refer to the intellectual

we imply the heart,


by "vital" we imply the physi-

It is

necessary to consider,

subject of the

the

we

is,

the " emotive"

nature;

cal or sensitive nature.


in

"

By
;

shall

to

adding to these only such


most helpful to the student.

stated,

vital.

or reflective nature

we

intend

attitudes,

explanations as will be

Man,

nor do we

them,

that

first

bodily divisions

thirteen

trinities.

Bear

first,

each

and

sub-

in

mind

Delsartean Trinities.

306

every trinity throughout the chart should be preceded

that

by the terms
the

"

"

emotive,"

"

vital

"
;

every case

in

occupying the upper line of each


throughout the entire chart, the emotive or volitional

mental or

trinity

mental,"

the centre

intellectual

the vital or physical the lower line.

line,

DELSARTEAN TRINITIES.
f

Head.

BODY. J Torso
( Limbs

( Frontal

FACE.

J Buccal
(

LEG.

<

HEAD.

trunk.

Genal

arms and

<

mouth and

chin.

ARM.

Wrist.

EYE.
Shoulder.

<

Palm.

Thumb.

Brow.

<

Upper
Lower

( Outer.

..

< Centre.
Itf

Inner

AN

lateral.

"

back.

upper.
centre.

Abdominal

Hand and wrist.


Forearm and elbow.
Upper arm and shoulder.

<

( Fingers.

HAND.

temples.

"

( Heel.

EAR.

Parietal

forehead and eye.


( Thoracic
nose and cheek.
TORSO. < Epigastric

Foot and ankle.


Calf and knee.
Thigh and hip.

Centre.

Temporal bone

( Occipital

legs.

( Ball.

FOOT.

-3

lower.

( Tip.

FINGERS.

<

Centre.

Base.

Pupil.

EYE.

lid.

Head
Heart

Iris.

White.

lid.

Reflective

~ Affective ~

Abdomen

Sensitive

Thinking.
Feeling.

Delsartean Trinities.
Cold

THE

VOICE. J

Disputatious

Ice

Frozen.

Emotional

Air

Liquid.

Warm

-j

Water

Antagonistic

( Fiery

STRESS,

307

Radical

>

Median

<>

INFLECTION.

Terminal <"

Musrc.

Rising.

<

Monotone.

( Falling.

Melody

Sol.

<

Harmony
Rhythm

Mi.

Steam.

TASTE.

Do.

Sour.

Sweet.

( Bitter.

Driver
Guide
Designs.
Passen g er
Impels
Purposes.
1
Sustains
Constructs.
( Horse

VALUED

Blue.

GRACE.

COLOR. < Yellow.

(Red.

MAN

vs.

ANIMAL.

Precision.

<

Harmony.

Ease.

Summit.

<

Centre.

QUANTITY,

Weight.
-j
( Measure.

THREE DIVINE
ATTRIBUTES.

at

THREEFOLD LANGUAGE.

trinity

Love.

( Speech.
< Gesture.
(

each

Wisdom.
Power.

( Base.

Let us look

Number.

separately

and we

Voice.

will

en-

deavor to so represent them that they shall be readily impressed and easily retained. The first is the division of the

body as a whole; that is, the head, the torso, and the limbs.
The orator is the head, heart, and motive power of his
audience.
The audience are the limbs. We say the head
is

of

mental or

men

intellectual.

of thought.

"

He

To

illustrate

the mental,

we speak

We

speak of

has a long head."

the torso as being emotive or volitional.

"Volitional" signifies

Delsartean Trinities.

308
pertaining to the

or

will,

with the desires or the

more

especially, in this connection,

of the being.

love

The

torso con-

two great motive organs of the body,


the heart
and the lungs. Hence, to illustrate the emotive or volitional,
tains the

we speak of "men of

"He

heart."

We

has a large heart."

designate the limbs as vital or physical, and to illustrate this


a

as

The

of power, of heroism.

whole, both signify power.


"

He

the

of

division

that

occupies
the

has

and the arms, taken

legs
"

He

stretched

to

applied

in

known

part

as

his

arm."

same

three

forth

have

ear

his

one who

"
is

toward

the

common

a very

seeking a

is

the

The men-

vital.

the temporal

as

of the ear and

region
flea

head we

the

the mental, emotive, and

important factors,

is,

of action,

stood like a hero."

In

tal

we speak of men

element,

predominating

zone

forehead.

expression

way out of

that
"

He

when

difficulty

his fingers seek the


and does not know just what to do
is
there.
The
because
the
mind
zone,
strategic
temporal
;

top of the head

represents the emotive ele-

parietal zone

as in
ment, and the hand will seek this region in remorse
The
saying, "Oh, what have I done?" also "Nevermore!"
;

back

head

of the

vital part

of the hand

he

is

lect:

man who

trying to recall
"

Lemme

see,

zone

the

vital

intoxicated will rub the hand

the

occipital

element.

is

represents

over this region of the head when

some thought from

lemme

his

clouded

intel-

see."

Let us note briefly the attitude of the head.

HEAD.
In the normal

but accentric,

attitude, the

head

is

neither high nor low,

with a centre evenly poised.

In

the

con-

Delsartean Trinities.
toward

attitude

centric

and denotes

the

reflective

away from the centre


the vital state.

centre

It is

head

the

In

state.

309

the head

the

is

is

lowered,

eccentric

attitude

elevated, and denotes

necessary to keep constantly in view the


must be based on the condition of other

fact that all decision

being equal. The reflective state causes a man to


carry his head low, that is, inclined forward, and we say

things

of him, he

is

judge whether

to

weakness.

In

him who

carries

again

same manner, we are too apt to think of


his head high that he is egotistical.
Here
able to judge.

of strong

unless

physique,

head high.

carry the

variably

deep thought or shame or grief or

is

it

must, however, be able

the

we must be

Men

We

deep thinker.

in

deep

meditation, in-

well-filled

head mentally

will naturally incline forward, while the vital

energy,

be erect
the

cause

buoyancy
may
or slightly thrown back.

When

of

"

health,

man

as

You

at that wheat-field.

are

well

will

answer

to

the

all

while those

power,

body,

to

said

to

wag

you

replied,

carry

"Look

the heads that


are

that

empty

heads of wheat, and was apropos

wag, but

the

don't

observe that

forward,

This applies to

are up."
in

incline

filled

it,

side,
by
Why
do?" the thoughtful man

his

thought

your head up

nature
as

it

not

is

always a criterion

of

The head thrown back may also denote exaltation, but if the movement backward is brusque,
is
it
the menace of a weak man. The movement upward,

the

seat of intellect.

with elevated chin, indicates interrogation, hope, desire.

movement
mation, but
lute

man.

gesture,

is

of the
if

The

The

head forward means confirmation or

affir-

menace of a

reso-

brusque forward,
rotary

opposed

to

it

movement
the

line

is

the

of the

head, like

of affirmation

that

hence

of
it

3 io

Delsartean Trinities.

signifies negation.

If these

shoulder to

shoulder,

it

movements of the head


impatience or

signifies

are from
If

regret.

movement ends toward

the interlocutor, it is simply neends


opposite to him, it is distrust added
gation;
If the head inclines toward the interloto the negation.
an act of faith
if away from the
cutor, it is veneration,
the

but

if

interlocutor,

it

it

my

for instance, a

be

The movement of

lady.

chin and

the

admiration
is

stratagem

gentleman

ner he admires her.

is

or

is

head

his

When

observing a young

will tell

the head

you

in

what man-

thrown from, and the

is

lower part of the face toward the object, his


sensual

but

the head

if

thrown toward,

is

it

affectionate, based more on feeling than on


If the head is toward and slightly to the side, it is

pleasing and

intellect.

humiliation

based on

eyes down,

it

it

eyes up,

is

If the

intellect.

affection

is

but

if

head

the head

head

If the

scrutinizing.

is

is

sidewise

dressed

man

things

loves
ties,

toward

In conversing

the

person ad-

Delsarte says,

when

woman's hand, we may affirm one of three


he does not love her, if his head remains straight

presses a
:

first,

or slightly bent
derly,

leans

the spiritual side predominates.

and the

The head

denotes an element of suspicion.

with the individual, the head


if

toward and

toward and the

is

eye is toward,
thrown backward to the side denotes exaltation.
it

Supposing,

suspicion.

admiring or

if

when

he bows his head

her sensually,
if

facing

on looking

shoulder that

is

that
at

her; second, he

obliquely toward
is,

solely for

her he

opposite to

tudes of the head and the

her.

moves

loves

her ten-

her; third, he

her physical qualihis

head toward the

Such are indeed the

eyes which

may

colorless; second, affectional; third, sensual.

be termed

attifirst,

Delsartean

Trinities.

311

FACE.

The

face of itself

ment, known as the

is

The mental

a very great study.

frontal,

ele-

occupies that region including the

To

illustrate this element, we speak of


one whose understanding is clear, one who looks into a subOf such a one we say: " He is a
ject and sees a reason.

forehead and eyes.

The emotive element, which

clear-sighted man."

known

is

as

the buccal zone,

is expressed by that
portion of the face innose and the cheek.
Wishing to represent this

cluding the
element,
" a

is,

known

we speak of one whose perceptions are


keen-scented man."
The vital element

as genal, has

The mouth zone


sound,
it

represents

The

and touch.

taste,

often in succession,

is

three

vital

that
face
chin.

elements,

fingering of one's chin, to caress

equivalent to saying: "I hardly see

This

of that difficulty."

way out

strong

of the

mouth and

representative in the

its

keen,

quence than when he has a

flea. in

is

of more vital conse-

That we

his ear.

may

more impress the nature of these three zones, we will


consider them in their relation to kissing.
Inasmuch as a restill

between the eyes and the brain (mental)


the nose and the lungs (emotive)
the mouth and the stomlationship

exists

ach

the giver of the kiss must be

(vital),

three impulses

when

moved by one of

kissing an adult; his thought and feeling

being betrayed not only by the manner of imparting the


but by the

section

forehead or eyes,

upon
it

the cheek,

may

vital

still

it

on which he bestows
mental,

If

it.

kiss,

upon the

and shows great respect;

it

is

is

love pure and simple;

if

upon

the

if

lips,

contain the elements of respect and love, but the

element

is

the predominating one,

it

is

love intensified.

Delsartean Trinities.

312
Present your hand

forehead to

or

your cheek to your

stranger to be kissed,

friend, but reserve your

for

lips

your

lover.

The

must speak,

face

it

The tones of

must have charm.

The

the voice vary according to the expression of the face.


face

the mirror of the soul, because

is

the most impres-

is

it

sionable agent, and consequently the most faithjul in rendering

the impressions of the soul.


tions be read in

expressions of the features, but, by an

the

conformation

of the

inspection

Not only may momentary emoof

the

the

face,

aptitude,

and individual temperament may be determined. There is homogeneity between the face, the eyebrow,
and the hand. The degree and nature of the emotion must

thought, character,

be shown

in

the

The hand

is

simply another expression of the face; the face

hand

the

gives
facial

face, otherwise the

its

be grimace.

result will

Hand movements

significance.

expression would be simply automatic,

without

the face

is

the

hand completes the sense. There are movefirst


ments of the hands impossible to the face. Hence, without
word, the

the hand the face

The hand

cannot express everything.

is

the detailed explanation of what the face has sought to say.


If the

hand

potence

weak and the

is

the

if

sign of perfidy,

hand

is

face

strong and the

an emotional

face

The

lie.

is

agents of expression

in

the agent of the mental principle, the

the vital
principle.

principle,

We

the

nose

is

the

weak,

it

is

tones of the voice

vary also according to the expression of the


three motive

a sign of im-

is

it

strong,

the

face.

face,

mouth
agent

is

There are
the eye

of the

will consider all these separately.

is

the agent of

emotive

Delsartean Trinities.

313

JAW.
1.

in

2.

in

The jaw

suspension of energy

slightly

dropped

entirely

dropped and back, paralysis of energy

signifies

force.

The jaw

force.
3.

The jaw brought

rigidly

up and forward, exaltation of

in force.

energy

LIPS.

The upper
will

in

mouth
1.

2.
3.

4.

lip

force.

signifies sensitiveness in force, the

The
The
The
The

parted signify abandon, suspense.

lips slightly

lips closely shut, firmness.


lips
lips

completely apart, astonishment.


slightly

The

lips

apart,

The

lips

The

9.

The
The

that

that

is,

corners
is,

of

mouth depressed,

grief.

discontent.

completely apart, corners depressed, disapproval


is,

horror.

lips slightly apart,

and abandon
8.

closely shut, the corners depressed, disapproval

and astonishment; that


7.

or

and firmness
6.

lip

lips

There are nine expressions of the

disapproval and abandon


5.

lower

that

is,

corners of

mouth

raised, approval

joy and pleasure.

lips closely shut,

corners of

mouth

raised, approval.

lips completely apart, corners raised, approval and

astonishment;

that

is,

hilarity, laughter.

NOSE.

The nose

reveals the will or desire.

The noses of

nations reveal the leading desire of that nation

for

different

example,

Delsartean Trinities.

314
the

Roman

Greek

nose denotes conquest, sometimes cruelty; the


nose ethics and beauty; the Turk's nose sensuality.

There are nine expressions of


1.

When

serenity,

are

nostrils

nose.

in

repose

they

signify

calm,

indifference.

When

2.

the

nostrils are

contracted, they signify insensi-

hardness, cruelty.

bility,
3.

the

tlie

When

the

nostrils

are

they signify sensibility,

dilated,

excitement, passion.
4.

When

brows,

it

between

is

wrinkled, laterally, between the

eye-

signifies aggression.

When

5.

the nose

the nostrils are contracted and the nose wrinkled

the

eyebrows,

it

aggression and

signifies

cruelty,

equal to hate.
6.

When

the nostrils are dilated and the nose wrinkled be-

tween the eyebrows,


7.

When

it

and scorn,

signifies aggression

fury.

the nostrils are raised, they indicate sensuousness,

lasciviousness.

When

8.

the nostrils are contracted and raised, they signify

sensuousness, and insensibility or rejection,


9.

When

the

nostrils

are dilated

sensuousness and excitement,

and

contempt.

raised,

they signify

scorn.

TORSO.

The

torso

upper

third,

as
as

it

trunk
is

mental;

has three divisions.


it

is

The

thoracic zone,

the seat of honor.

does, the greater portion of the lungs,

it is

Containing,
called mental,

through their action we have inspiration and expiration.


The emotive or volitional element of the torso is represented

by the

epigastric zone,

the centre.

It is the seat

of affection.

Delsartean Trinities.
It

The

pertains to the love of the being.

always used

in

Our

contained.

as expressive

metaphor

entire being

organ with

being,

this

body.

When

the heart

its
is

affected

is

As

normal action of this organ.

315
an organ

heart

of love

herein

is

in the

by any change

love governs and directs our

life-giving

food

overburdened,

our entire

feeds

how

often

tells

it

its

mental agent.
sad,
by
sigh follows deep thought, because there has been little breath taken
the sigh,

sad story

When

in.

mentalized

the

is

Sorrow then

It is

vital

is

is

the

vitalized,

An

expressive of

audible expiration

The

is

decreases.

it

being equal,

will

its

increases

when

audible inspiration, other things


grief,

An

sorrow, dissimulation.

expressive of tenderness, love, sympathy.

inspiratory, happiness

element

pulse

is

well represented

is

expiratory.

by the abdominal zone.

Gestures departing from this zone

the seat of appetites.

are considered unrefined.

There are also three forms of expression in the


Its bearings and
bearings, attitudes, and inflections.
are the

most deeply expressive.

attitudes

of the

torso

that

condition of the torso in

is,

attitudes

There are three conditional


those produced

by physical

of

excitement,

itself.

1.
Expansion, indicating different degrees
vehemence, and power in the will.

2.

torso,

Contraction, indicating different degrees of timidity, fear,

pain, or convulsion of will.


3.

Relaxation,

indicating

different

degrees

of

surrender,

indolence, intoxication, prostration, or insensibility in the

There are three

relative attitudes of the torso, that

is,

will.

those

relating the torso to the object in nature or to the object in

the mind.
I.

Leaning

to

the

object.

If the

attitude

is

direct,

its

Delsartean Trinities.

316

If the attitude

or objective.

attraction

is

vital

attraction

is

emotive or subjective.

Leaning from the object.

2.

objective

If the

repulsion.

If direct,

attitude

signifies vital

it

is

oblique, the

is

it

oblique,

or

signifies

emotive or subjective repulsion.

Leaning

3.

humility,

before

the

denotes

object

shame, or obsequiousness.

If

vital

or objective

denotes

it

oblique,

emotive or subjective humility, shame, or reverence.

There are three

inflections of the torso.

Its inflections are

indicative of weakness, real or assumed.

all

and down indicates the despair of the weak,


tion of the will, alternately excited and depressed.
1.

Up

2.

From

the

will,

side to

side

indicates

tience, spasmodic convulsion of the

The

carelessness, vacillation

indicates
will,

weight and centre of the body, as

being.

the weight and centre of the being.

to

impawill.

torso of itself represents the emotive element, the love

of the

so

childish

chaos of the

love

is

of

indifference to the equilibrium of the will.

Twisted or rotary movement

3.

oscilla-

speak,

It

is

the

It

the core,

is

of the man.

LEG.
In the three divisions of the leg,

ment represented by the


mental expression.

It

foot.

foot

is

the mental ele-

a strong agent of

stamps, taps, advances, recedes, shuffles,

The emotive element has

etc.

The

we have

its

representative in the calf and

and other things being equal, a man who is weak in the


knees, especially on the rostrum or in the pulpit, is morally

knee

weak

he cannot be relied upon, especially

emergency.
into

The knee brings

prominence.

in

times

of great

the emotive section of the leg

In the expression of reverence

we

kneel.

Delsartean Trinities.
"

Every knee

bow."

In this

of our will to that of others.

tion

agent of the

the vital

is

shall

"

power.

leg,

and being
"

vital

is

this

hip and

of the

portion

need of muscular development.

leg has greatest

of

typical

He smote him

For any great power of action

thigh."

we express the subordinaThe upper leg, or thigh,

have thee on the hip."

The

vital

The first impulse of the leg


from the thigh. These three agents
of expression of the mental, emotive, and vital, may be represented as follows one stamps the foot in mental excitement,
force flows

into this part.

first

walking should be

in

felt

kneels in reverence or love, and slaps the thigh as an expression of vital satisfaction.

ARM.
In the division of the arm, the hand

be said to be the mind

may

It

the dude, or in fact of any idiot,

The hand has

absent.

the

eye.

That

it.

the

in

it is

various

is

uses

emotive element.

The forearm

arms."

Supposing we wish

child,

or a

little

"

but

mind

is

it

is

deal with thoughts

the expression

to

"
:

Do

a representative of the

exhibits, with

fine effect, the

Christ carried the lambs

larger one,

if

We

it.

in

his

put our arm around a little


would we be satisfied with

our feeling was


in
emotive
had the heart element

simple pressure of the hand?

we

limp, because the

Hence

The forearm

love element of the being.

it,

The hand of

mental,

assigned to

you grasp the idea?"

purely mental

the mental agent.

a close relationship with

as we deal with tangible objects.

the

is

is

sensation.

its companion,
and the hand emphasizes its
he eye beholds the object, the hand designates
the agent of the brain, we have undeniable proof

The eye

expression.

in

Yes;

if

should not rest satisfied until the forearm drew the child

Delsartean Trinities.

318
If

closely to us.

arm would

assert

As

upper arm.

our love was strongly vital, then the upper


itself.
Let us see the significance of the

the thigh

arm

so the upper

are undeveloped.

the blows that

tell,

and strength of the

"

if

leg,

The

and strength of the arm.

life

arm

the

in

life

from the brain into that section.

vital force flows first

can be no force

the

is

the

is

There

arm

the muscles of the upper

Such are

Strike out from the shoulder."

whether they are struck mentally, morally,

or physically.

FOOT.

The foot, also, has three subdivisions.


when the weight is thrown thereon it

The

but

other things being equal,

or,
is

passive.

vital

when

poise

The

centre of the foot

centre

of the

may show
is

fact that

mental.

negation;
emotive.

is

when

It

may

is

the weight

is

heel

impatience.
in

doubt.

be termed neutral,

body

the proper centre

the possession of any faculty.

When

is,

the weight of the

which

foot,

that

vital,

The

timidity.

The tapping of the heel shows


in

is

indicates reflection,

may show

backward

We

from the

it

heel

The

is

over the

of gravity,

it

ball of the foot

thrown thereon,

it

shows

We
mental impatience, the ball of the foot being active.
and when
poise forward in assertion that is, when we accept
;

we accept we

are willing to assert.

It is said that

nature has

cut a cross on the bottom of every well-formed foot.


are three great centres of gravity in man,

and the torso.


earth

the eyes

The

feet

show the

the

feet,

There

the eyes,

show the relation he bears to the


relation

he bears to the object

torso shows the relation he bears to himself.

the

Delsartean Trinities.

319

HAND.

The hand,
are

fingers

has

also,

very

The

sensitiveness

sensitive

French

and

head

of thoughts

The

memory.

mum."

It

to

index finger
substances,

Each

has

finger

do with a granulated
in

we

its

"
lips

signifies,

we

use

If

with the

it

with carneous

middle finger and thumb.

the

must

function.

test
if

Keep

speech

separate

object,

any

recalling

tap at the door of

connection with the thumb;

If

the

and impressionable, we use the third finger;

delicate

is

if it

pulverized,

the finger as the

The index

will

the

show

but to recall a

demonstrates that the portals of

object
is

fingers

man

activity of the

in

finger,

placed upon the

finger

remain closed.

we have

the

all

whole

Italians

by the great

one thought, we naturally use the one

number

fingers as a

With a

placing the hand to the

In

fingers.

element.

active.

an over-developed

The

subdivisions.

its

mental

represent the

we

test

body

finger

it

is

with the

solid,

while the two fingers between

We

delicate, or

humid,

masculine, the

is

little finger.

little

finger

is

change

powdered.
feminine,

The

are termed affectionate.

index finger used in gesticulation shows fact and judgment.


Imagine one gesticulating with the little finger in making a

mathematical statement

though

subtlety,

use

its

When Lady Macbeth


"

Your

face,

The

is

little

finger

largely

shows cunning or

governed

by the

eye.

says,

my thane,

is

as a

book where men

May read strange matters. To beguile the time,


Look like the time bear welcome in your eye,
;

Your hand, your tongue look


But be the serpent under 't,"
:

the

expression

of

the

be the serpent under

voice

like the

in

"
it

changes

innocent flower,

uttering
to

the

words

"

but

an element of secrecy

Delsartean Trinities.

320

and subtlety; and immediately the hand, being left to


will correspond, that is, the second and third fingers will

itself,

close,

leaving judgment and subtlety alone to express the thought.


The second and third fingers, representing affection, pass out

of immediate action and out of sight.

The use of
refinement.
stand,
it,

but

may

it

if

the

finger also

little

When

one

lifts

delicacy and

represents

from a table or

a heavy object

require the strength of the entire hand to grasp

the object

the individual

may

is

the delicacy and refinement of

light,

be observed by the

little

finger not touch-

Supposing a lady observes a speck of dust


of a gentleman's coat,
and a lady often will

ing the object.

on the lapel

what finger or

observe the finest particle,


use in brushing

it

off

It

young man

finger, she has told that

she

that

ment.

is

depends.

generally lacking

Neither

will

the

tion for her, although

little

in

in the

fingers will

If she uses the index

unmistakable language
emotional ele-

heart or

finger be the best

shows greater delicacy.

it

she

commendaIf the heart

element predominates, as is likely in one who is so observing,


she will use the two middle fingers; that is, the second and
third.

She

will

use them,

Oh, so gently! and whether she


it will be in
perfect keeping

speaks vocally or with her eyes,


with the gentle touch.

In later years,

when she

is

brushing

the same gentleman's coat (possibly the gentleman as well as


the coat

may

have changed), she

to say, to brush

love

him

it

in

is

not so likely,

many

are sorry

She may still


and per-

the same tender way.

as of yore; but the

we

duties and cares

have made her more practical, and striking the


"
John, there 's
lapel with a full open hand, she will exclaim
Pause a
the
on
coat.
brush."
Go, get
something
your

plexities of

life

moment, and think what

finger or fingers

would be used

in

soothing a pain.

Delsartean Trinities.

321

Surely none other

and

The palm of

the hand

generally considered

is

than the second

the fingers representing the heart element.

third,

revelatory in

is

vital,

but

in

its

its

expression, and

analysis

concerning

hand-shaking we term the palm emotive, because

We

the heart element.

and

Why

element.

heart

is

itself

cold

is

the heart

to

shake the

of a

fingers

favor on you

ferring a great

a moment.

She claims

we

reply,

or to retain

it

that

is

lady's

If offered,

it.

by allowing you
would not do

it

it

privilege

agents.

is

thumb

the

than

if

sign of

is

and as such

ardor..

hand

the

if

there was a soul

one of the most active

is

forms a very

it

Palm may meet palm, heart may meet heart, but


limp there is no more life in the hand-shaking

only the fingers were given.


life.

con-

them

to take a gen-

offer

In this very matter of hand-shaking,

strong feature.
if

vital,

is

should never be given to any-

body but a true gentleman, and then as


back of it.

The thumb

is

to shake

would mistake her


to

it

woman,

she

air that

are per-

heartless society

hand, or he

tleman firmly by the


this

so

fingers

When you

she gives or loans them to you with an

To

predominating

purposely withheld

is

the studied hand-shake of cold society.


mitted

the

is

the mere presentation of the

Because they represent only the mental element,

repellant?

which of

speak of a good, hearty hand-shake,

only hearty when the

is

it

contains

it

The thumb used

The thumb

is

in gesticulation, that

the index
is,

leading

gesture, shows lack of refinement or excessive vital


The thumb thrust into the side of one with
development.
in

the

whom you

are speaking

very apt to stir


is

thrust.

is

considered very vulgar, and

up the vital nature of

The thumb

is

indicative

him

into

of the

whose

will.

it

side

When

is
it

the

Delsartean Trinities.

322

when weak,

will

is

The

heroic gesture cannot be truthfully given with the

is

it

strong,

active;

"

turned toward the palm.

When

man

is

Once more unto

whole body shows lack of

will

of

inactive,

the breach

limp.

thumb
"

etc.

thumb but
The appetites

the

deadened.

The

only the

not

intoxicated,

aroused, but their agent

is

it

power.

is

expression

are

thumb dropped inward shows not only weakness, but at times


Note the expression of the hand when a man
insincerity.
If when he takes your
tells you he will do you a favor.

thumb

hand, his

is

have promised.

lips

dant,

to

swaying

If

a fatal sign.

is

it

limp, he will not do

and

you the favor

his

he holds the thumb inward or penTo pray with the thumbs inward and

fro indicates a lack of

sacred fervor;

is

it

corpse that prays.

For many years Delsarte sought for some form or sign


in health,
the human body that was common to all,

in
in

He said, " The thumb fursickness, and especially in death.


nished me that sign, and responded fully to all my questionings."

Delsarte

pitals,

morgues,

conclusion as
his

to

made

a study of this special feature in hos-

dissecting-rooms,

the

powerful

observance of the

thumb

in

all

contraction

living,

inward.

fact

he says,

"

my

discovery,

They showed

revealed this sign.

language of death.

thumb

To

the same adduc-

Such persistence
could not allow the shadow of a doubt.

the sign

in

examined a number of

even saw hands severed from the forearms, and

thumb

of the

thumb

noticed that the

This was a flash of light to me.

arms severed from the trunk.

the

expression of the

his

corpses displayed the tendency to adduction or

be yet more sure of

tion.

addition to

In

etc.

in the
I

still

same

possessed

Not only does the adduction

characterize death, but this

phenomenon

indi-

Dehartean

Trinities.

323

cates the approach of death in proportion to the intensity of

the adduction."
"
says in support of his assertion,
Suppose

He
the

same

me

with

the

word, Yes,

single

of the hand.
the forefinger,

it

thumb thus placed

his

If

proposition.
tion

of the

posed

to

thumb,

oblige

that he

will

dead to

is

second a slight

must believe that

me,

me

the

in

gesture

thumb approach
he would deceive me;
his

let

that

tells

observe

me

plain to

is

by

accompanied

If one of them had

for

had asked

from three men, and that each answered

service

although indis-

he,

do so from submission

still

my

contrac-

but

person oppose his thumb forcibly to the other


he will not deceive me.
fingers, Oh, I can count on him

if

the third

The adduction
loyalty than

thumb

of his

all

tells

assurance

the

make

any time you wish to

he-

me more

in

might

give

practical

test

regard to his

me."

If at

of this

infal-

When you are


guide, we would suggest the following.
take leave of the friend who has promised to grant your

lible

to

him or her by the hand and bid good-by, add"


the same time, something to this effect
Then I

request, take
ing,

at

may

rely

with the

upon you in granting my request?" The answer


thumb will be found more infallible than the vocal

expression.
gladiatorial

of

life

The

The turned-down thumb


games in Rome was, as we

to the

fingers

emotive, and
vision, as

We

will

one

in

all

the great

aware, the sign

the arena.

have the three characteristic


vital.

We

will

divisions, mental,

consider them briefly

in this di-

they enter so largely in the character of the hand.


the three forms by the three modes of

illustrate

throwing a kiss or
kiss

(active) at
are

by the

in

kissing

tips of the fingers,

the

When

hand.

inasmuch

as

it

throwing a

passes through

Delsa rtea n Trinities.


the mental element,

it

mere

indicative of

is

respect, courtesy,

thrown from the second joint


When the
politeness.
of the fingers, which represents the emotive agents, it is inkiss

is

When
profound regard, and love.
thrown from the fingers as a whole, or the base

dicative of great respect,

the kiss

is

of the fingers,
indicative

the vital

of intensity of expression,

The same holds good

form.

vital

passes through

it

of
in

and

channel,

love

in

kissing the

is

more

the

hand of

another.

The arm has

three divisions (Articular Centres),

There are three

the forearm, and upper arm.

the wrist, elbow, and shoulder.

tres (the three joints),

we must

this

the hand,

articular cen-

law of evolution.

consider the

In

Passional ex-

pression passes from the shoulder, where it is in the emotional state, to the elbow, where it is represented in the
then to the wrist and thumb, where it is
affectional state
;

presented
is

susceptive and volitional

the

in

If

energy.

energy

is

turned

is

it

If

action.

in

tion or concealment.

elbow

is

If

it

out,
it

it

wrist

thermometer of

vital

demonstrates that the

vital

termed

often

mental, though

The

state.

the

is

turned

is

normal,

in, it
it

denotes accumula-

The

denotes repose.

expressive of the emotive element, the thermometer

of the affections and self-will.

As

the knee

soul

of the

side,

it

is

called the soul of the leg, the

is

When

arm.

elbow

indicative of humility or lack of confidence.

turned out,

it

is

the

the elbows are held close to the

signifies audacity, self-assertion, conceit.

When
When

placed a-kimbo, they signify self-confidence, impertinence, possibly

boorishness

especially so,

placed against the side.


cates

calm

repose,

When

modesty,

if

the back of the hand

the elbow

is

normal,

unconsciousness

of

it

self.

is

indiIf

Delsartean Trinities.
elbows

the

are

backward or

thrust

325

forward,

indicates

it

yielding character.
"

The shoulder

the vital agent, the thermometer of sensi-

is

and passion,
ment, vehemence.

passion here signifying impulse, excite-

bility

The shoulder

in

is,

fact,

the

precisely

It is the
thermometer of passion as well as of sensibility.
It determines their degree of
measure of their vehemence.
heat and intensity; however, it does not specify their nature.

The thermometer marks

the degrees of heat and cold without

The

specifying the nature of the weather.

not called

is

teach

to

upon

heat or violence which marks

belongs

to

man who
ing

no

the

is

face

moved
in

part

to

show

If a

is

it

shoulder, in rising,

whether the source of the


arises

from love or hate

The shoulder

that.

in

it

every

or actuated rises insensibly, his will play-

the

The shoulder

ascension.

a thermometer of sensibility.
painful form

us

Every

therefore

is

agreeable, or

sensitive,

expressed by an elevation of the shoulders.

man's shoulders are raised very decidedly, we may know


is decidedly impressed.
The head tells us whether

that he

Then the
impression is joyous or sorrowful.
the
head
to
and
the
to
the
shoulder.
belongs
genus
this

species
If

the

shoulder indicates thirty degrees, the head must say whether


it

is

warmth or

coldness.

The

face will

of the sorrow or joy whose value

the

specify the nature

shoulder

indicates.

The shoulder being the thermometer of emotion and life, the


movement is neutral, and suited to joy as well as to sorrow,
the eyes and mouth being present to specify it."
Delsarte

claims that " Raphael, in his

great

painting of Moses

smiting the

rock, has forgotten this principle

his

although

figures,

head receives

its

joyous,

greatest

sum

elevate

for

none of

the shoulders."

The

of expression from the shoul-

Delsartean

326

When

ders.

man

hence the truth or

he does not

falsifies,

falsity

Trinities.

of a sentiment

raise his shoulders

may be known.

you embrace without elevating your shoulders, you


Judas.

my

raise

shoulders,

that

if

woman

there

shoulders,

is

me

which attaches

He

'

say,

same

hands and

the

in

If in

looking at

same time

at the

same

But

love.'

situation, the

same movement of the head,

action of the

my

raise

no longer any doubt as to the feeling


to her; and instinctively every one will

her with true

loves

attitude

sion, the

the

my

clasp

are

hand

thereby eloquently demonstrate

shall

pressing a friend's

in

the affection with which he inspires me.

all

"

Delsarte says,

If

shoulder, instantly

all

preserving the

if,

same

facial

expres-

to withhold

happen

love will

disappear

my expression, and nothing will be left of that attitude


but a sentiment vague and cold as falsehood." The shoulder
from

is

also

the wheel

"

much more

is

"

of great strength.

indicative

significant

Put your shoulder to


of power than

we

if

were to speak of putting the hand to the wheel.


EAR.

Even the ear


emotive, and
office

being to

emotive,
nal ear
It will

it

is

vital

subject to
elements.

collect

the

the

The

divisions

the
is

mental,

mental,

The middle

vibrations.

conveys the vibrations to the inner

is vital,

of

external ear

ear.

The

its

ear

is

inter-

the terminal expansion of the auditory nerve.

be observed that the emotive element throughout

entire philosophy is a connecting


between the mental and vital.

link,

this

a balancing power,

EYE.
In the division of the eye
passive agents.

The

we have

three active and three

active agents are the eyebrows,

upper

Delsartean Trinities.
and lower

lid,

The brow

lid.

is

mental;

The upper lid


will.
The lower

dition of the mind.

condition of the

of the

conditions
as

the

door

retention or

The

door.

of

We

sense.

will

has

It

brow

elevated

is

reveals the con-

it

emotive;

lid is

vital

lowered

the

lid

is

it

shows

generally act

When
will

ruffled

is

the will

is

no longer

strongly marked,

when one

is

vital

as

active,

that

intoxicated,

the brows are

for

it

open door.

escape.

the
is

it

vital

will

This

drops.

is

paralyzed.

The deeper

the greater the concentration.

As

the thumb

may

is

a parallelism

and

is

important that this parallelism should be

when lowthermom-

lowered and the eyebrows elevated,


surprise.

It

is

When

mental depth.

life,

between the eyebrow and the voice


known and

established between words, brow, and

create

lid,

be termed the thermometer of the mind.

There
it

also

When

and the shoulder the thermometer of the

eter of the will

the

the thought

the

is

is

upper

they indicate observation;

raised,

condition.

When

raised.

non-action of the
the

When

the lower

of

ered and contracted, concentration.

so the eyebrow

signifies

the lower

in sleep,

the

is,

eyebrow

When

lid

upper

the

brow

The brow and

because

active the

reveals the
reveals the

an

of

significant

misery.

together,

it

it

significance of a closed

The mind opens to let in the light or let


the brow is ruffled it shows mental misery.
lid

designate

The

intelligence.

repulsion.

is

327

an

voice.
it

If the

voice

is

indicates a desire to

unmistakable

of a lack of

sign

eyebrows are lowered, the voice


We find the
and
the voice repels.
generally corresponds,

same action
are

in

the

in repulsion as

in retention.

accordance with the eyebrows.

raised, the voice will

the voice in

its

rise.

relation to

This
the

is

The

inflections also

When

the normal

brow.

the brows are

movement of

Sometimes, however,

Delsartea n Trin ities.

328
brow

the

is

Then

voice.

there

The

pressed.

movement

contra- distinction with the

in

is

always

It

ellipsis.

of the

a thought unex-

is

contradiction or opposition between these two

we must seek

agents always proves that

words which

in the

they modify something other than they seem to say. Suppose, for instance, a story has just been related to us, and

we

reply with

and voice

are

this

exclamation,
the

lowered,

"

case

"

Indeed

of no

is

brow

the

If

little

moment

but if the
grave, and demands much consideration
brow and voice are elevated, the expression is usually amiaIf the voice is
ble, and links with it a degree of affection.
is

it

but the brow

raised

one of doubt and

When

but

door;

from a centre, that

is,

movement or

is,

closed, they denote

either

In this regard, they correspond with

repulsion or retention.

the closed

the

also

is

both brow and hand are con-

toward a centre, that

centric,

form of expression

brows are concentrated, the hand

If the

express repulsion.

the

Note

suspicion.

action of the hand.


will

lowered,

is

if

both brow and hand are eccentric,

open, the thought

The door

ure without further concern.

is

is

allowed a depart-

thrown open.

We

have said that the upper lid is the agent of the will in
In all positive expression the upper lid rises, in
the mind.
it falls.
This is a universal law throughout the Delnegation
sarte philosophy.

negative

assertions.

a criterion.
all

It is

assertion,

As

It

indicated in the chart of positive and


establishes

itself there,

and gives us

the hand rises above the lever or centre in

and drops

in

all

negation, the

same law holds

good

with the head, with the eye, and with the upper eyelid.

Bear

in

ative

mind

or

Watch

that

subjective,

all
all

activity

above

the individual with

below the central


the

central

whom you

line

line
is

are speaking.

is

neg-

positive.

Watch

Dels a rtea n Trin ities.


of the

action

the

question,

favor,

affirmative answer

You

possibly.

the

if

lid

you ask him or her a

as

upper eyelid

329

need

drops;

or she turns the head slightly from you.

the

also

is

curtain

anything therein
is

ment.

bear the

not

will

light

eyelid

If there

is

of truth, the

partially

who

has not yet lost

and the

open the eye

the

to

extent with an apparent air of

fullest

They make an

innocence.

sense of honor, whose better

all

from the gaze and scrutiny of the just, the


There are others, however, who will
pure.

shrinks

nature
true,

that

he

if

so,

The upper

of the soul.

an

expect

less

dropped, sometimes wholly for the moThis, however, will occur only with one who is sen-

curtain

sitive,

window

to the

not

and even

to

effort

the

raise

curtain

but

the student of this philosophy notes the effort, the unnatural

expression, and sees the soul as

it

is.

really

Having spoken of the active agents of the eye,


are

those organized

passive agents,
is

we

organized about the eyeball,


///

will

those that

next consider the

The

the eyeball.

eyeball

simply an indicator of the direction from which the expres-

comes or

sion

to

which

the

cance arises from the relation

The

and the object.

eyeball

expression
it

indicates

Its

goes.

signifi-

between the subject

shows objective or subjective

character of the

When

the

toward

it,

sidered

the

it

calmly

it

is

mystic,

face

when

mind, dependent wholly upon its position.


eyeball is away from the object, and the ear

is

subjective.

either

from the

withdrawn

tends toward the object,


at

any object,

the

subjective states they are


are often so.

The mind

or

object,
it

is

affection.
it

is

at

are con-

When

concealment;
In

affection.

axes of the pupils


parallel.

is

movements

All oblique

of concealment

looking

converge

The eyes of

in

madman

work, but the outside objects

Delsartean Trinities.

330
not

are

lower

lid

whether

The

seen.

it

active

brow,

agents

upper

lid,

and

show how the object or subject is placed; that is,


The oblique eyes toward
is rage, joy, or sorrow.
the

the object indicate

character as

mystic

from the object show

the oblique eyes

When

mystic but subjective.

and

objective,

that the character

is

the

eyes go down, the


does not accept the truth
but when the eyes go
up, and away from the object, he is on the point of turning
and accepting what he has been considering. When the eyes
still

listener

look

they are

outwardly

looking inwardly,
with what

is

introspective.

mystic

becomes mystic

it

focused

then

becomes

in

not so,

Awe

is

are

always associated
as

proportion

when they
the

movement

awful.

moves the eyes from side to side. In


Supernatural
case of madness, when the mind is lost to itself, the eyes
fear

sometimes look
the eyes, the

in

feet,

of gravity, which
eye,

however,

as

We

directions.

opposite

have said that

and the torso are the three great centres


assert themselves with

an

agent

of

the

The

the universe.

mind,

performs

that

function with greater accuracy and precision than any other


part of the body.

The expression

mind than any other medium of com-

idea of the state of the

The expression

munication.

of the whole

by changing the expression of the


to our object.
its

essence

is

It

may

mystic.

of the eye gives a clearer

eye.

body is changed
The eye relates us

be mystic
its character.
No one ever saw the light.
in

Light

in

Let us consider more closely the subdivisions of the eye,


the pupil, the iris, and the white.
The pupil represents
the mental element; the

iris

the emotive element, that

is,

the

emotive tendency and temperament or organic condition as


The docinherited; the white represents the vital element.

Delsartean Trinities.
the mental or nervous condition of an

tor readily ascertains

individual

by

He

dilatations.

is

shown

white

the

all

eye

excitation

his

mals have more of the

thought that the


It

tends to

lid

sen-

all

man

vitally aroused,

Inasmuch

vital

nature than

principle

How

tends to expansion.

eye."

the

as

man,

"

He

lower ani-

may

it

be

regarding the eye does not hold

The animal

does.

be

speak of the white of the eye as

familiar the saying, speaking of a

shows the white of

the

will

All reflection tends to contraction,

We

some

in

proportion as

of

but as the mind becomes reflective, the

and say that

The

In

eye.

the

excited,

energized,

sation to expansion.

good.

contractions or

its

determines the physical condition,

cover the white.

vital,

of the pupil in

by the white of the

respects,

mind

action

the

is

more

but

vital,

nervous.

less

being the principle of energy, and energy

vital principle

being more developed in man than in any other animal, it


whereas in the aniis shown at once by its agent, the eye
;

mal the

more

element has for

vital

more white
life

in

in the

the

The eye has

its

agent the torso.

The

head what the head

is

to the

The eye
is

is

to the

the pivot of

all

The mere

the eyes downward, without any change of the

The

minister

preme Being should place Him


the inferior sphere,

a level

body.

It

In aspiration the eyes are turned up.

heaS, gives repulsion.

head.

the superior, the

superior places the object above,

the equal on a level, the inferior below.

movement of

has

mind than any other animal.


three spheres of radiation,

equal, and the inferior.

expression.

Man

eye than any other animal, showing thereby

in

when addressing

the Su-

the superior and himself in

by casting the eyes upward, but not the

head and eyes are parallel, it places God on


When we wish to place ourselves in the
with man.
If the

Delsartean Trinities.

332

we

superior,

How

ward.

the head up and back, but the eye down-

cast

upon them!"

the expression, " Looking

we hear

frequently

small oblique eye,

development of the cranium

ciated with lateral

drawn back, indicates a predisposition

down

when

Chinese,

asso-

and the ears

to murder.

If

one

is

emotionally aroused, the eye


ional impulse; then
ally close

to

normal position.

its

during the emotion,

We

will open
during the first emobecomes calm, and the %ye will gradu-

it

it

If the

if

large

of greater intelligence than a small eye.

being

equal,

The eye

back of

small

most

it.

Nor

eye intelligence.

beautiful.

It

may be

is

Other

of languor,

sign
gets

its

entire

sum

and the soul

it

denote stupidity, and

may

large eye

not a sign

depends.

of expression from the agents that surround


is

is

eye
It

the

is

eye

large

small eye the sign of strength.

that

open

indicative of stupidity.

is

have often been asked

things

remains

eye

eye

large

always

the

out of proportion with the sur-

and anything out of harmony cannot be


calf, though it has a very large eye, and

rounding features;
beautiful.

what

is

The

considered a beautiful eye,

is

one of the most stupid

of animals; the pig has a very small eye, but

is

considered

a very sagacious animal.

The eye

is

the pivot of

ceeds from the centre.


stone in the water.

The

all

This

expression.

may

circles

be

All radiation pro-

illustrated

become

larger and larger, and

yet they are stronger at the point of radiation.


the waves of the sea.

emotion are typified by


become more and more active
action of the hand.

if

It is beautiful

by dropping a

you wish
to see the

All waves of

The eye must


to

justify

emotion

the

trick-

The audience should


ling from the eye through the form.
get through the eye the motive that prompts the utterance

Delsartean

7^rinities.

333

The pantomimic precedes

of the words.

the

vocal.

may

Having reached the conclusion of the bodily

Eyes

dumb.

speak volumes, though the lips be never so

divisions,

we

next consider the significance of the remainder of the


trinities, each in its order.
will

Again we

ask the reader to preface each trinity with

will

the mental, the emotive, and the vital.

THE TRIUNE MAN.

From

time

immemorial

man

has

from

intellect

felt

the

head, affection from the heart, and appetite from the abdo-

men.

In

these
the

reflective,

nature

is

thus

the thinking,
of our

we have

three

and

affective,

made
the

manifest

being, that

is,

the

the

basic

We

before

we can understandingly

child

is

we

before

feel

The

principle,

think

or

love.

The

love.

develops from

that which

instinct,

Later on, the love

or vital nature.

The

sensitive.

feeling.

vital.

of

representative

threefold

first

is

principle

the feeling or

We

must think

first

love of the

from the animal

of a higher order;

is

as reason develops, intuition takes the place of instinct.

animals except

man

predominating.

It

by

intuition.

mental,

tends

We
to

are governed

is

only the

are

by

aware that the

hands

close.

human

the

distinction

absence of the mental element, there

is

expansion instead.

How

forcibly

All

mouth

governed

nature,

the

head

the

closes, the

between the animal and


in

being.

is

and contraction,

With the animal,

the

that

reflective

tends toward the body, the brows knit, the

Mark

for,

instinct, the vital nature

human being

concentration

the

the three leading principles,

in

the

loving,

the

this

consequence of the
no contraction, but
is

illustrated

in

the

Delsartean Trinities.

334
fact that

is

only the

in

striking

it

centrates

animal there

In the

an open claw.

with

human being that makes a fist


a blow.
The animal always

his blow,

behind his blow and behind his

and expansion

there

we

vital

will

fully

in

is

activity, a concen-

men-

This power of concentration

trated rational principle.


tal

strikes

an absence of

is

human being

the mental or rational, while in the

con-

demonstrate under

the law of gesture.

VOICE QUALITY.
our trinity of cold, warm, and

In

to speak of the qualities of the voice,

quality

we

of the voice,

briefly outline
is

in

it

and the

effect thereof

Having devoted an entire volume to the

upon an audience.
subject

our purpose

is

it

fiery,

its

in

will

relation

cold, the emotive

is

to

but

the

present

writing

the

trinity.

The mental

warm, the vital

is

It

fiery.

is

unfortunate for a public speaker to allow the mental quality


of the voice to

We

predominate.

should

reach the

through the heart, not the heart through the head.


the mental tone predominates, the tendency

is

head

When

to arouse the

disputatious elements of an audience, while the emotive tone


Head to head
appeals to the heart and stirs the emotion.

and heart to heart.

whole
This

is

that

is,

The

vital

a very essential element, but should be used discrim-

inately.

If

it

is

monizing with the

the

speaking,

element,

leading

not sufficiently har-

mental and emotive, the result

antagonize an audience.

but should

This

not be

may answer
used

in

the

will

for political

be to

stump-

pulpit or on the

be speaking on vital truths.


mental should be sufficiently vitalized, and the vital suf-

rostrum, even though one

The

tone appeals to the body as a

to the passion, power, energy of the being.

may

Dels a rtea n Trin ities


both

but

mentalized,

ficiently

have

should

The

power of the emotive or heart element.


mind, the emotive power

of the

is

power

of the

is

heart

warm, and the passions

is

move the

the

balancing

intellectual

power

of the soul, the vital

is

Hence, as the

body.

335

intellect

is

cold,

the

are fiery, the orator should

passions, touch the heart, and inform the mind.

"

It

we

If
please an audience.
we have the ear of an auditor, we easily win his mind and

through the voice largely that

is

The

heart.

his

envelopes, and
are

sentient

voice
caresses

beings

other, and blend

by no means
emotion
is

in

in

in

who

heart.

lessness
is

hold

love,

Hence,

in

of love
also

precipitation

it.

find

passion, or

fire,

tones, haste

do not glide
is

lightly

the com-

of the discourse.

effect

it

Every word
its

is

awakens suspicion of heart-

agent of expression

speech, and must justify


ceed from silence, and

hasty delivery

delivery as in

We

each

follow

converse,

prolongation of tones

endangers the

a powerful

of the voice

tones

a proof of animation, warmth,

the orator.

it

The

harmonious union.

over a beloved subject.

lence

the

an inverse ratio to emotion.

plaisance

hand which touches,

a mysterious

is

is

the

Si-

father of

that does not pro-

vindication

of silence,

is

It is
spurious word without claim or title to our regard.
through silence that the mind arises to perfection for silence
is the speech of God.
Aside from this, silence still recom;

mends

itself

silence,

the

as

orator

powerful
arouses

agent
the

in

oratorical

attention

and often doubly moves their hearts.


gives the orator time and opportunity
tion.

of

effects.

his

By

audience,

Furthermore, silence

judge of his posiSilence gives gesture time to concentrate and do good


to

execution."
In the use of the mental tone, which

is

cold in

its

quality,

Delsartean Trinities.

336
disputatious in

To

its

illustrate

fully

effect,

this

we
in

its

apex, the centre, and the base.

objection.

prominence
will

the

zones,

significant

In the use of the mental

tone as a predominating element,

may

into

our threefold nature, we

next introduce the pyramid with

the

another serious

and bring

defect,

other characteristics

many

find

placed at the apex of

is

it

pyramid. It is high in pitch, and narrow in tone, and


be represented also by ice, that is, it is brittle the tone
;

invariably being broken and jerky just as you would break bits
of crisp ice. The emotive tone, as in all cases of the trinity,

the

is

and

central

harmonizing; it is unbroken
The base of the pyramid denotes by

element, always

diffusive as air.

is

breadth the power of the voice

its
is

powerful

in

its

represented by

by water

trated
state,

ice,

volume.
air,

in

its

The

as a base, just as water

three

and water, may be


frozen

into

better illus-

still

condition, water

and water when converted

of voice, as

qualities

in

its

The

steam.

liquid

first

cor-

responds with the apex of the pyramid, and with the cold in
the second with the centre, broader in its volume,
its effect;
steady and continuous

may be

in

its

effect;

and powerful in its flow,


warm it
while the steam illustrates the greater

breadth and expansion, and a most powerful

emotive, and vital tones of the voice.


raise the pitch

the heart.

of the

tre

the heart.
It

is

true;

It

is

in

mental,

a great mistake to

and narrow the voice when we wish

to reach

As we would descend from the apex to the cenpyramid, so must we descend from the head to
So must we descend

in the pitch

of the voice.

often stated that the greater the emotion, the stronger

should be the voice.


is

element

discernible in the

All these qualities are

effect.

its

fiery

the less the

Nothing

is

more

emotion, the

false.

The

stronger the

contrary

voice;

the

Delsartean Trinities.

337

"
In violent
moved, the more loudly he speaks.
emotion the heart seems to mount to the larynx, and the
less

voice

one

is

If

stifled.

is

your heart

you must put


No more serious

others,

place of your larynx.

the

in

you would move

error could be committed than to increase the voice as the

heart

bare.

laid

is

lacrymose tone.
a whimperer.

The

Nothing so wearies and disgusts as the


man who amounts to anything is never
lowest tones are the best understood and

the most likely to affect the


audible

should be spoken as

it

To make

hearer.
softly

as

a low tone

possible.

Every

tone of voice should be reproduced by an expression of the

voice is a grave defect and should be


Tears are out of place in great situations.
We
Personal grief excites either
should weep only at home."

face.

tearful

avoided.

The voice should not be


pity or contempt for the speaker.
narrowed to the apex of the pyramid, as it draws attention

When

to the speaker rather than to the subject.

the voice

narrow and petty it makes the speaker appear so.


As
the tone descends to the centre of the pyramid and reaches
the heart element, it broadens to such an extent as not to
is

be confined to the speaker, but is broad enough to include


The .heart element, the soul element, the symall mankind.
pathetic element of the voice,

is

one that

is

worthy of great

consideration

by every public speaker. Delsarte thus


"
trates the power of the correct use of the voice
You
:

illus-

may

have heard a play twenty times with indifference, or a mel-

ody

as

often,

great actor
ity,

its

only

to

relieves the

apparent

be

drama of

nullity.

to itself wings beneath the

and sympathetic voice."

disgusted
its

by

it.

chill-cold

Some day

mental qual-

The common-place melody

takes

magic of a well-trained expressive

338

Delsartean* Trinities.

STRESS.

Corresponding
forms of stress.

pyramid, we

with

the

The

radical,

have

representing

three

placed

mental

the

ele-

the meplaced opposite the apex of the pyramid


the
emotive
dian, representing
element, corresponds with the

ment,

is

centre of the pyramid

element,

First,

let it

while stress
as

the

force in

its

stress,

uses

orator

in

disputatious

he

will

and were

he

pitch,

its

the

as

force

radical

the

at

explosive

the

character

the

its

indicates,

in

effect,

the

gesticulating

apex

in

its

of the

to

Descending

quality, antagonistic

in

its

its

the vital

effect, his

tone,

voice

will

and

quality,

pyramid

use none other

would

music;

the crescendo in music.

mental tone, cold


at

in

receives

complete the error by using the radical

mental.

hand,

as

close of the sound, as

the

at

If an

part

receives

indicates,

of the sound,

the centre of the sound, as the swell

terminal

force

character

initial

The

force.

the median stress, as the character indicates, receives

music;

the

manner of applying

the

is

or

opening

the terminal, representing the

corresponds with the base of the pyramid.


be borne in mind that emphasis is simply force,,

vital

stress,

while

in

stress,

than the

fiery

in

its

broaden, as

signified by the base of the pyramid, and he will use the terminal stress, and his gestures will proceed from the shoulder,
vital.

But were

the fundamental

the orator to use the

tone,

warm

in

its

emotive tone as

quality, emotional

in

its

he would descend only to the middle of the pyramid,


and would use the median stress, and his gestures would

effect,

play about the mental and the

The

centre

line

suasive thought.

throughout

vital,
is

the

balanced by the emotive.


line

of the

most

per-

Delsartean Trinities.

Our

then

object

show

to

is

we must know

place, but

each

that

the

In

place.

339
answer

will

bright,

in

its

viva-

light,

enough of the mental should be borrowed


make the tone and manner consistent with the thought.
O

cious
to

In

reading,

the

reading,

out of place.

When

and the mind

is

the

it

give

manifest

let

be

will

radical

When

heartless.

which

is

which

is

as

entirely

the
;

in

heart

swells with

vehemence, and
the

stress,

expressing

''Bridge

of

human
its

breast,

natural

out-

Were

the

explosive.

the

Sighs,"

emotion, the

stress, the swell.

raging in the

is

be expressed

will

hence the median

terminal

used
the

it

not be sufficiently heart-

will

It

with

itself

the

stress

selection

are

stress

in

reading or speaking

in

brightness, and

the passional element

will

it

vital

be used

will

desired

tone should do likewise

When

But

indispensable.

and body are but little affected


calm, though bright and cheerful, enough

be cold.

to

and

radical

through the mental tone.


less

is

heart

mental element

of the

of the reading and acting,

tone and terminal stress

vital

emotional

to

much

discourses, and in

many

the

emphasis in such a
would be entirely

it

would

simply be an address to the intellect,


but
would contain no appeal to the heart,
cold,
warm. In like manner would all emotional selecIt

more

tions be affected, or,

truly, defected.

To more forcibly impress the three


we will liken them to the bark of a
ping cur illustrates

by

the

the

radical

stress

his

little,

faithful

special forms of stress,

dog.

The

little

snap-

narrow, quick, abrupt bark,


family watch-dog,

that

has

grown old and toothless in the service of its master, will


meet you with a bark that will have a warm welcome in it;
it

well

illustrates

the

median

stress,

the swell.

hood days, long before we dreamed of

In our boy-

a Delsarte philosophy,

Delsartean Trinities.

340

or of any philosophy that could teach us the analysis of the

dog

impression upon

was

dog, the

the

You
cur

notice

also

will
is

light

watch-dog's bark
the pyramid.
a

still

of

the

ferocious

the crescendo.

stress,

bark of the

little

snapping

The

pyramid.

old

the centre of

broader,

fuller,

he

explosive bark with

apex of the

deeper,

lasting
for

ferocious dog, bull-dog, for instance, has

more

broader, and

fuller,

deeper,

base

the

is

The

terminal

the

that

and narrow,

The

other.

his

always precedes

a growl, finely illustrates

impression, however,

make none

could

that

dog

a mental

us,

and

toothless,

made

of man, such a dog as this

as

as well

Nor

pyramid.

guttural

this

is

sound,

Each

all.

species

and the shape of the head


to that portion of the pyramid to which its bark has been
of

the

namely,

assigned;
the

base.

bull-dog,

the size

in

dog corresponds

the

apex;

cur,

family

centre;

dog,

have the nar-

again, the cur will

Still

rowest and

most pointed head, the bull-dog the broadest


the two, nearer
bluntest, the Newfoundland between

and

an equilibrium.
Before leaving
to

show more

that

he

fully that

We

mentality.
is

the pyramid,

the apex

man

say of a

sharp,

keen, acute.

As an expression

mentality.

we wish
he

has

These are

of the

connection

this

ever an expression of

is

that

in

all

long

head

expressions of

centre of the

pyramid,

happy medium, representing the emotive nature, the heart


element, we speak of a man of large heart, a benevolent
the

man, a whole-souled
the

pyramid we

headed,

etc.,

mentality
Vitality

is

in

also

Corresponding to the base of


of one who is dull, blunt, thick-

man.

speak

contradistinction

one

of

low

developed sidewise

to

animal
i. e.,

the

terms

instincts,

expressing
base,

etc.

the breadth of the back of

Delsartean Trinities.

341

the head, breadth of the lower jaw, breadth of the shoulders

and

Mentality tends

hips.

to

narrowness

of the

physical.

Breadth denotes strength


narrowness, weakness or subtlety.
Breadth of the back of the head and narrowness of the
;

of

front

head are indicative

the

of

Speaking

energy

power,

passion,

of strength
etc.,

and

subtlety.

being developed

sidewise as contrasted with mentality, subtlety, cunning,

etc.,

contrast the head of the hyena with that of the fox, and the

head of the bull-dog with that of the greyhound.


also

or

natures

the

instinct

of

these

guide or reminder has ever been

philosophy than

spoken

at

in treating

length

of

this

No

animals.

greater

the student of this

to

same pyramid of which we have already

but

left

Contrast

some of

its

greater significance

is

come

yet to

the closing trinities.

INFLECTION.

We

will

whom

next

consider

briefly

the

One

inflections.

with

rising
predominate shows weakness, either
mental or physical, sometimes both. Such a one betrays
his weakness by contantly deferring to the will or knowlinflections

edge of others. The monotone is the centre around which


play the mental and vital, and from which level the rising

and

falling

inflections

sacred readings, but

it

are graded.
is

It

not advisable

frequently used in

is

so

to do.

It is

well

heart element as the predominating one,


enough
but even religious writings would be better read and better
received if more life were infused into the stately tread.
to use the

The only one to whom we would commend the use of


monotone on all occasions is that one unto whose lot it
to

sing the

baby

to

sleep

monotony,

in

this

case,

the
falls

works

Delsartean Trinities.

342
like a

charm.

change of the tone would not produce the

The same monotony has the same effect when


amusement or worship.

desired effect.

adults even in places of

tried

upon
The falling

inflection denotes courage, strength,

power, the

The parent who uses the falling inwho uses the falling inflection, other
will have much better government than

assertion of one's will.

the

flection,

teacher

things being equal,

who

one

the

uses

the

inflection.

rising

an illustration of asserting one's


the

will

heard
I'll

own

Passing along

mother say

to

knew

The
not

it

safe;

with

so

gave
analyze it, but

deferring

the

the

Certainly not.

the

effect

was

word.

The

did we.

so

mother;

to

lie

the

Had

the falling

did

the

inflection

by the mother.

will,

the street one


"

her

receive the promised punishment?

was

is

to

day we
child
Now, if you do that
Did the child do it? Certainly. Did she

of another.

whip you."

here

Again,
or

The

child

Why?
could

child

unconsciously produced

mother spoken the word " whip

inflection, the

"

very decisiveness of the tone

would have caused the child to obey, or would have made


certain in the mind (and elsewhere) that serious consequences

would follow
the mother's.

in the conflict

We

should be careful,

ing inflection, not to

arouse antagonism.

of the child's determination and

tion
will
will

rebel
is

if

teacher's success in

but

if

the

for

that

fall-

would

government de-

inflections.

The

child

strength of the inflec-

antagonized
blended with the heart element, teacher and pupils

ever be

of

the use of the

use a tone of severity,

pends largely on the judicious use of


will

in

in

another

harmony.
in

the

Cannot a child surely read


inflection,

when

an

animal

is

the
so

thoroughly governed by it? Take, for instance, a dog havIf you become unnecesing no intention to do you harm.

Delsartean Trinities.

343

and

say with a weak, faltering voice and


"
Get
out,"
get out," he will not be likely
rising inflection,
to get out, but will be apt to make you get out, for you
alarmed,

sarily

"

have told him through your inflection that you fear him.
Supposing, on the other hand, you meet a dog of a different
nature, differently inclined, and you meet him with courage,

and using the same words, " Get out," with the falling inflecor you will, if your courage fails
tion, he will get out,
you it will be only a matter of tenacity.
;

How

quickly weakness and strength of inflection are per-

by a horse. Supposing a gentleman and his wife


have been out riding, and when they return the gentleman
Does the horse know
alights and a lady takes his place.

ceived

who

has the lines?

lias

any

how

in

life

to drive

grasps the
sively

Yes,

him, he

he

if

she will prove

lines,

and she

when she speaks

to

is

show

will

knowing horse.

If

he

lady knows
by the manner in which she
prove it still more conclu-

it

will

the

it

now.

horse.

If the

If in a decisive tone,

the horse will cease his pranks, but if she begins saying,
with a rising inflection, " Whoa, whoa," when he is not movhe,

ing,

like

the dog, will take

advantage of her weakness

and fear displayed by the rising inflection.


As an expression of sincerity or insincerity the
a true guide.
is
Are you invited to remain all

inflection

night

at

house of a friend who you know cannot accommodate


Note the inflection of
you without great inconvenience?
the one who extends the invitation. Are you invited to
the

dinner after church on the Sabbath, by one


greatly surprised

In

all

serve

if

you were

your association of a
inflection, and you

the

to accept?

social
will

who would be

Note the

or business
often

learn

inflection.

nature,

ob-

more of the

Delsartean Trinities.

344
or

truth

words
tions

of

falsity

for

statement

often

very

will

you

than

is

the

in

expressed

the words

find

and

inflec-

different stories.

telling

MUSIC.

music we

In

have

the

mental

melody, the emotive element

Melody

by rhythm.
that which

mony,
ment.

rhythm

conjoins,

like love, requires the

In this, as in

which

all

vital

distinguishes,

a form

is

by

represented
the

by harmony,

that

is

element

element

harmony

of movement.

Har-

presence of more than one ele-

trinities,

the emotive element

is

the

whom the
blending element.
element predominates, we find nothing but rhythm, at
least it predominates in such a degree that we lose sight of

uniting or

In the savage, with

vital

melody and harmony.


SOL-MI-DO.
In the

musical scale

resenting the

three

find the three

Do

Mi

is

is

vital,

the base

Delsarte teaches us

music sound

accord with

bow.
the
tal

There
seven

notes

is

a brotherhood

colors.

As

in

the heart element,

emotive,

the foundation,
in

ground notes, repSol is mental,

fundamental principles,

apex of the pyramid


centre of pyramid;

we

of the pyramid,

that the seven notes of

the seven

colors

of the

between the seven notes and

music we

have

three

from which four others emanate, so

in

fundamenthe

bow we have three fundamental colors from which


four others.
From the red, yellow, and blue we get
orange, green, and indigo.

rain-

rain-

spring
violet,

Delsartean Trinities.

345

TASTE*
has

Taste

sweet

the

ment

is

representatives

the

emotive,

is

bitter

again

Men

vital.

is

The

benefit

is

mental,

take

often

centre ele-

use .of either of the

strong factor in the

The sweet might

others.

sour

the

support of the vital nature.

for the

bitters

three

its

sour

the

either

or

the

bitter, but neither of the others would be made more palataThe sweetness of taste
ble by adding the one to the other.

corresponds with the sweetness of disposition, and may be


So with the
readily traced in the sweetness of tone, etc.
other elements.

THE RELATION OF THE

TRINITY.

In order to impress the necessity of retaining the emotive

element as

show the

much

necessity,

by Professor
will

as

in

possible

we

will

all

an

give

To

Lewis B. Monroe.

the

illustration
illustrate

have a horse

The

carriage.

we

need,

and

driver,

and

The passenger
conveyed
heart or

possesses

certain

to

its

destination

life

or

moving

that

the horse.

he

He

animal nature,
passenger,

the

only by

The

centre.

the

come when

must

element.

vital

knowledge which

He

him.

driver and

are as the limbs in expediting the business.


told

in

passenger

driver represents the mental element, the pas-

senger the emotive element, and the horse the

has

used

often

this

to

is,

consider a triplicity to prove the power of the trinity.

We

is

that

trinities,

dispense with

either

can
the

is

the

be
real

horse

The passenger
the

driver

or

dispenses with the former, for the horse, the


is

more important than the

heart,

the

can

yet

direct

horse or the

and

driver;

drive.

for

the

The time

passenger must do with-

Delsartean Trinities.

346

The

out each other.

horse, representing the animal nature,

very desirable; but the passenger with


can, in an emergency, dispense with the
is

each element of the


the

first,

second, the

mental,

essential

is

trinity

is

by

impelled, and
are

we

the mental

by the

vital

the

vital

by

impelled

agent.

each other, but

to

by

we

are

Sometimes we

becomes

it

to

element.

the emotive

are sustained.

then

knowledge
So

vital

the hear

are guided,

we

his

must be subservient

vital

the will and needs of the emotive,


It

all

sin.

has

Sin

been defined as crookedness or missing the mark, and right


We will endeavor fully to illustrate
as straightforwardness.
this

our treatment

in

principle

We

of summit, centre, and base.


to

enough

How

or

now,"

"

crook

is

an expression

He

is

is

one who
of

thought

the

think he

A
"

the

impress

we make

often

remark,

is

little

deviates

by
"

the

He

is

crooked

We

trinity

pause, however, long


just one illustration.

keeping straight
in

his

dealings."
rectitude

say of such a one,

Whatsoever

affairs

pass

he crooketh them to his own ends."

your crooks, you have such a

all

will

from rectitude, as

uprightness.
"

not straightforward."

a man's hands

man under

of

fall

that

you

shall

such
"

For

never

be able to stand upright again." " They are a perverse and


crooked generation."
Deut. xxxii. 5-

Let us

bear

in

mind

that

the

head which

guides

also

which impels also purposes, and the body


or vital nature which sustains also constructs.
designs, the heart

QUANTITY.
In dealing with
pression,
tal

that

is,

quantity,

the mental,

we have three elements of exemotive, and

corresponds with number, the

vital.

The men-

emotive corresponds with

Delsartean Trinities.

347

The mental always

weight, the vital corresponds with measure.


deals with the details

character

good

moral nature;

of the

an expression

is

the emotive and vital never.

weight

gives

society.

society.

The handwriting on

bad

upharsin,

wanting,"

character will

"Thou

art

to

weight.

Mene, mene,

the

in

tekel,

and found

balance,

mental

but to the moral weight, of the king.

is

influence in

any one's weight

wall,

the

to

one's

any

in

weighed

had no reference

character

lessen

the

Character

or vital

weight,

True, the lack of moral

weight weakened the mental nature and debauched the

vital

nature.

COLOR.

We

our

turn

will

attention

elements of color, represented


in the

his

human

soul,

himself

and emotive, and

intellectual,

nature

has three colors to

experience

will

representing

the blood.

life

is

in

and power, hence red


power,
the

in

God,

W hy
on

yellow

color
fire

by

of

organism

is

the

you may

states,

Why

But

the

life

is

eccen-

conclude that

symbolize the three

is

sensitive,

the

in

states,

and

do we use red

color

of blood,

in

and

the fountain of strength

proper symbol of strength and

the

man, and

the

in

concentric

state,

demon.
the

Why

mind?

blue in

Because

most soothing to our eyes.


transparency,
Because yellow is
the column of the soul?
is

its

the

in

column of the

blue, from

his

Because red

the

universe and

Since man, as to

states,

not contradict you.

life?

three
in

normal

concentric, and

tric,

in

"

three

the

to

the material

in

Delsarte observes

being.

presents

moment

for

in

flame.

love.

It

is

the

Yellow, then,

and of impure flames.

Why

true

is

not

the

symbol of a soul

emblem

use white

of pure
in

set

love

our chart?

Delsartean Trinities.

348
Because white

say of iron that

world

at

is

it

rare

is

it

incandescent in

is

see

to

the
a

a heart

a white

thermometers do not mark

at

red heat, but in this


heat;

degree of heat.

this

We

highest degree.

a white or

earthly

It

cannot

be denied that red, yellow, and blue are the three elementary
colors whose union gives birth to all the varieties that de-

We

our eyes.

light

most beautiful

have proof of

phenomena,

composed of seven
yellow, and blue

in

the

their

purity.

and indigo.
rainbow

This

the

is

appear

red,

us,

The rainbow
the

distinguish

is

red,

the fusion

violet, orange, green,

the order in which


to

one of nature's

Then from

we have

of these three primary colors

in

rainbow.

Here we

colors.
all

this

the seven colors of

orange,

yellow,

green,

composed of yellow and red.


blue
mixed
with
Yellow
produces green. Blue when satublue, indigo, violet.

becomes

rated

state

sensitive
life,

will

Orange

Pure red

indigo.

or the

is

life.

is

Orange

the
will

expression of the

render

from

soul

be the symbol of mind from life. Plants


blossom into a bright passion of life under the influence

and violet

of the

will

and

red

No

yellow rays.

fruit

appears,

however,

added power of the blue ray. Life is unproductive until the three united in one brings all things to

without the

The

perfection.

Yellow

is

the

blue ray the

red

is

luminous

the
or

caloric

or

light-giving

heating

principle.

In

principle.

power of actinism or chemical action

is

the

found.

This makes the perfect trinity."


In

our book on " Physical Training, or the Care of the

Body," we have spoken quite fully in reference to the effect


of color on the human organism.
Hence, in these pages we
will not dwell on any portion of the subject except as it is
a representative element in the threefold nature of man.

Delsartean Trinities.

349

GRACEFULNESS.

To

the

orator

the

moment.

It

of gracefulness

subject

often

is

thought that ease

endeavor to show that

in grace,

of

movement

of

movement

is

precision,

mental,

is vital.

is

of no

little

We

shall

grace.

but one element of

it is

One may

it.

There are three co-essential

be very easy but not be graceful.


elements

is

harmony, and

ease.

harmony of movement

is

Precision

emotive, ease

may be easy but not gracebe harmonious, but not easy. HarmoParalellism

Opposition may
may be one's movements, yet not precise. Opposition
Parof movements, to be harmonious, must be simultaneous.
ful.

nious

movements,

allel

be

to

be successive.

harmonious, should

The law of

ease should dominate the

beautiful.

This

amount of energy, which


is more or less controlled according to the expression.
Almost
form
of
balanced
its
exact
movement,
by
any
opposite, is

of

Be

gesture.

will

be

sure

fully

illustrated

under the heading

is

appropriate to the

that the

grace

motion and the expression, always taking into consideration


the emotion to be expressed, and the character to be inter-

The law of

preted.

a gentleman

teaches

ease

when he stoops

economy of

to pick

force.

Watch

up a lady's handkerchief,

If he is awkward, there is an undue expenditure of


While movements are easy, they should have character,
be graceful, and be significant. Each element should perfect
fan,

etc.

force.

the other.

ease

is

Observe the law of consistency.

more deceptive than any

essential,

but,

carried to

excess,

be careful of that posture

in

during your college days; that


apart,

other.
it

is

The element of

In social
vulgar.

life,

is

Young man,

society which was so


is,

ease

common

standing with the feet wide

supporting the body equally on each.

It is familiar

Delsartean

350
repose, and

Trinities.

not have been out of place then, but

may

unrefined and uncultured in the presence of ladies.

young man,
feel

habit will

become

is

it

breakable.

so strong that

out great perseverance, and


for

ment;

where

this

we

is

of the cable,

chain

college or in any society

in

the

forming,
say, Pause and consider, and
assured you will break the habit while, like the little

vulgar habit

we

if still

is

it

To

you may

you continue

If

you cannot remove


after

perhaps

the

it,

with-

it

much embarrass-

not always be on your guard.

Before leaving this trinity of precision, harmony, and ease,

we

wish to impress the thought of that emotive agency, that central

the balancing

element,

Style,

if

power of

all

harmony.

things,

inharmonious, cannot be pretty.

in the latest fashion,

may

One's dress, although


be so unbecoming as to be ludicrous
;

while, on the other hand, a lady, or gentleman may not be


dressed according to the latest fashion plates, and yet be

dressed in such a becoming manner that he or she


to

of criticism.

The

greatest

"
is,

how

she or he was dressed, but

it

that

is,

things

keeping,

are always

beautiful furniture.

ordered

parlor,

or

in

may

but alas

was

really cannot tell

as,

for

its

instance,

relationship

is

"
;

Unrelated

faultless.

have been handsome

in

you

such good taste

in

harmony,

inharmonious,
It

said

compliment that you can pay

regard to one's manner of dress

in

may be

The very harmony disarms any one

be exquisitely dressed.

in

load

of

the well-

destroyed

when

mixed and mingled inharmoniously.


Art turns her back on
things not related, no matter from what corner of the world
they come, or with what expense.

Even

away from those who walk side by


in soul, if not related.

side,

in life,

happiness turns

no matter how noble

Delsartean Trinities,

351

THREE-FOLD LOVE.

God

is

and power.

Wisdom

acquisition,

erudition,

weight,

of

itself

is

trinity,

is

as
is

elements,

intellectual

far ahead of

As

He

We

in

knowledge.

outstripping the others.

is

He

energy,

We

etc.

uprightness,

force,

strength,

making rapid

is

speak

upward;

"swayed by

side,

passion."

of power

forward
the third

The

is

He
He is
etc.

strides,

love, no-

as

passion,

The

etc.

might,

vitality,

merely a mental advancement,


advancement,

strength,

expressive of

speak of love as moral attainment, rectitude,

bility,

itual

is

we speak of wisdom

separately,

his classmates.

love,

uprightness,

Power

advancement, attainment

getting along well.

wisdom,

rectitude,

etc.

sweetness,

when taken

find the

simply knowledge, intelligence,

Love

etc.

purity,

nobility,

hence the

force, vitality, might, energy, passion, etc.

these

we

In the most perfect type of love

love.

elements, wisdom and power

first

is

the second, a spirvital,

from side to

rulers of our land should

make manifest

this trinity by showing wisdom in the laws,


and power in executing them in love.
God was first represented by the ancients under three prin-

forms, because

cipal

wisdom,

essentially divine attributes.

reflected

and

in

central

in a greater

the

the

is

very nature of love


only that which

is

True love

wisdom and power.

is

attribute

of the deity

or less degree in every

element that links and

being.

Every

material universe.

element

and power are the three

love,

is

In

balances

being,

this, as in all trinities, the

harmonizing

to

human

is

element.

Love

is

wisdom and power.

communicate

itself.

responsive to the attributes

We

the

The

can love

of our

own

always harmonious, because it contains


The passional element is as essential to

Delsartea n Trin ities

352

must always be put where the pyramid


True, pure love
designates, subservient to wisdom and love.
If one hates, he never loved the
can never turn to hate.
love as to

but

life,

it

of his hatred, or else his love was a passional love.

object

We sometimes hear of one loving to distraction, but the unWhen


controllable passional element causes the distraction.
true,

pure love

is

born

in

the

human

breast,

it is

never con-

sumed by flames of passion, and no power upon earth can dethrone it. True, we may cease to love the object as it is, but
Love may turn to pity, but seldom to condemnot as it was.
Love never

nation.

"

dies.

Love the Lord thy God with

all

thy heart, and thy neighbor as thyself." Elsewhere will be


found an illustration expressive of the threefold principle of
this

most sacred element of one's

Fig.

134.

upon

The

love,

in

religion

fact,

it

is

of the

Alaska Indians

nothing but love.

We

See

nature.

trinitarian

based

all

is

will give

it

in

own language, though more expressive than ele"God is boss of all us fellers. God loves us fellers;

the natives'

gant:

God us fellers
enough. Where love

us fellers loves

That

is

loves other fellers

reigns supreme,

that

's

harmony

all."
is

natural consequence.

MAN

VS.

ANIMAL.

In our trinity of summit, centre, and base,

we

will

endeavor

and power of man in all his bearings.


draw the distinction between the terms, attitude

to illustrate the position

Let us

first

and bearings.
Attitude is the temporary condition of being
from which emotion springs, while bearing is the permanent
Then, when we speak of

character.

volume

is

nature

but,

attitude, with

which

this

we speak of the temporary in


when we speak of bearings, we speak of habitual

mainly

illustrated,

Delsartean Trinities.
One's bearing

attitude.

is

be created by habit; that

not necessarily inborn, but

becomes second

it

is,

"

man's habits color his actions.

He

On

the other hand,

by saying: "He disguised himworkman, and went among the people, but his habit

the principle

command

of

may

it

nature.

tried to pass for a gen-

tleman, but his bearing betrayed him."

self as a

353

is

illustrated

betrayed him."

Every habit

indicates either a

For instance, intoxication or repose.


condition or a sentiment.
" There are three sorts of
the constitutional,
type in man,

The

and habitual.

passional,

we have

at birth;

duced under

the

suffering

constitutional type
is

passional type

or passion

the

is

that which

that which

habitual

is

reproare

types

come to modify even the


bones of a man, and give him a particular constitution. Habit
in fact, habitual movement fashions the
is a second nature

those which, frequently reproduced,

material and physical being in such a

manner

as to create a

type not inborn; hence, named habitual. A perfect reproduction of the outer manifestation of some passion, the giving
of the outer sign, will cause a reflex feeling within. Continued
in

indulgence
the

any one form of feeling

predominating

trait;

so

beware,

day you are perhaps carving


his

in

God,

wisdom,

love,

will

make

young

that feeling

each

sculptor,

for eternity."

and power, placed man

the

at

very summit of the universe, and he nearest fulfils the divine


The more upright he is
law in that he is most upright.
physically, the

more upright he should be morally;

for

up-

an outward expression of the moral law. Christ


rightness
healed the body as well as the soul, hence did not exclude
is

any part of God's law


is

ill.

He

violates.

for

man

is

not perfect, not whole,

if

he

can never be a perfect fulfilment of a law that he


Man is a radiation from the finite to the infinite;

Delsartean Trinities.

354
more

the
"

No good

thing will

This

rightly."

is

more perfect the man.


withhold from him who walketh upthe

radiation

the

perfect

as true in the physical

as

the spiritual

in

He who

sense.

ray, that

is,

puts himself in coincidence with the divine


divine law, has God and all the universe with him.

God and one are a majority.

Man
all

as a triune being

the

God.

of

attributes

an expression of*God, possessing


Contrast man's position in his

is

natural state with that

of the serpent.

nearest to the earth, and his

movements

are

till

creeping

the next in order, but


the

we reach man standing

The

creation.

all

the

is

lowest forms of

life,

its

alligator,

erect,

worms,

the
fishes,

not only occupy horizontal positions, but they have very

etc.,
little

The

all

etc.,

is

Then we have

up and down.

cow, horse, dog,


lord of

movements alone of

The worm

things are sidewise.

The serpent

development of brain, and very simple nervous systems


lift from the hori-

force of evolution has tended ever to

zontal

plane

the

up through

higher forms

of

life,

bird

we have man

till
upright, and with immense
development of brain and nervous power. Man, having been

and mammal,

never so degrade himself


and yet we see men of strong physical
natures inclining toward the earth, showing thereby an affinity
for what is low.
An ignoble man represents the animal nature

exalted

to his high estate, should

as to sink

below

it

tendency toward the earth, a disposition to get down


on all-fours. Man's radiations are in the breadths, while the
in his

hence the natural tendency of an


strongly animal nature, is toward the

animal's are in the depths

animal,
earth,

or of a too

and earthly or material things.

Man

is

the only animal,

so to speak, that meets his fellow breast to breast, and radiates


in all

directions.

Those who

gravitate toward the earth live

Delsartean Trinities.

355

mostly on the material plane. Those who gravitate toward


Heaven, that is, toward that which is higher and purer and

more ennobling,

are found to be erect, with a less tendency

and earthly things.


As there is a material and a

to the earth

is

spiritual gravitation, so

a material radiation and a spiritual radiation.

vidual has

more or

With some

less radiation.

there
indi-

Every
it

extends but

very penetrating and

a short distance, with

others

it

Every one

carries

about with him an atmosphere

reaching.

is

But

peculiarly characteristic of the individual.

by another

its

far-

suscepti-

the development

wholly dependent upon


This, which we call atmosphere, is
we
term radiation. We should know,
with
what
synonymous
on entering a room, the character of the individuals who have
bility

of his

nature.

sensitive

been occupying
In

making

is

it

that

is,

our decision?

Some rooms have ample

everything

we do not

desire the room.

by

sunshine

in

them, and

general has a fine appearance to the eye

in

having

whether of good or evil influence.


by what are we governed in

a choice of a room,

It is

repelling;

bad radiation or atmosphere.

the people with

whom we come

we

So

are

in contact.

we

yet

think of

it

as

affected
this

Through

atmosphere, the magnetic current either attracts or repels


all

magnetism being mental, emotive, or physical

that

is,

attractive or repellant to the head, the heart, or the body,

the vital nature.

The public speaker should be so thoroughly passive, or rereceptive, or negative, when entering an audience room, that
were he blindfolded, he should be
fold, to tell the

able, before

general status of his audience,

removing the
and the general

atmosphere, and finally the individual atmosphere; that

any one

in

the

room

is

is,

if

not favorably impressed with him, or

is

Delsartean Trinities.

356

especially antagonistic to him, he should


feel

it,

soon

for

after

and

or individuals,

individual

know

he should

it;

Furthermore,
something subtle would reveal it.
the fold is removed, he should be able to find the
still

further,

be able to read

This has been done

the thought vocally unexpressed.

many

times by the author, and with perfect accuracy, though the

audience were

entire

strangers

to

him.

An

volume

entire

might be written on this subject; but we must needs be brief,


as it may be considered as belonging more especially to the

We

realm of psychology.

will,

however, pause to leave just

one hint to the public speaker. Avoid sitting before your


audience, to be seen by them when they are gathering, or
even during the ordinary formal introduction.
caution you

this

and deliberately to

By

observing

give them time coolly and calmly


measure you, weigh you, and number you,

will

not

without giving you an opportunity to enter a protest.


will

have

much

difficulty to

overcome any prejudice that may

have been born during that brief period of time.


of the

way

until

reminding emblem

man

an imaginary pyramid, that ever

of the mental, emotive, and vital

the heart, and the body.

The apex of

Man

the base will

should ever keep this pyram-

form before him as a reminder that the head

God

put

wherein

is

and that

the head,

the pyramid will repre-

the intellectual, the centre the emotional,

represent the vital nature.


idal

Keep out

you can have your way.

Let us place before

sent

You

is

on top,

it there for an all-wise


purpose. It is the
an ever-present, ever-wakeful, ever-watchful,
ever-honest monitor, to warn us of the slightest approach of

citadel

danger, mental, emotional, physical.

body

will

sustain,

judgment on

all

The head

but the heart must govern.


actions of the

will guide, the


It

head and body.

must

sit

in

The two

Delsartean
principles, the mental

ple of being.

and

vital,

Trinities.

appeal to the emotive princi-

Passion, the vital element, says, " Indulge


"

reason, the mental element, says,


tive,

if

357

the powers, and control them.

Master

it;

"

me;
while the emo-

reconcile them, and balance

will

properly developed,

"

If

one has not the passional,

he needs not the rational as a restraining influence. If thcic


is no rational, then there is no
hope of overcoming the passional.

The

greater

grander the man, that


so long as reason,

these
is,

which

if

is

two

their

in

development, the
This will be the case

balanced.
at the top,

governs passion, which

upon which man rests his activity in life.


The moment either extreme gets the better of the centre, the
is

the foundation

equilibrium

is

and weakness of the emotive power

lost,

is

the

result.

WALKING.

The question

often asked,

is

"What

is

a perfect walk, and

what are some of the characteristics of walking?" We


quote Delsarte's own words in answer to the first query:

will

"A

perfect walk should be rhythmical, that is, in time, as music.


The perfect walk must be straight, each step a foot apart,

Bobbing up
your own foot, not the ordinary foot measure.
and down, pitching, rolling, strutting, must be avoided as gymnastic crimes.

the lot

The

of the thigh,

great

work of the man

walking falls to
This is the

in

the vital division of the leg.

strongest portion of the frame.

In

modern

the thigh does most of the hard work.

atheletic

The

sports,

best rowing

is

from the hip, the arm serving to hold the oars. In walking,
the thigh should be lifted forward, the lower leg and foot

hanging loosely.
as simultaneously

The unbending of
the weight sways

the knee plants the foot

on

it.

The question

is

Delsartean

358
"

often asked,

the foot?

"

Trinities.

Which should touch

Strictly speaking, the ball,

to the proportions of a bare foot

and

yield,

so

in

In

ground.

we
!

restore the foot

the stern mandate

and so ordinary mortals

planting the foot, the

The bare

touch mother earth.

if

but alas

of fashion decrees a heel on the shoe

must

the ball or the heel of

first,

foot

heel will

transferring the foot, so to spe^k,

the ground.

High stepping
nor horse can afford it when

fine in

is

first

fashioned to grasp the

is

it

near

sound, but neither

man

either has

work

carry

to

do or races

The torso and head should sway in harmonic symto run.


pathy with every motion of the legs. Practise walking with
a

book on your head, walking

marks two

straight

your own

feet apart,

feet.

on a chalked tape, the


Pin this tape in front

of the looking-glass, and step on the marks as you see them


reflected."

Bear

body

in

is

mind

that the

manner

all

avoided.

by

things,

port.

protruding

Such a one

it

is

very significant of the being.


the abdomen should be

of

it

will step

indicative of

into other people's business.

shows one

be led

to

very heavily upon the

We

It

may be shame,

it

prying
it

shows

may

be

must judge by other things being equal.

best carriage of the

prominence.
standing.

one led by curiosity,


head is lowered

If the

a reflective or subjective state.

The

In the carriage of

paying due deference to the earth for his physical supIf the head and face are forward, especially with up-

turned nose,

grief.

is

If carried too far forward,

his appetites.

heels,

which you support the

an expression of mind and heart.

the torso, the predominant zone

Above

in

The

feet,

They may

body throws the emotive zone

into

being mental, are typical of the under-

guide, but, being nearest the earth, they

perform the more menial services, and as such should follow.

Delsartean Trinities.

359

more apt to do right but when the


feet lead, one may wander in by and forbidden paths.
By all
means avoid walking heavily upon the heels. It is often done
to display courage, when real courage is lacking.
One who
one

If the heart leads,

is

strong will assume

will

assume strong

when

the heart

is

is

weak

attitudes, while

attitudes.

Walking heavily upon

palpitating with fear,

boy who

whistles to keep

courage,

the

courage

louder he whistles.

When

up

before the pupils of a school for the

is

is

his

with an outward

one who

more need of
teacher walks

time,

if

she walks

and command, but

of strength

appearance

weak

equivalent to the
the
the

first

is

the heel

conscious of her weakness, the smallest child

the

in

room

know

it, and take


intuitively
advantage of the situation,
while, on the other hand, her quiet manner, and perfect repose,

will

one of the strongest features in the Delsarte philosophy,


"
Still water runs
will put every child on his good behavior.
deep," and he will not dare even to agitate it.

The emotive
opment of the
hence, we say

condition of the
torso.

again,

It

may be

man

is

shown by the devel-

only physical development;

One

other things being equal.

narrow, sunken, contracted chest

is

with a

not so capable of a noble,

generous impulse from the emotive nature. The chest is the


and as such it should lead that is, it should

scat of honor,

be the most prominent zone


indicates

power,

taken, however,

in the carriage of the

courage, endurance,

not to

make

it

too

etc.

Care

prominent;

body.

It

should be
that

is,

so

prominent as to cause one to think that it is a strong attitude


assumed by one who is weak. Ask the actor why he, when
playing the part of a

villain,

and about to commit some foul

deed, does not walk straight to his victim, and


erectly with full, active chest.

why

not walk

His answer, nine times out of

Delsartean

360
ten, will be,

"

don't know, only that

Passion

tradition."

Trinities.

is

is

it

developed sidewise

according to stage
but if over-devel-

following passion for passion's sake,

oped, that is,


of unlawful gain or

lust,

it

will

whether that

lead one from side to

side.

Hence, the zigzag movement which we are accustomed to see


upon the stage, in the portrayal of such characters. The hand
of the murderer that grasps
chest,

as

if

trying to

the knife

push honor

is

aside.

placed against his

The skulking walk,

the panther-like tread, the zigzag movement, are

all

expres-

one whose honor, manliness, and upare


no
longer manifest. Such a one cannot walk
rightness
uprightly, nor can he keep in the straight and narrow path.
sive of the character of

Not only are we cautioned not to turn to the right nor the
left, but we are also told that our progress should be upward
as well as onward.
Though passion is developed sidewise, we
do not
better,

hesitate
if

to

the passion

say that the wider the development the


is subordinated to the divine law.
Then,

and only then, can one be considered well balanced.


One should not be hampered because he walks

in

the

Some men walk so straight


narrow path.
ward that they dare not even look to the right nor to the

for-

straight and

for fear of losing their balance.

No man who

ever be hampered by law, or anything;

he loses his manhood and becomes a


be

free,

for,

slave.

do anything that he desires but he should


do anything that does not conform with the
;

highest ideals of true manhood, uprightness, truth.


cult

it

is

left

will

when hampered,
A man should

free to

not desire to

does right

to walk behind

an unbalanced

man

How

diffi-

He may

not

be intoxicated with liquor, yet he is mentally intoxicated.


Try to pass him, he is all over the sidewalk. Such a one has

no aim, no fixedness, no purpose

in life.

In judging of one's

Delsartean

Trinities.

36 1

walk or bearing, we should ever be governed by the law,


" other
things being equal," for circumstances environing the

individual

may

may

so govern

him

not justify our decision.

moment

at the

When

that appearance

the doctor

felt

the man's

pulse, and told him he had been eating too many oysters, lie
was simply judging from the appearance of fresh oyster-shells
But when the student in the
just thrown out of the window.

absence of the doctor called upon a

man who was very ill,


man that

he made a serious mistake when he informed the

much

he had been eating too

He

horse.

too judged

from

saw a bridle and


appearances
saddle under the bed, he concluded that a horse had been
;

eaten,

saying to the doctor that, as he

and that these were

all

that remained.

The human system tends to realize itself.


in an individual will mould his character,
Whatever your theory of

life,

that

you

An
his

will

idea ingrained
talk,

become.

his walk.

"What

you
yc
ye
every word in the
Bible, except one particular sentence therein, there would still
rerruin one of the greatest truths ever uttered by an inspired
think,

that

are."

or utinspired writer:

he

als*

reap."

discard

If

"Whatsoever

man

soweth, that shall

This sentence should be framed and hung in

a conspicuous place in every home, every school, every college, evey public place, until it shall become so familiar, and

be so deeply impressed upon the minds of all who see it,


that it wil\ hang on the walls of memory forever.
Memory
seizes

upon the canvas, and


of the inner chamber for her

upon the passing moment,

hangs the

picture

on the walls

to look upon vhen she

will.

It

fixes

is

it

an inevitable law, irrespec-

reap what we sow. Even when


you think, you ace sowing, and by and by you will reap that
It has
on your mind, on your heart,
thought.
l\(t its impress

tive of creed, tv^t

we

shall

Delsartean

362

and may be such as


It will

ganism.

mind.

Keep

to leave

Trinities.

its

impress on your bodily or-

on the

register itself

face,

the index of the

the pyramid ever in view, and do not allow the

apex and the base to change places. Do not delude yourself


with the idea that you can live down in the dark cellar of
vice

and impurity, where the cobwebs of

sin

are

gathering
about the noble brow, the bright eye, the sw'bet pure lips, and
that you can then emerge from such surroundings and conditions, and step forth into the clear sunlight of heaven, and

show no

of these secret, sinful thoughts and actions.

traces

We

would that from our pulpits and our rostrums all over
the land this mighty truth should be promulgated from time

to time, with

the force of the triune being, until

all

it

shall

go

from shore to shore, and our young men and our young
women be made to realize that their thoughts are chiselling

away

at their features with greater

accuracy that ever sculptor

chiselled marble.
"

The mind

is its

own

place,

Can make a Heaven

and

in itself

of Hell, a Hell of

Heaven."

THREE-FOLD LANGUAGE.
In our trinity of speech, gesture, and voice,

we

*iave

one

element which forms the leading topic of our wo'K, that is,
Here again, as in all the trinities, we have the mental,
gesture.
emotive, and
speech,

Man

vital.

what he

the voice ; thus

loves

by

says what

gesture,

what he

man communicates

different expressions of mind, soul,

only

feels,

cries

he needs gesture;

or voice will

when he

he thinks ^y articulate
feels }y inflection of

with his felow-man in the

and

suffice

life.

him-

While the

when he

child
loves,

reasons, he pust have articulate

Delsartean

The

speech.

Trinities.

363

inflections of the voice are for sensation,


gestures

for sentiment.

Let us study the infant more closely. There is a time when


all his joys or sorrows are manifested
through his cries; but
these are not gestures. When he comes to know the cause
of his joy or sorrow, sentiment awakens, his heart opens to
or hatred, and he expresses his new emotion, not by

love

cries alone, not


his

first

is

gesture

sensitive
"

by speech; he

do not

life

a smile.
"

smile.

powerless

can reflect

The

express.

man

in

we must

words,

Whenever an

let
is

ellipsis

is

Hence,

if

we

desire

be remembered, we must not say


it be divined, revealed by
gesture.

supposable

in

discourse,

gesture

Gesture, especially

ellipsis.

should precede speech.

gesture,

what speech

gesture, then, like a ray of light,

should intervene to explain that

emotional

reveal

to

that passes in the soul.

all

that the thing shall always


it

upon his mother, and


Beings endowed with only the
Animals do not laugh."

Gesture has been given to


to

smiles

Nature

incites

movement, speech names this movement. Speech is only a


Speech comes
title, the label of what gesture has anticipated.
only to
Speech,

what

confirm
then,

may

the audience already comprehends.


be termed the sense of the intelligence ;

sound, the sense of the

gesture, the sense of the heart

Soul can communicate with

soul

The

senses are

Man

earth.

speech,
voice.

is

the conditions of

It is

lifts

through

gesture,

through speech that man

the scale of being.


gifts

materialize

obliged to

sentiments

only through

man

of the Creator.

man above

Speech, then,
It

is

is

as
all

the

life.

senses.

a pilgrim on this
his

ideas through

through the
occupies the first rank in
the most wonderful of all
sensations

the language of reason, and reason

every other creature.

We

are often

moved

in

Delsartean

364

much by what
is not what we

reading, not so
It

it.

saying

Trinities.
is

by the manner

said, as

hear that affects

of

but that

us,

An author cannot fully express


which we ourselves imagine.
himself in writing; hence the interpretation of the reader is
often

false,

because he does not know the writer.

which we

markable the way


needs must create a semblance to
in

refer everything

We

it.

It is

re-

to ourselves.

We

are affected

discourse, because we place the personage in a situation


our fancy has created. Hence it happens that we may be
wrong in our interpretation, and the author may say, This is

by a

'

not

my

"

meaning.'

Expression is very difficult. One


edge, and lack power to express
always accompany the

how

to

intellect.

triple agent.

possess great knowl-

Eloquence does not

it.

a rule, poets do not

read what they have written.

to acquaint ourselves
this

As

may

It

behooves

know

us, then,

with these various forms of expression,

Then, once again, we

will

endeavor to im-

man

the
speaks with three tougues,
word, the gesture, and the voice. Gesture has always been
the most powerful language of man, civilized or savage. The
press the thought that

word of

itself

is

the weakest part of language.

Rome, Roscius and Cicero had

contest

to

In

ancient

decide which

could express a given idea in the most clear and vivid manner,
the actor

needless to

gesture, or the orator

by

say that the

actor

hardly a passion or state of


revealed

more

merely.

Bear

won

by words.
the

contest.

It is

almost

There

is

consciousness that cannot be

by pantomime than by verbal terms


mind that you cannot demonstrate truly

vividly
in

more than you are capable of feeling.


The question is often asked, Shall we make
strike attitudes?

Yes and

no.

gestures, shall

we

Gestures and attitudes should

Delsartean
be studied

Trinities.

365

order to render them faultlessly elegant, but

in

it

such a way that they will not seem studied. The


expression of the face should make the gestures forgotten.
"
The orator or reader or actor should so fascinate his auditors
should be

in

that they cannot ask the reason of the fascination, nor remark-

that he gesticulates at

perfect

The body should be placed under


mechanism through which every

all."

during the

control

student of this philosophy must pass


ful

have

and

body

act

in

if

he wishes to be grace-

harmony with

perfect

You should

be expressed.

to

thoughts

the

the

never enslave your-

any particular gesture upon a certain word, or in the


expression of a certain idea. There may be an underlying
self to

you should not violate but the license for gesFor instance, you may be taught the
very great.

principle that
ture

is

gesture and attitude for meditation


attitude in the

but that very gesture and

one particular form might

in

some

selection

or play

be wholly inappropriate to the expression of that

thought,

if

hands

may

taken but

be clasped

one form taught.

in the
in

Yet, while the

various positions, or the arms

may

be

must always express meditation by the relaposition of the head to the body; that is, concentrated,

folded, etc., they


tive

and the expression of the hands, lips, eyes, eyebrows, etc.,


must correspond in whatsoever form the attitude is given.
Then,
in all

the

let

it

be understood

the forms of mechanism,

moment we

thought

calls

for

or exaltation or
etc.,

we

form we

was

that, while

fully

should

step

an

we would

forget the

upon the rostrum or


attitude,

the

for

stage;

gesture

not

know

at

the

feel that

for the free

gesture

mechanism
and

if

the

of meditation

repose or indecision or animated

would give, but

open

we would teach

moment what

attention,

particular

every channel of expression

passage of thought.

The emotion

Delsartean

366
should

fill

Trinities.

when

the whole being, and

had flowed

it

into the

arms, placing them where they belong; and into the


placing them in the correct position; and into the eyes,
the story might be read there, and

all this in

perfect

legs,

that

harmony,

then and then only should the thought bubble over at the
lips,

and seek

its

final

precede the effect.


arm, there
gesture

is

in

expression

If there

is

The

words.

affect

not thought enough to

must
the

fill

not enough to justify gesture, and the so-called

is

only a motion.

Every gesture and every

An

should be fraught with meaning.

attitude

emotional gesture affects

the whole being;

an intellectual gesture only a part. Even


the words we use should seem to be said for the first time.

We

should observe the law of sequence.

teaches us

It

that

the expression of the face precedes gesture, and gesture pre-

cedes speech.

This law
is

illustrates the relation

of pantomime to speech.

a very important one in considering the two languages of

emotion, the verbal and the pantomimic.


tory of the true man, while the verbal
It

It

takes

tufe

is

many words
the

to say

lightning,

is

The

latter

more or

what a single look

speech

the

thunder.

revela-

is

less artificial.

Ges-

reveals.

Thus,

gesture

The

gesture shows the emotional condition from which the words flow, and justifies them.
When

should precede speech.

our words are not preceded by pantomime, they appear to


come from the memory. Herein is illustrated the two schools
of elocution,

the

two schools

of

acting.

The

pantomimic, the emotion preceding the motion


is

In the character of Richard

the declamatory.

cing the words


"

Now

is

Made

the winter of our discontent

glorious

summer by

this sun of

York,"

first

is

the

the

second

III.

in voi-

Delsartean Trinities.

367

the sight of the banners should suggest the thought, and the

pantomimic should precede the speech.


conditions

utterance, the

In

this,

as in every

should prompt the words.

Then,

again, great caution should be observed in the transition of


If too sudden, it will show throughout the entire
thought.

The new thought begins

organism, especially in the face.


grow before the old has left.

to

Standing, ^one day, on the platform of a Chicago street-car,

we were studying the expression of

a gentleman's face, which,

time, was very much clouded. We were nearing a


from the opposite direction, and we observed that the
gentleman recognized a boon companion, probably, on the

the

at

car

platform of the approaching car.


face

began

to light

up

As

admits the sunlight.

was an exchange of pleasant ideas


not a word vocally.

expressed

From

indeed.

of

time of the

the

the

clouded

facially,

but

Just as the brightness had reached the

climax and the sun began hiding his


watch and timed the receding light.

dismissal

his

Immediately

clouded sky when a rift therein


soon as the gentlemen met, there

like a

thought had formed

its

Was

that

is,

former combination,

No

sudden?

it

brightness

greatest

happy thought,

we took out our

face,

until
it

was

to

the

the

old

just five

minutes.

preoccupied man
meets you with a smile, when he has passed you he will con-

You

may

rest

assured

tinue to smile until


until

it

that

when

something occurs

the

to divert his mind, or

recedes to the channel of the previous thought.

things, then,

that

we observe from day

expressions, not studied.

be versed

in

It is

any philosophy

in

to

day

are

These
natural

not necessary that one should


order to do these things, be-

cause they do themselves, or are done

unconsciously;

but,

Delsartean

368
for

Trinities.

one to do them unconsciously, upon

requires considerable

stated

occasions,

more than philosophy.

argued that gestures and attitudes should be natural.


but if you are naturally awkward, your
So they should
It

is

gestures will be so, and in proportion to that awkwardness


they invite attention to the man and detract from the

will

your nature has become perverted, and it surely


you seldom see an awkward child, then you should

matter.

If

has, for

Awk-

take some means to obtain a presentable second nature.

wardness

from rigidity

arises

graceful so long

equal, the

in

the joints.

more cultured

No

one can be

Other things- being

as that rigidity exists.

the individual, the

more

graceful.

and attitudes should be studied from nature;


and we must bear in mind that this study must not be in sociAll gestures

where nature has been repressed, and gestures, attitudes,


hand-shaking, etc., have become conventional. All followers

ety,

of Delsarte are endeavoring to teach the science of expression, while

society

the soul back on

note an expression
or face,

etc.,

and

teaching the art of repression, forcing

is

itself

and limiting

made by

its

powers.

Delsarte would

the hand, or foot, or arm, or leg,

then, putting

himself

in

a passive condi-

tion, would make the motion over and over again


would react upon his organism, and cause the emotion

was the source of motion.


give us

much

In this

until
in

it

which

way he was enabled

to

of the science relating to this important subject

of gesture.

We

quote two and

on speech."
ture

is

We

are often asked for the definition of gesture.


cite

"

a third

Gesture

is

" Gesture

an

is

elliptical

a running

commentary

form of speech."

a pantomimic expression of an impression.

like water, will flow in channels cut for

will

them, and

Ges-

Gestures,
if

no new

Delsartean Trinities.

made

are

channels

they

will

continue the

by the blacksmith, the


and men in various vocations, who
illustrated

late

are

369
same.
the

cobbler,
will,

when

This

is

type-setter,

talking, gesticu-

manner suggestive of the business in which they


engaged. The element of sex influences the element of
the

in

matter

the

in

ease,

of gesture; that

is,

the

female

more yielding and graceful than that of the male.


lady

gesticulates,

the

of the

strong action

form

is

When

shoulder should

used with great discrimination, as it is too vital and too


masculine, and hence will be more or less repulsive.
When

be

a gentleman gesticulates he should avoid the

movements
forearm, as

sive.

is

it

student's

that of one
will

salutation

will

from a

differ

accustomed to out-door vigorous

be largely the action of the hand,

movement,

Passional
in the

is

expression

emotional

it

is

Delsarte
gestures.

face.

by

When

teaches

To

in the

us

that

the

multiply gestures

face.

an intelligent

only when they

to the elbow,

where

it

is

and thumb,

susceptive and volitional state.

man

intelligent

indicates

much expression as
gesture made by the hand

the

from the shoulder,

then to the wrist

Let as

gence.

fied

presented

the shoulder, elbow,

passes

state,

presented in the affectional state;

where

first

the latter the

vital.

wrist.
it

The

or

law of evolution as taught by Delsarte, there are

the

where

action.

mental

three great articular centres, or joints,

and

soldier's,

whole arm, with a prominence of the shoulder

action of the

By

namby-pamby

from a prominence in the action of the


too effeminate, which will make it also repul-

arising

lack

makes few
of

intelli-

possible be given to the


is

wrong when not

manifested

justi-

the

face.
by
man speaks, he employs great movements

Intelligence

are justified

is

by great exaltation of sentiments

Delsartean Trinities.

370

and furthermore these sentiments should be stamped upon his


Without expression of the face all gestures resemble
face.

The suspension and prolongation

telegraphic movements.

movement

is

one great source of

that force and interest exist.

effect.

It is in

good thing

is

of

suspension

worth being

long enough to allow an enjoyment of it.


kept
have three objects in view,
should
to move, to
The orator
in sight

interest,

and

by thought; he moves,

He

to persuade.

interests,

man

strongly reflective

other part of his body.

sometimes emotive.

will
It

by language

he moves

and persuades by gesture.


his head more than any

move

generally shows vital deficiency,

easy to distinguish the

It is

The

interests

men

of head,

makes many movements of the


heart,
head, the second many of the shoulders, the last moves the
and

action.

first

arms often and inappropriately.


There are three planes of gesture,
ward,

simple

high moral truths upstatements centre, passional below.


Gestures

the

referring to

centre plane.

material

The more

or literal

on the

generally begin

material the thought, the lower will

be the plane on which the gestures will be made; the more


That which is
emotive, the gestures will be the more elevated.
absolute

is

above

all

language

and

The

gesture to express the absolute.


is

it

requires

The deeper

nail.

the gesture.

shown

is

the screw versus the

more extended

but when that idea

to the audience, the gesture should not


is

in

the hands are brought together,

us to be possessed by one idea

one

of movement
The power of the

the emotions, the higher and

When

highest

spiral line

the highest expression in the universe.

spiral over that of the straight

the

it

is

be continued.

acting the part of a lover, the gestures should be

shows
given

When
made

from the emotional centre, or heart element, not from the

Delsartean Trinities.
mental or

The

vital.

the

heart

Also

in true

pass

of thought and the

line

the

into

371

life of action from


and
so
arm,
manifest themselves.

dramatic situations, the discarded lover


of the

to the right

necessary to turn

In

speaker.

the

such a situation

head from the

placed
is

it

the

as

lover,

is

only

heart

is

But the placing of the discarded lover on the

already away.

leaves the heart near, even though the head be turned.

left still

We

have a very fine illustration of this in the selection en"The Sioux Chiefs Daughter," by Joaquin Miller.
When the heroine is speaking to the chief and to her lover
titled

Idaho, she says,


"

Take you my

Stand either side

left, tall

Idaho

And you, my burly chief,


Would choose my right."
It

will

to

her

be seen that
left,

in

this case she places the

is

often

asked,

How

play the part of a villain and do


a true

man

in

any capacity.

make wickedness a
is

lover

Idaho

it

can an honorable

art

is

man

true artist

a true or perfect artist


it

to

such a way as to

in

horror, and cause us

good, because true

The

justice?

When

plays the part of a villain, he will play

which

know

nearer her heart.

The question
is

reverence

to

that

goodness and

exalt

suppress wickedness.

The law of
tion.

velocity should be considered in

Velocity

is

in

proportion to the mass

all

gesticula-

moved and

the

mouse moves quicker than an elephant.


Agents of expression with short radii move faster than those
with long radii.
Generally speaking, the eye moves quickly,
force moving.

the head
slowly.

less

quickly,

the

arm moderately,

the

body very

In proportion to the depth and majesty of the emo-

Delsartean Trinities.

372
tion

and slowness

deliberation

the

is

of

the

Thought or

reflection tends to

its

and

and explosiveness

vice versa in proportion to the superficiality

of the emotion will be the velocity of

motion;

expression

in

motion.

Love or

contract gesture.

affection tends to moderate gesture.

tends to

expansion

contraction of the muscles.

dium

Excitement or passion
Thought tends to extreme

of gesture.

of activity of the

Affection tends to a

happy me-

Passion tends to extreme

muscles.

expansion of the muscles.


The balance of passion and reason

in affection

constitutes

the divinest emotion of being, and produces the most beautiful

modulations of manner

An

the body.

in

tendency of passion to expand the body

An

sion of anger.

contract the

An
is

body

illustration of the

in the attitudes

of reason with passion


of pantomime.

If

will

in

in

you

gesture

gradually contracts the

the

nostrils

mouth

of love.

The

battle

one of the strongest forms

form.

will

contract,

until
will

Those thermometers
lids,

will indicate the

also the

as

the

hands and the

force

of passion

then comes the explo-

The

finest representation

we

ever saw of

between passion and reason, and the subsequent


of the passion, was when John McCullough, as

conflict

explosion

Virginius, gave utterance to the words,

drag

of the student.

by reason of the sudden and vehement expan-

sion of the gesture.


this

is

and the upper

whole body. This will continue


exceeds the force of reason in the
sion of passion

the attitude

observe that reason, trying to suppress the

you

an explo-

are listening to a speech which excites

passion,

passion

in

tendency of thought to

characteristic

passion,

of passion, the

shown

of the

tendency of affection to a happy medium

illustration of the

shown

shown

is

is

illustration

my

daughter through the streets of

in

substance,

Rome?

"

"What!

Delsartean Trinities.

37 3

This tendency of expansion in passion is very different in


the animal from what it is in the human being.
In the animal there is nought but expansion, while in the human, the

eye and the nostrils expand


holds sway,

can no longer be

constrained

and bursts with

control,

but so

the brows, hands, and

long as the mind

arms contract

then the

until
is

passion

still

they

beyond

terrible effect.

There are three elementary factors in the material universe,


The attributes of time are past,
time, space, and motion.
and

present,

The

future.

from, and around.

It

is

attributes of

gestures are

or around a centre.

space

are

length,

motion are toward,

we have

to

The law of motion teaches

us

with the

deal in the matter of gesture.


that all

of

attributes

The

breadth, and thickness.

last trinity that

made toward

a centre, or from a centre,

Delsarte has plainly taught that in the

subjective states of the

mind we

fold

in,

contract, concentrate

hence motion toward a centre he has named concentric.


states

objective

are expansive

has

named

All

have relaxation to the exterior world, and

hence motion from one's

eccentric.

Motion

self as a centre

he

between these two extremes,

being well-balanced, he has aptly termed normal or accentric.

Then we may conclude


sciousness, the reflective,
is

emotive

flection

which

to

are

mental

is

the sensitive, which

is

that there

is

vital.

make movements inward

three

states

of con-

the affective, which

The tendency of
or toward

re-

centre.

Reflection tends to close the eyes and mouth, and to draw the

gestures

toward the body, closing the hand. The tendency


is to make movements forward and outward, and,

of sensation
as

we have

Men whose

previously shown,

the

affection

is

to

is

expansion.

make straight gestures.


make movements around or

loves are essentially vital

The tendency of

tendency

Delsartean Trinities.

374
about the centre

that

is,

between inward and outward.

They

are balanced and should be reciprocal.


affection are always in

Expressions of pure
the normal sphere.
The law of form

teaches us that mental gestures are circular, emotive gestures


are spiral, vital gestures are straight.

We

this

in

desire,

but erroneous

to

connection,

idea, that

that

is,

all

should be made with curved lines

in

on the thought and feeling. In the


be conscious of our gesticulation.
barriers

act

in

strike a

but

from

blow would

across

gestures

go

This

is

that

or the

the

is,

to

left

as absurd as the old

the

right

rule,

making

hand

cross the
"

We

shoulder.

to avoid

cross

to

body

to the

Never turn your

Dramatic situations

call

both

for

violations of the rules of a novice,

of these violations,

not

artist.

Let us consider for a


an open hand,

may be

its

a thing
it

say the

is

moment

the three presentations of

expressed

by

these

in

the meaning.

same

This

is

thing, displaying

the

it

is

so

beautiful

that

but

presentations,
"
If

we say

that

to

de-

it

is

the demonstrative aspect.

with the sentiment of impotence;


thing, but

three

admirable, with the palms upward,

perfectly.

The same

palmar, dorsal, digital aspect.

with shades of difference

scribe

from

straight

back on your audience."

thing

all

not by Delsarte

the body;

to the left;

body

of an

not

place,

If we were about to
harmony with the thought.
think
of a curved line,
to
would
not
we
man,
stop

the

right.

we should

we have removed

of expression, she will

avenues

nature's

have also been taught

the

This depends wholly

first

If

angular or

that

view;

be avoided.

straight-line gestures should

the

speak of a prevailing
gestures to be graceful

If

back of the hand,

we have an

idea

we cannot express

it.

it

we
is

of the

This

Delsariean Trinities.
is

the mystic aspect.

is

as

we

if

membered
it

edge;

we

that

the

notes joy or an

we

we

In the

absence of

we communicate

take the hand;

a difference

is

are

we

held the thing


of
the hands derubbing
if

eager thirst for action.

There

it.

The

The hands

so.'

it

seems as

it

desire.

anything else to caress,

our joy to

declare

for

adoration,

it

have weighed, I have reunderstand it from certain knowl-

thing;

love, that

present the digital extremities,

have seen,

admirable, and

is

in

clasped

'I

said,

we

If

375

between the caress and

rubbing of the hands. In a caress the hand extends


eagerly, and passes lightly and undulatingly for fear of

the

there

harming;
is

is

the essential

hence

agent;

an elevation of the shoulders.

agent,

the

must show

it

hand

is

only the

The eye

reverberatory

energy than the eye.

less

Eye,
mouth, and hands, when open, are receptives. The eye is
the intellectual, the hands the moral, the mouth the vital."

Not only should the hand be studied of itself, but in its


relation to the body.
The idea of the mind works into the
uses

material

There are three special maniThe movement of the hand indicates

of the

hand.

festations of the hand.

First, the faculty at work, the source of the emotion.

by the

indicated

hand.

Second,

it

is

indicates

condition of that faculty, the aim and intent of the ob-

the

This

ject.

hand

is

sented

how

is

indicated

The thumb

shut, etc.

by

direction of the

This

by the

laid

action

of the hand, open or

on the index finger of the closed

indicative of mental force in repose.

by

that

the

thumb,

is

image or object

not yet decisive.

in confirmation

intoxicated,

Third,

affects that faculty.

the inflection of the hand.

We

will

cite a

of the foregoing principles.

and he endeavors

to

recall

The
This

will,

repre-

it

indicates

is

indicated

few illustrations

When

some

man

incident,

is

his

Delsartean Trinities.

376
hand, as

seeks the

it

head,

almost

is

hand

reaches the head,

His thumb,

lifeless.

as the active agent of the hand, has lost

its

When

activity.

immediately conveyed to
either the chin or the back of the head;
the vital portion,
this
as only
faculty is at work.
Again, three persons of
The one whose
different temperaments visit one who is ill.
the

mental faculties

hand

predominate
the mental

is

it

will

indicate

by the action

it

of the

face

or body,

he speaks it will be with a mental tone


heart nature
The one whose emotive faculties

of voice.

of the

and

to

division

if

indicate

nate, will

division of the

it

face

by
or

body;

and

The one whose

will

indicate

by the

it

faculties

vital

hand

Again, a

it

will

be

most deeply sym-

the

action of the

sion of the face or the body.

he speaks

if

with an emotive tone of the voice,


pathetic nature.

predomi-

the action of the hand to the emotive

predominate

to the vital

man

divi-

has just arisen

His expressions will


be in accordance with the principles just stated; from the
stomach he speaks. His hand seeks the
fulness of his

from a well-laden table

The base

abdomen.
the

of his

thumbs, the

hands, are rubbed across or over the

caressing

it,

inarticulate

and

smacking

sound of

Note the tone of


in

at a banquet.

the throat

his

voice, and you

at

vitally

he utters
last

note

it

of

an

he speaks.
far back

is

vital.

Think of a man expressing


fingers

and

will

division

abdomen,

vital

lips

vital satisfaction,

vital

touching

his

forehead

his vital

and

satisfaction with

the

tone

his

given with a

mental quality. The foregoing is conclusive proof that the


zones of the face and the zones of the torso, as points of
arrival

being

and

departure for

predominating

in

gesture,

expression.

indicate the

We

will

side

of the

illustrate

still

Delsartean Trinities.

when

further.

In emotion,

respect

predominates

gesture

seeks the

that

for

the

for

heart

gesture seeks

that

the

is

the

region,

the emotive zone.

is

377
the chest,

mental zone.

affections

self-

If the

predominate;

If the gesture seeks the

abdo-

men, the appetites predominate; for that is the vital zone.


Turn your attention for a moment to the chart of the
head and the torso, Figs. 125, 126, page 279, and, as numbered,

follow with

vidual

here

the

us

thought and

introduced.

man

He

of the night's previous dissipation.


before

zone,

mind

strategic

ple

ear,

there.

is

shame

"

say of

me?"

me

pause

"

to

the

genal

the

thoracic

me

zone,

"

at

every time

mandism
sions

they

I
I

who have

"But they
"

"

epigastric

transgress

"

zone,

zone,

"

zone,

How

in

gesture.

also

be used to

this

state?"

at

temperance

"

many regrets
The devil gor!

All of the above divifor

gesture

points of departure for


"

express

however,

shall I dare

advised

abdomen,

illustrate

peo-

have so

a wretched creature."

When we

have

such good wine;" at

have been used as centres of attraction

may

will

Reason,

"

me

serve

at the

What

bone,

seen

did

to the parietal bone,


"

Reason long ago


"

am

frontal

the buccal

at

zone,
the

the

at

appear before those

to

touches the temporal

seek

to

the temporal

at

result

some expedient
the
His hand now passes to the ocif

had too strong a dose of them

What

tells

as

indi-

the

bone, and he exclaims, "Here's an adventure;

cipital

really
"

the

of the

action

summing up

is

gratitude,

more elevated the movement, the more

thank

you," the

nobility there

is

in

the expression of the sentiment.

The hand has


I.

The

side

three divisions

of the hand

tive or definitive in

its

is

mental

expression.

in

its

nature,

indica-

Delsartean Trinities.

378

The back of

2.

hand

the

moral

is

in

its

nature,

mystic

nature,

revela-

in its expression.

The palm of

3.

tory in

hand

its

the

hand

in

its

be necessary to consider the


inflections, and its affirmations.

It

expression.

in its functions, its

vital

is

will

FUNCTIONS OF THE HAND.


There are nine functions of the hand.
// defines, or

1.

In defining, the hand

indicates.

it

moves

up and down, with the side of the hand to the earth and
the

first

In indicating, the hand does not

finger prominent.

move, but simply points to the object to be indicated, the


first

2.

finger prominent.
//

or

affirms,

it

In

denies.

down, moves up and down,

An

of affirmation.
up,

affirmation

affirmation,

the

hand

is

however,

is

in

is,

may

the

depending wholly upon

All

affirming,

that

in

3.

It

simplest form

nature of the

a vertical

always palm down; but

line.

affirmation.

In

denying,

negation opposed

to

hence, the hand

side to side.

moulds, or

movement

of that

hand, palm

be made with the palm

affirmation crosses the line of affirmation,

moves from

the

the

as

of
In

nature.

detects.

In moulding, the hand makes

moulding

clay or other soft substance

it

detecting, the

fingers

are

rubbed across

done when examining some soft texture


Elsewhere we have spoken of dealing
held between them.
One often makes
with thoughts as with tangible objects.
the thumb, as

this
4.

hand

is

movement when
It
is

following

conceals, or it reveals.

some

train of thought.

In concealing, the palm of the

brought toward the body, the

fingers, at

the

same

Delsartean Trinities.
time, gently

ment

on the palm.

closing

reversed

is

that

In

move-

revealing, the

hand from the body,

tossing the

is,

379

exposing the palm.


5.

// holds,

6.

It

or

In holding, the hand closes


surrenders.
as
if
to
retain
an object. In surrenderdown,
tightly, palm
ing, the closed hand opens, palm downward, as if to drop
the object it had been retaining.
it

or

accepts,

it

In accepting, the ringers close

rejects.

on upturned palm, as if receiving an object. In rejecting,


the fingers open from down-turned palm, as if turning away
the object.
7.

It inquires,

This
In

way.

it

the

acquiring,

movement toward

the outstretched fingers,

movement of

the

is

In the act of inquiring, there

acquires.

movement of

a tremulous

is

down.

or

the

a blind

palm

man, feeling

his

hand, palm down, makes a circular

body, the ringers

closing

easily

on

the down-turned palm.


8.

// supports,

or

it

up,

of

object

some

little

In supporting, the palm

protects.

the surface of the hand

being
In

weight.

as

flat,

to support

if

the

protecting,

palm
to show

down, the movement of the hand being such as


desire to cover what you protect.
9.

gently

In caressing, the

caresses, or it assails.

It

over

the

movement of

object

as

if

soothing.

hand sidewise

the

is

Caressing

considered

ing the animal nature. In assailing, the palm


and the fingers make a convulsive movement
It

is

paw.

similar

that

made by

a cat

when

vital,
is

assailing,

Oh, yes,

I 'd

when she

like to kiss

him

It is

glides

by the
caress-

turned down,

striking with
this

sarcastically utters these


"

is

as of clutching.

Janauschek gives an excellent illustration of

ment of
"

to

hand

is

an

its

movewords:

also strongly implied,

Delsartean Trinities.

380

though not expressed, in the word


couplet from "The Sioux Chiefs

"

come

"

in the following

by Joaquin

Daughter,"

Miller: -

"And

signals he has

Hist, softly

won

for me.

Let him come and see."

INFLECTIONS OF THE HAND.

1.

A
An

moves up and down.

impatient

from side to
3.

The open hand with

simple statement or definition.

side to the earth


2.

hand -

inflections of the

There are nine

The hand, palm down, moves

negation.

side.

Distribution.

The hand, palm

Appellation.

The

moves from

up,

side

to

side.
4.

hand, palm

up,

moves toward the

face as in beckoning.
5.

Salutation.

The

up, moving from the


6.

down

Assailment,

reverse of appellation,

the hand, palm

face.
lust.

grasping,

to its fullest extent,

The hand

is

palm

open,

and gives a convulsive

movement

downward, with the fingers curved.


7.

Exaltation,

surprise.

the reverse of assailment.


fingers
fully
8.

The

action

From

almost closed, the hand

of the

hand

is

just

the down-turned palm, with


is

suddenly tossed up and

opened.
Concealment, mysticism.

toward the body, closing as


9. Revelation, exposition.

sition of fully

The hand, palm down, moves


if

to conceal an object.

The hand

exposing the palm, as

if

unfolds, from the poto reveal an object.

Delsartean Trinities.

381

AFFIRMATIONS OF THE HAND.


There are nine affirmations of the hand

The teacher's affirmation. It defines. The hand moves


up and down with the side to the earth, and the first finger
1.

projected.

The patron's affirmation.

2.

It

down, covers the object.


3. The
champion's affirmation.

palm up, supports the


4. The conservative's
the

to

side

earth

The hand, palm

protects.

It

The

supports.

hand,

object.

bent

is

or

The hand with

It limits.

affirmation.

curved, as

though

withholds.

The palm of

partially

closing around the object.

The tyrant' s affirmation.

5.

is

as

withholding an

turned

The movement may

It

object.

The

seer's

saying,

It

may be

is

"

command, Go."
The forearm and
mystifies.

in

It

affirmation.

hand are erect; the palm


"

expressive of arrogance.

is

be given with the arm fully ex-

also

tended outward, palm down, as


6.

the

downward, the hand approaching the object

hand
if

It

the

turned toward the face,

dark to

you,

but

is

it

as

if

clear to me."

In repeating the words of Hamlet, in answer to the question,

"Where
if

is

Polonius?"
find

your messengers

place yourself,"

"In heaven; send


him not

thither

there, seek him

"
heaven
the word

"

i'

to

see;

the other

would be given with


The words
revealing.

palm forward that is,


"
would be given with down-turned hand,
the back of the hand toward the audience,
mystifying.
hand takes the
The
It reveals.
7. The saint's affirmation.
up-lifted hand, the

"

i'

the other place

same

place

as

in

the

seer's

affirmation,

turned out to manifest that there


holds the object up

in

full

view.

is

but

nothing

the

palm

concealed.

is

It

Delsartean Trinities.

382
The

8.
is

bigot's

It

affirmation.

rejects all

any other rejection, in that

unlike

it

opposition.

This

does not cross the

an affirmation, being a quick, impetuous


hand
movement of the
forward, with palm inclined forward.
It paints, protects.
This is
orator's affirmation.
9. The

line,

but

of

is

allowing a

full

itself

license

movements,

rious

the hand

to

the

as

partake of the va-

to

brush

artist's

here

toftches

and

there for the lights and shades.

LAW OF
Ere we

leave

another of

its

the

OPPOSITION.
of

subject

fundamental

gesture,

we

that

opposition.

laws,

is,

consider

will

Del-

he himself studied the poses of antiquity


for fifteen years, and it was in consequence of this period of
study, assuredly, that the master condemned the parallel movesarte

tells

us that

ment of the limbs

in

of reaction:

"Every

recommended

and

gesture,

which he called inverse or opposite.

attitudes

Delsarte says of this law

object of agreeable or disagreeable aspect

which surprises us makes the body recoil. The degree of


reaction should be proportionate to the degree of emotion
caused by the sight of the object. Every extreme of emotion

tends

to

react

to

its

Concentrated

opposite.

tends to explosion, explosion to prostration.

emotion which does not tend to

which
All

is

own

destruction

is

that

perfectly poised."

direct

movements should be

movements simultaneous.
taneous

its

passion

Thus, the only

The law

movements must be

movements should be

move backward

parallel.

in

successive, and
is

thus

stated

opposition, and

In appealing, the

in opposition to the

movement

opposite
"
:

Simul-

successive

body should

of the hands,

Delsartean Trinities.

move forward

then both
is

agents

The harmonic law of gesture

is

It has a childlike simplicity.

We

manifests

the other
in

when

itself

The law

rises.

and

opposition,

in

of this

in

in turn.

condemns

the Stoic

law par excellence.

employ

in walking.

it

a weight

carrying

Equilib-

parallelism."

one

in

equilibrium.

realizing

All ancient art

is

and awkwardness

It

hand;

All

that

is

based on the

opposition to the arms and the hands.

in

the same

direction, there

When

results.

bends forward, and

head

born

Here is an example of the observance


head and arm are in action, the head

If the

rule.

must move

the

is

of the

born of con-

is

consists in placing the active levers

harmonized.

is

equilibrium

thus

opposition of levers.

move

Harmony

opposition equilibrium

the great law of gesture, and

is

also

The opposition

together.

of gesture.

harmony

From

trasts.

rium

the

383

both

If

a defect in equilibrium,

is

the hand rises to the head,

meets

The

half way.

it

re-

Every movement in the hand has its


The movements must
responsive movement in the head.

verse

is

also

so

balance,

true.

that

main balanced.

body may be

the
It

in

equilibrium

and

only by the laws of opposition that

is

The

the entire significance of expression can be manifested.

hands
the

are

utility

of

expression

oppose the fingers


In opposition we have palm

power

to

law

this

upon

organized

and

re-

the

hand

the

to

of

opposition.

All

grow out of the

thumb and

the

palm.

palm and back to back.


Try parallelism by placing the palm of one hand on the
back of the other, and giving expression to the words,

"Heaven help me."


opposition,
leg

and

of

arm.

the

All

precision

head and

The law

endeavored to show,

to

is

of

of

expression

hand, hand

opposition,

demands

and hand, and

then,

the law of equilibrium."

as

we have

Delsartean Trinities.

384
There

an indisputable law that extension in opposition

is

strengthens

This

possession.

tight rope.

Develop the

equilibrium

is

are weakest until

that

faculties

gained.

orator assumes

the

tion as

that

virtue

by

"

assist.

when he

is,

rdle,

an

reflects,

When

movement,

concentric

he makes the forward

of a

When

he

eccentric

In

himself.

upon

the

one

state

passive

loves,

but

first move forward.


In proporhe draws back and contemplates the object.

he does not

loves

he

one speaks to others, he advances. When


his thoughts
himself, he recoils a step,

to

speaks

when he

to

When

movement.
one

the movement,

in

blesses

calls

role,

passive

he makes the backward

assumes the active

centre

One

angles.

upon which he

power

superior

the

in

the

In the gesture of benediction, there

should be opposition of head and hand

and opposition

by a man on a

illustrated

is

feels,

Contemplation makes the body retroact. In the joy of seeThe same


ing a friend we start back from the object loved.
action

naturally takes

whom

for

and

it

a hatred

in

place

may

Such

exist.

cannot be ignored.

a fright, or
is

To behold

was

person
life;

to

Delsarte's

that

him

led

retroaction
to

concentric,

toward

and accentric,

man,

centre

if

of affection

so, there

is

the

sight

this,

no

gives his heart;

is

not

love.

retroacts;

the

Expiration

is

hence, there

is

beloved

phenomena

of

from a centre

eccentric,

made with

of

which he terms the

normal, or with the centre."

periences a deep emotion, he


tion

it,

object fully,

as does an artist

discovery of the

the

this triple state of

at

the law of nature,

a loved

we step back some little distance from


when admiring a painting."
It

meeting one

in

When

one ex-

hence a demonstraforward
the sign

the joy and

movement;
him who

of

love.

Inspira-

Delsartean Trinities.
tion,

may

being retroactive,

As

trust.

love

is

to a certain

by the

expressed

degree signify dis-

retroactive

never by the forward, the hand should

and

toward

be extended

toward

self,

indicates

it

tend toward the loved

self,
is

and above

all

there

carried

movement,

in opposition,

to

it

tends

it

The hand should

self.

caress,

If

to

de-

reassure, to

portraying love, the hand should

in

Then,

fend.

of

love

being,

move

beloved object.

the

385

not seek

should not seek the heart, as the hand


case

in

only

of suffering there

otherwise,

When we move away

from the object


we contemplate, we doubtless prove the respect and veneraThe retrograde movement may thus be
tion that it inspires.
it

is

oratorical crime.

the sign of reverence and

us

before

object

and moreover that the

salutation,

more

is

more

and

eminent

worthy of

veneration."

There

is

philosophy
gracefulness,

opposition.

cessary to

great

to

in

the

whole range
than

acquire

bring

perfect

harmony

not in well

in

doing.

renewed enthusiasm,

lyre with

three

''The

the

this

trinity

opposition

In the words

to

you

your work.

human organism

of

of

all

is

to

of the
return

The end

a marvellous

is

in-

God

has

nine

chords, each rendering various sounds.

given for our use.

It

is

a harmo-

chords for the voice, the three for gesture, and

the three for speech have


service of the

vibrate

of

Patience and perseverance, however, will be

Weary

worth the pains.


strument, which
nious

the

in this law of
harmony, and ease,
weeks
of
mechanical
work are neHours, days,

master of expression, we would urge

then, with

The

difficult

precision,

the movements.

rewarded.

nothing

probably

more

life,

beneath

their

thousand resonances

the soul, and the mind.

your

fingers,

they

will

As

at

the

these chords

give voice

to

the

Delsartean Trinities.

386
emotions of the
of the mind.

to

life,

the

of the

jubilations

This delightful concert will

lend

to your passing years, throwing, around them


of the good, the true, and the beautiful."

We

have

herein
light

endeavored

to

represented, trusting

make

plain

all

heart

and

enchantment
the attractions

the various trinities

that in each there

of encouragement for the searcher after

may be some
truth.
Make

each day a day of progress, mentally, emotively, and physLife itself is a great trinically, and thus fulfil the trinity.
to know, to be, and to do.
What you know to-day,
ity,
do to-morrow, and the day after you will be. Seek to do

well whatsoever

Bear
artist

in

mind

done.

Be an

that Delsarte has

does not

charm of

is

grow

old.

divine beauty.

He

artist to

the fullest meaning.

always taught that the true


is

never too old to

feel

the

PRACTICAL THOUGHTS
FOR

PRACTICAL MEN.

XXV.

PRACTICAL THOUGHTS FOR PRACTICAL MEN.

OINCE

the foregoing chapters passed into the hands of the

publishers, the author has travelled from ocean to ocean

the interests of the Delsarte Philosophy of Expression, in

in

dissemination of

the

its

wholesome

he has been met by men and


in

who,

substance, said

" If
the

women

truths.

On

mastery of self depends upon the mastery of

Delsarte principles,

hand

every

of a practical turn of mind

have not the time, even though

all

the

had the

inclination, to devote myself thoroughly to its teachings.


"
Can you not, in your forthcoming volume on this subject,

so classify, in one chapter, a system of exercises, or, better

a series of suggestions, that will at once

by being capable of ready application?


"
The study of Gestures and Attitudes
*

who has chosen

commend
'

is

essential for

a public career, but not for one

grossed in the every-day business

affairs

of

still,

themselves

who

is

one
en-

life."

In compliance with this request, the author has added such


exercises as will fully meet this demand.
It

to

is,

or at least should be, the desire of every business

appear well

that

is,

to

in

his

man

business, on the street, and in society;

appear well as regards the carriage of the body.


desire to be graceful for the sake of

Not only should he


grace,

but because therein

Awkwardness
a

man

in

is

lies

the secret of vital economy.

a waste of vital force

embarrassing situations.

besides,

it

often places

Practical Thoughts for Practical Men.

390

True grace
to a

little

unconscious grace,

is

If

child.

your nature has

the grace that belongs

become

you

perverted,

cannot reach that state of grace unless you again become


as

little

wholly unconscious of self.


arises from one of two causes,

children,

Awkwardness

rigidity of joints, or, as

remove the former, we


ibility

of Joints

"
;

to

we have

said, self-cpnsciousness.
"

refer the reader to the chapter

remove the

either

latter

is

on

To
Flex-

not a physical, but a

mental requirement, and is entirely dependent upon the will.


But be it remembered that self-consciousness is always increased where there

One

is

a consciousness of awkwardness.

of the most essential elements, ay, the prime factor in

appearing well

in all

the walks of

life, is

practically applying the laws that govern


is

in

understanding and

harmonic poise

this

of especial importance as regards a correct standing position.

Accuse not Nature

Do

she hath done her part :

thou but thine.

MILTON.

Practical Thoughts for Practical Men.

392

FIG. 138.

To SECURE A CORRECT
The

simplest

against the wall,

way
first

POSITION.

to secure a correct position

is

to stand

touching the heels, then the calves of the

legs and as much of the body as possible, being sure to touch


Do not bend the head back, but
the shoulders and the head.

draw

it

back by drawing

in the chin.

Imagine an inflexible stick passing through the body from


the head

to

the ankle, but not tlirougJi

it.

Sway

the whole

body

from the door without breaking the imaginary stick hence


there will be no movement of any joint save that of the
;

ankle.

When you

have passed from the position over the heels


to the position over the centre of the feet, and no part of
the

body

will

be correct.

touches

the

door but the

heels,

your position

FIG. 138.

Practical Thoughts for Practical Men.

394

FIG. 139.

INCORRECT POSITION.
Inharmonic action brings

Not only

strain,

and

strain

brings fatigue.

an accomplishment to stand well, but

is it

it

is

a pro-

moter of health, grace, and beauty. Back-aches, pelvic troubles,


dyspepsia, and many other ailments are the result of incorrect
and ungainly positions.

When

the weight of the


is

so doing, the

abdomen

of the spine

is

to

body

is

borne equally by both

throw that weight heavily over the heels

the tendency

is

is

in

greatly increased, the chest sinks, the breathing

perform their functions

result

carried too far forward, the curvature

becomes labored, the back aches, the stomach and


to

feet,

in

liver cease

accordance with nature, and the

not only inharmonic poise, but inharmonic action of

the vital organs.

all

FIG.

139.

Practical Thoughts for Practical Men.

396

FIG. 140.

CORRECT POSITION.
To overcome
fer the

the inharmonic poise (incorrect position), trans-

weight of the

body from

the heels to the centre of the

in Fig. 138), drawing back the knees and the


and
abdomen,
keeping an active chest that is, raised and fixed
by muscular effort, being wholly independent of the breathing.
The main weight of the body should not be upon the heel or

feet (as

shown

the ball of the foot, but


If

midway between.

you have the correct

position,

you

will

be able to

rise

on

your toes and descend again to the heels without swaying your

body

either forward or backward, or

the ankle joint.

moving

at

any other than

FIG.

140

Practical Thoughts for Practical Men.

FIG. 141.

POISING.

Take correct position


illustration, the

as

shown by the dark

weight over the centre of the

figure of this

feet,

and the chest

active.

Sway

the

body

as far forward as possible without

the waist or raising the heels

moment

at correct position in

bending

at

then back to position (halting a


order to recognize

it

as the

one

where the body is perfectly poised over the centre of the


then backward as far as possible without raising the ball
feet)
that is, changing the curvaof the foot and without bracing,
;

ture of the spinal

Keep
the

column from that of correct

position.

constantly in view the imaginary stick passing through

body

to the ankle.

Make

all

the

movements

slowly.

r:

v\

FIG. 141.

Practical Thoughts for Practical Men.

400

FIG. 142.

INCORRECT POSITION.
THE FREE

FOOT.

In the drawing-room or on the platform avoid placing the


free foot (the foot not

forward.

When

It

weight)

in

far

advance of the other.

placed at too great a distance (a prevalent fault), the

it is

tendency

bearing the weight of the body) too

should be but slightly

is

to so settle

on the strong leg (the one bearing the


moves inward instead of outward,

that the hip-joint

thus lowering one shoulder

much more

otherwise producing an awkward effect.

command

neither respect nor attention.

than the other,

Such

and

a positioa will

FIG.

142.

Practical Thoughts for Practical Men.

402

FIG. 143.

CORRECT POSITION.
THE FREE

To overcome

FOOT.

or to avoid the habit of the incorrect

movement

of the feet and hips, keep the feet nearer together, the free foot
but slightly

body.

Do

in

advance of the one bearing the weight of the

not neglect the importance of having the weight of

body over the centre of the foot of the strong leg.


Your position will also be correct if your feet are^side by

the

the weight borne

by

either foot or

foot be placed at quite a distance

of

it,

tion

by both

feet.

from the other and

the advance foot should bear the weight.

shows more of

activity than of

side,

SJiould one

But

in

advance

this posi-

rest.

For correct hip movement, stand before a mirror, placing


your hands on your hips and settling the weight of the body
See that the hip-joints move outward instead of inward, that the shoulders are -kept even, and
alternately

that

on each

foot.

your body does not sway sidewise.

FIG.

143.

Practical Thoughts for Practical Men.

404

FIG. 144.

FAMILIAR REPOSE.

The

striking effect

produced by the position of the

cannot be too strongly impressed upon


to ceate a favorable impression in the

all

men who

feet

desire

drawing-room, upon the

We

platform, upon the stage, or at the sacred desk.

refer

produced by the careless separation

especially to the position

"
the widths."
of the feet in what Delsarte terms

This position has

its

origin with

"

the boys

"

xluring their

college days in their social chats around the college

men

with

standing at bars

and

at street-corners.

fire,

case this careless attitude passes for familiar repose

other
is

it

it

is

refined

considered evidence of vulgarity.


;

and

In the one
in

the

In neither case

hence should be studiously avoided by every one

wishing to create a favorable impression in refined society.

Be ever on your guard,

for if careless

when

not be careful in the presence of others.


will assert itself.

character;
bearing,

its

reflex in

its

you

alone,

Habit, good

Impress every one with the grandeur of your

impress yourself

If

first.

continuance will result

you

practise a dignified

in a dignified feeling,

being

action.

The man who, consciously or unconsciously, assumes


position of
line

will

or bad,

"

Familiar Repose," weakens his power

of thought he presents, unless

it

rough, uncouth, unrefined character.

be

in

in

the

whatever

the portrayal of a

FIG. 144.

Practical Thoughts for Practical Men.

406

FIG. 145.

SITTING.

The

of sitting

act

graceful.

You should

means of support

is

sometimes too easy

easy,

not drop into a chair as

and you

will

not

sit

if

gracefully

to

be

you had no
if

your

feet

are together.

Separate the

feet,

not sidewise, but place one foot near the

chair (so that the leg touches

other foot in advance.


at the

or nearly touches

Incline the

it),

and the

body forward from the waist,

same time bending the knee of the leg nearest the

chair,

thus keeping your balance as you sink gracefully to a correct


sitting position.

In rising

it

is

not necessary to touch the chair with your

hands or place them on your knees for assistance. Take the


same position of the feet as before sitting, and incline your

body forward, throwing your weight

at

once on the foot nearest

the chair.

When

sitting,

avoid having the feet side by side, but keep

them or place them


terial

which foot

is

as

shown

in the illustration.

placed in advance.

It is

imma-

FIG.

145.

Practical Thoughts for Practical Men.

408

FIG. 146.

THE DIGNIFIED Bow.


Bowing

We

an accomplishment.

is

shall here say

nothing

especially of the court bow, the society bow, the dancer's bow,

the Delsartean street bow,

or

all

of which serve their pur-

speak principally of the bow which is


practicable and courteous for every occasion, whether in the
but we

pose,

shall

We

business or the social circle.

refer to the dignified

bow,

the bowing only of the head.

The head

represents the mental element, the trunk the emo-

tive element.
is

too

dignified

reserve)

is

said to

bow made from

society in

The

of

in

is

emo-

cold, arid the

itself,

the head

cold

is

dignity

(all

is,

considered too cold,

proportion as

it

shows

hence society has instituted the bow from the waist.

Such a bow
the

As the mental
bow of only

warm, the

tive

general

show more of warmth,

true,

the waist includes the heart element

is

heart/^^, such a

yielding from the waist

bow
"

signifies

is

because
;

but as

deceptive.

from

my

"

heart;

and

if the
upper eyelids droop, it is heartiness plus humiliation,
a position rarely taken by a practical person who is
wholly

sincere.

The bow of
true,

and with

the head, however,


little

is
always courteous, always
can
practice
always be made gracefully.

Jerkiness should be avoided

hence

all

the muscles of the neck

should be pliable, though strong.


To gain
the
neck
exercises
strength, practise
given
"

Flexibility of the Joints."

this pliability
in

and

the chapter on

FIG. 146.

41o

Practical Thoughts for Practical Men.

FIGS. 147. 148.

THE SOCIETY Bow.

THE HEARTY Bow.

\Vhen a man upon the rostrum or stage is heartily applauded


or encored, he may with propriety and sincerity incline the
body from the waist; a hearty applause calls for a hearty
response.

This

down and back


far

in the

may be

gracefully done

at the waist,

by sinking the body

without necessarily placing one foot

of the other and bending the knee.

rear

Never

lower the head so far as to take the eye from the individual
or individuals to

young lady

is

whom you

The

society

bow

never required of the young man'.

.be satisfied with either the

of the body from the


feet.

bow.

bow

waist,

should

movement
movement of the

of the head or the

without the

He

of the

FIG. 147.

FIG. 148.

Practical Thoughts for Practical Men.

4 3
1

FIGS. 149, 150.

STOOPING.

How
of

awkwardly people stoop

vital

force,

there

is

much

If

of

awkwardness

that

waste

a waste

is

made

manifest

in stooping.

A society
fellow-men,

man may make a bow that excites the envy of his


but in another moment he may place himself in a
in his effort to pick
up a handkerAfter almost losing his balance he rises

very embarrassing position


chief,

from

fan, or glove.

his

awkward

position with flushed face,

quence of the undue expenditure of


flushed because he

ness,

flushed in conse-

vital force in

his

awkward-

becomes conscious of

his

awkward-

This unnecessary strain and embarrassment are due to

ness.

were kept too near together and the


knees not allowed to bend sufficiently.

the

fact

To

that

the

feet

harmony, and

practise graceful stooping (with precision,

ease), drop a handkerchief to the floor while standing in correct


positian, then gently

backward

lift

foot (say the

the

to a distance that will be

bending the right knee as the

body

left),

and carry

most convenient
sinks.

The body

for

it

you,

will

in-

cline forward and the hand will drop gracefully to the object.

You
ceive

can instantly gauge the distance, and the eye should perthe object without dropping the head.

placing the

foot

back not

to

turn

it

on

the

Be

careful

toes,

in

but on

the side.

it

but
Stooping may be done without placing either foot back,
will not be so gracefully done.

FIG. 149.

FIG. 150.

Practical Thoughts for Practical Men.

416

FIG. 151.

KNEELING.
Dropping on both knees
circumstances, and

allowable

is

generally where

vided; but this privilege

is

only under certain

a cushion has been pro-

seldom accorded a person on the

stage or rostrum, and never in a drawing-room or in any case

of emergency.

To
if

kneel gracefully and with

economy of

force,

you should,

not wishing to advance from your position, slowly pass the

free

foot back,

dropping gently on the knee of the leg not

bearing the weight of the body.

body should balance

When
feet,

it is

standing

in

it

by

As

the foot passes back, the

inclining forward.

position, the weight of the

very easy to settle the

weight on either

the other perfect freedom so as to pass

it

halting a

you should not bring the


moment well poised on the advance

foot slightly,

sinking easily

and pass

it

foot,

allowing

back, thus permitting

you to drop on either knee.


Should you be advancing toward the individual
intend kneeling,

body on both

to

whom you

feet together,

foot, raise the free

back to the required position

upon the knee.

but

for

FIG. 151,

Practical Thoughts for Practical Men.

418

FIGS. 152, 153, 154.

SELF-ASSURANCE.

SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS.

The elbows

of

person's
street,

ease

and

or in the

gathering.

When
fested,

indicators

great

whether on the rostrum, on the

character,
social

are

^TIMIDITY.

the elbows are carried out, self-consciousness


it

may

be of awkwardness, of power

is

mani-

in certain direc-

tions, of pride in great achievements, or of personal appearance.

In

all

but the

One may

first it

takes the form of self-assurance.

readily distinguish between self-consciousness

self-assurance

by

the case of self-assurance

what back, turned a

drawn toward the body,

body.
the

Timidity, as

head,

are

never

to the side.

causes
as

if

gaze "and scrutiny of others.

harmony with the body,

and

the

tendency in
to carry the head high and some-

is

trifle

self-consciousness

If

head

the position of the

it,

timidity,

the

elbows

will

be

the individual shrank from the

The head
too, will

will always act in


be drawn toward the

shown by the arms, and assurance, by


found together.

FIG. 152.

FIG. 153.

FIG. 154.

Practical Thoughts Jor Practical Men.

422

man

GRACEFUL CARRIAGE.

presents himself

man's bearing

first

to the eye, then to the ear.

If a

bad, he need not expect to fascinate by his

is

voice, even though his reasoning be forcible.

To
first

obtain a graceful carriage of the body,

to secure a correct position, as

Keep your

shown

is

it

in Figs.

138 and 140.

Carry your heart high.

chest active.

necessary

Be uncon-

means of support; but do not


such a manner as to allow the abdomen to

scious of your legs, except as a


settle

your body

protrude.

make

it

in

Walk

in the straight

so narrow, or have

it

and narrow path, but do not

made

so narrow, as to

individuality or your individual rights.

Be

true to the higher

self.

your strength of

manhood

your

politics,

of your body

free.

felt

in

Be manly. Make
your home, your religion,

your daily intercourse with men,


is

in

perfect

cramp your
Be firm. Be

well balanced.

harmony with

within, and the whole organism

expression.

Be

is

until the carriage

the purity of a soul

attuned to

its

most perfect

BINDING SECT.

^T

PLEASE

271980

DO NOT REMOVE

CARDS OR SUPS FROM THIS POCKET


UNIVERSITY OF

W3

TORONTO

LIBRARY

Warman, Edward Barrett


Gesture and attitudes, an
exposition of the Delsarte
philosophy of expression
practical and theoretical