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Design of Falling Film evaporators

By
Laxman Kumar

U09CH152

R. Kailasham

U09CH153

Ravish Pandey

U09CH155

Ravindra Meena

U09CH156

Dheeraj Chowdhry U09CH157

Concentration of highly heat-sensitive materials such as fruit juices and milk requires a
minimum time of exposure to a heated surface. This can be done in once-through falling-film
evaporators, in which the liquid enters at the top enters at the top, flows downstream inside
the heated tubes as a film, and leaves from the bottom.
A set of perforated metal plates above a carefully levelled tube sheet, inserts in the tube ends
or Spider distributors with radial arms are used to carefully distribute a uniform film of
liquid inside the tubes.
Given below is a worked out example showing the design of a once-through falling film
evaporator. This design procedure can be applied to other problems as well.
Falling film type evaporators are rarely ever used with re-circulation. In case of recirculation,boiling point elevation of the liquid needs to be considered. This is done with the
help of a Duhring plot (Fig2).
The Duhrings rule states that the boiling point of a given solution is a linear function of the
boiling point of pure water at the same pressure.

Condensed milk is produced by evaporation of milk in falling film evaporator containing


steel tube 32 mm in diameter & 6 m long. Evaporation takes place at 600C, which is the
boiling point of the milk at 27 lbf/in2. Absolute, using steam at 700C.the feed rate is 40 kg/hr
per tube at 600C.
(a) Estimate the internal coefficient (hi) & the overall coefficient (U).
(b) What is the evaporation rate per tube??
(c) If the raw milk has 13.5 percent fat plus solids, what is the concentration of the
condensed milk??
(d) Calculate the average residence time in the evaporator.
The properties of milk at 600C are

, cP

, kg/m3

K, w/mk

, J/g

Raw milk

0.94

1010

0.62

2357

25% solids

1.6

1030

0.55

2357

Solution
Steam condensate film coefficient at 700C, ho :
k = 0.662 W/mK , = 0.406 cP
Guess U = 2000 W/m2 . (K) based on inside area.
= 2331 J/g at 700C , T = 100C

= UAT/

= 2000*10**(0.032*6)/2331
= 5.17 g/sec.
= 5.17*10-3 / *0.032
= 5.14*10-2 kg/s.m

Re = 4/
= 4*(5.14*10-2)/4.06*10-4
= 506

Pr =

cp/k

= 4.184*(4.06*10-4)/0.662
= 2.57
From fig 1
Taking Nu = 0.27
Nu = (ho/k)*(f2/f2g)(1/3)
Using water properties at 700C,
h0 = 0.27*0.662* [(978/ 4.06*10-4)2*9.8](1/3)
=

6.87*103 w/m2.k

Wall coefficient if wall thickness is 2mm and km = 16.3 w/mk

hw = 16.3/2*10-3
= 8.15*103 w/m2k

Milk film coefficient, hi


Feed rate per tube = 40/3600 = 1.11*10-2 kg/s
Re = (4*0.110)/(0.94*10-3) = 468
At top of tube,
= (1.11*10-2)/(*0.032) = 0.110*10-2 kg/s.m
Pr is approximately twice Pr for water, so ( Pr 5 )
From fig 1, evaluating properties at 600C, (Nu = 0.28 )

hi = 0.28*0.62*{(1.010/9.4*10-4)2*9.8}(1/3)
= 3.9*103 w/m2.k

Overall coefficient based on inside area.

1/U=1/3900+1/8150(3.2/3.4)+1/6870(3.2/3.6)
U=1.99*103 W/m2.K
At bottom of the tube the flow rate is less, but liquid is more viscous.
Guess average U=1900 to find estimated rate of evaporation r.
R=1900(10) (0.032*6)/2357= 4.86 g/s
Product flow rate: 11.1-4.9 = 6.2 g/s
Solids content: 13.5(11.1/6.2) =24.2%
At bottom of tube,
= 6.2*10-3/(0.032) = 6.17*10-2 kg/s. m
Re =4(6.17*10-2)/1.6*10-3 = 154
Pr=8
From fig 1, Nu=0.33
hi=0.33(0.55)[(1,030/1.6*10-3)2*9.8]1/3 = 2.90*103 W/m2.K
Average: hi = 3900+2900/2 = 3400 W/m2.K
1/U = 1/3400 + 1/8600 + 1/7730
U = 1.86*103 W/m2.K

(b) Corrected evaporation rate


R=4.86(1860/1900) = 4.76 g/s

(c) Solids content:


13.5(11.1/11.1-4.76) = 23.6%

(d) To estimate the film thickness , the below equation is approximately correct up to
Re=1000
At top: = (3/2g)1/3 = (3*9.4*10-4*0.110/1,0102*9.8)1/3 = 3.14*10-4 m
At bottom: = (3*1.6*10-3*0.0617/10302*9.8)1/3 = 3.05*10-4 m.

Film velocity at top: u=0.110/1010/3.14*10-4 = 0.347 m/s


At bottom: u = (0.0627/1030)/3.05*10-4 = 0.213 m/s

Average: = 0.28 m/s


Average residence time: t = Length of tube/velocity of film
= 6/0.28 = 21 s

Fig 1 : Film co-efficient for condensation on vertical surfaces


[Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, McCabe-Smith, Seventh Edition, Pg no :
394]

Fig 2 : Duhring plot for boiling point of sodium chloride solutions