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Project Proposal on Highway Design

Flu

Defence Engineering College


Department of Civil and Combat
Engineering
Proposal on Access Road Design in Bishoftu
Town From Express Way Entrance to a Road
Near to Chelekleka Lake
Group Members:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Afomia Alemayehu
Bethelhem Kassahun
Gedion Woldesenbet
Hidet Siyasb
Tewodros Alemneh

EDEG/005/03
EDEG/016/03
EDEG/028/03
EDEG/037/03
EDEG/058/03

March 10, 2015

DEC Department of Civil Engineering, 2015

Page 0

Contents
Abstract................................................................................................................... 1
1. Introduction......................................................................................................2
2. Problem statement............................................................................................3
3. Literature Review.............................................................................................3
4. Objective of the Project....................................................................................7
5. Scope of the Project..........................................................................................7
6. Methodology....................................................................................................9
6.1. Data collection...........................................................................................9
6.2. Data analysis..............................................................................................9
7. Time and Budget Schedule.............................................................................10
7.1. Time schedule..........................................................................................10
7.2. Budget Schedule......................................................................................11
8. Bibliography...................................................................................................12

Project proposal on highway design

Abstract
This project is intended in Oromia regional state Eastern Shoa zone Bishoftu town. The
project will be conducted to design a new alignment that will connect the express way
Entrance with the road near to Chelekleka Lake. The group is interested in doing this
having project by observed a problem on the existing main highway that currently having
a high traffic load. So its main objective is to reduce the traffic volume of the existing
road. The project will use a primary data on surveying and soil samples and use both
primary and secondary data for traffic studying and data analysis will be aided by
software and experiment will be conducted for the soil samples.
Accordingly, this project proposal comprises of eight sections in which planning work of
the study is summarized as a proposal.

Project proposal on highway design

1. Introduction
Transportation network is an important tie binding our economy together. It provides
businesses with access to materials and markets, and provides peoples and regions with
access to goods, services, recreation, jobs, and connect to other regions. Because most
jobs throughout the economy are directly linked to transportation, it touches each one of
us every day in all aspects of our lives.
Infrastructure is one of the indispensable elements in the process of urbanization and
emergence and continuity of an urban growth. It is considered as motor/engine for
economic development (World Bank, 2006). In addition, road infrastructure plays critical
role in enhancing rural growth through improved delivery of agricultural inputs and
connection of farmers to markets.
Highways are vitally important to a countrys economic development. The construction of
a high quality road network directly increases a nations economic output by reducing
journey times and costs, making a region more attractive economically. The actual
construction process will have the added effect of stimulating the construction market.
Ethiopias surface transport infrastructure, primarily consisting of roads, is inadequate
and under developed. According to the ERA (ERA annual report, 2014) the total road
network reached 11, 301 Km paved and 14, 455 Km unpaved. In fact, Ethiopia has the
lowest road density per capita in the world. Only a few percent of the highway network is
paved, with few interconnecting links between adjacent regions, and a grossly insufficient
feeder road network. As a result, large parts of Ethiopia remain isolated and largely
dependent on back animals or human carriers for transport.
Currently Ethiopias economy is one of the fastest growing economies in the world with a
growth rate of 6.7% annually (World Bank, 2014). Most of the industries that contribute
the lion share of the economy are situated in the capital city Addis Ababa and the close
towns. Bishoftu is one of the nearby towns that become a prominent choice for
investment. To accelerate the investment in the town a well-constructed highway is
essential.
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Project proposal on highway design

Generally, this project is particularly focused on designing an access road in Bishoftu


town. This is found in central Ethiopia in Eastern Shoa Administrative zone of the
Oromia Regional State. The project covers total length of 6km.

2. Problem statement
Currently Bishoftu town has achieved a rapid economic growth and become the best
choice in investment. For instance, one of the huge car assembly factories namely,
Bishoftu Motorization is found in this town. In addition, a number of metal factories,
Agro processing industries, floricultures and hotel and resorts are situated in all corners
of the town.
Even though the town has shown a rapid growth in investment, the highway network is
lagging behind. The existing highway in the town is a four lane highway that is a part of
Addis Ababa -Djibouti corridor. Since the highway is the main gate of the port Djibouti to
the capital, it is the most crowded highway in the country. Currently the existing highway
network of the town is not enough to accommodate the traffic load.
To overcome the limitation of the existing highway the construction of a new highway is
highly essential. Hence, the alignment will decrease the traffic load and increase the
highway network of the town.

3. Literature Review
Based on the ERA Geometric Design manual (2002). The choice of design controls and
criteria is influenced by the following factors

The functional classification of the road

The nature of the terrain; the design speed;

The traffic volume expected on road;

The density and character of the adjoining land use and


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Project proposal on highway design

Economic and environmental considerations.

Types of Road
The functional classification in Ethiopia includes five functional classes:
. Trunk roads (class-): There are roads connecting centers of international importance
and terminating at international boundaries which are linked to the capital. Trunk roads
have a present AADT greater than 1000 although they can have volumes as low as
100AADT.
.Link road (class-): Center of national and international importance such as principal
towns and urban centers must be linked between each other by link roads. A typical link
road has over 400-1000AADT, although the values can range between AADT 50-10,000.
. Main access roads (class-): Centers of principal importance must be linked
between each other by main access roads. These roads have annual traffic volume of
about 30-1000.
. Collector roads (class-): roads linking locally important centers to each other to a
more important center or to higher class roads must be linked by collector roads. These
roads have 25-400 AADT.
.Feeder roads (class-): these are classes of roads linking minor centers such as market
and local locations are served by feeder roads.
Roads of higher classes, trunk and link roads have, as their major function to provide
mobility, while the primary functions of lower class roads are to provide access.

Design control factors


1. Topography

Project proposal on highway design

Topography of the area affects geometric design of a highway.The geometric design


elements strongly depends on the transverse terrain through which the roads pass.
Generally terrain properties are categorized in to four different classes:
Flat or gently: Rolling country, which offers few obstacles to the construction of a road,
having continuously unrestricted horizontal and vertical alignment (transverse terrain
slope up to 5 percent).
Rolling: in this terrain type the slopes generally rise and fall moderately and where
occasional slopes are encountered, resulting in some restrictions in alignment (transverse
terrain slope from 5 to 25 percent).
Mountainous: this class of terrain involves hilly, mountainous and river gorges. This
terrain imposes definite restrictions on the standard of alignment obtainable and often
involves long steep grades and limited sight distance.
Escarpment: in addition to the terrain classes given above a fourth class is added to cater
to those situations where by the standards associated with each of the above terrain types
cannot be met.
In general construction costs will be greater as the terrain becomes more difficult and
higher standards will become less justifiable or achievable in such situations than for
roads in either flat or rolling terrain
2. Design speed
It is the most important factor controlling the geometric design element of a highway.
Design speed is the maximum safe speed that can be maintained over a specified section
of highway when conditions are so favourable that the design features govern.
The choice of design speed is governed primarily by topography, traffic volume, function
and class of highway, capital cost, aesthetic considerations etc. Different speed standards
are assigned for different classes of the road.

Project proposal on highway design

Traditionally the first step in choosing geometric standard is to fix the design speed for
the road. However when choosing geometric standards for particular situations, it is more
important to consider the purpose for which the road is being provided.
The design speed is used as an index which links the road function, traffic flow and
terrain to the design parameters of sight distance and curvature to ensure that the driver is
presented with a reasonably consistent speed environment
The design speeds have been determined in accordance with the following guidance:

Drivers on long distance journeys need to travel at higher speeds than local traffic.

On local roads whose major function is to provide access, high speeds are
undesirable.

Drivers usually adjust their speeds to physical limitations and prevailing traffic
conditions. Where difficult location is obvious to the driver, he is more apt to
accept a lower speed of operation.

Economic considerations (road user savings vs. construction costs) may justify a
higher design speed for a road carrying large volumes of traffic than a less heavily
trafficked road in similar topography.

3. Environmental considerations
Landscape, air & noise pollution and aesthetic conditions also affect road geometries.

4. Traffic composition and volume


Vehicular characteristics related to cars, buses trucks, motor cycles all have different
speed and acceleration characteristics. The same traffic behaviour is also affected by
physical, mental and psychological characteristics of drivers and pedestrians.
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Project proposal on highway design

A highway is designed for not the traffic flow but slighter lower values, so a reasonable
value of traffic volume is decided by multiplying the peak flow with a factor.

4. Objective of the Project


4.1.

General objective

The main objective of this project is to design an access road that will directly connect
the express way to the resorts and the nearby agro industries easily.

4.2.

Specific objective

To give an easy access to the nearby agro industries and resorts from the express
way.

To decrease the high traffic volume on the existing highway since the new
alignment will give options for trucks and vehicles that will pass through the town.

To increase the existing highway network of the town.

To access the Defence referral Hospital from Addis Ababa easily.

5. Scope of the Project


The scope of the project is limited to design a highway alignment on connecting the
express way entrance to the road way near to Chelekleka Lake.

Significance of the project


The result from this project is expected to be an input for the municipality of the town for
further expanding the design to decide on constructing the highway on the area where this
project suggests.

Project Location
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Project proposal on highway design

This project is located in Oromia regional state, Eastern Shoa zone Bishoftu town and it
is proposed to be a new alignment road that connects the expressway entrance to the link
road near Chelekleka Lake. The total length of the alignment is about 6kms. The
topographic map of the highway area is given in the next page in fig 1.1.

Topography
For this project, the selected route has the same topographic features throughout its length
and most of its parts it is flat. The average elevation for this terrain is 1900m.

Fig 1.1. The Google map of the highway project area and the proposed alignment

Climate
The town has a temperate climate locally known as woina dega with a bimodal rainfall,
the main rains between June and September and the small rains between February and
April. The average annual rainfall is 723mm and the average temperature is 26oC.

Project proposal on highway design

6. Methodology
6.1.

Data collection

For this project the group will try to use a primary data and secondary data. For
determining the profile of the alignment the group will try to collect the survey data in
every 20 meter interval according to the ERA manual standard. In addition to this a
primary data will be needed in collecting a soil samples. Moreover, in dealing with the
traffic survey the group will use both the secondary data that was collected by ERA and
they try to collect some primary data using observation to see the difference in the current
situation of the traffic volume of the two feeder roads where the project will try to
connect. For the design of a drainage system they use a meteorological data that was
collected by the Ethiopian metrological agency.

6.2.

Data analysis

The traffic data (i.e. AADT) will be analyzed to decide the type and the design standard
of the road. They will calculate the cut and fill volume of soil using the survey data
collected primarily by the group. In addition, they use some essential software like MsExcel, Mx- Road and Eagle point to draw and calculate mass haul diagram and the cross
section of the road. In addition to this, for the soil samples there will be a laboratory
experiments like Liquid limit test and California bearing ratio (CBR) test that will helping
the designers to decide on the cross section of the alignment. Finally the meteorological
data will be analyzed using the proper formulas to calculate surface runoff that will help
them to design the drainage system of the road.

Project proposal on highway design

7. Time and Budget Schedule


7.1. Time schedule
The duration that the project will take is as per the duration illustrated in the following Gant Chart

I.No

Description

1
2
3

Advisor Consultation
Reconnaissance and desk study
Data collection

Conducting lab experiments

5
6

Data analysis and design


Project report writing

Draft project report submission


Final project report submission

and Presentation

Note

Intermittent activity

March
W1

W2

April
W3

W4

W1

W2

May
W3

W4

W1

June
W2

W3

W4

W1

July
W2

W3

W4

W1

W2

W3

W4

Continuous Activity

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Project proposal on highway design

7.2.

Budget Schedule

Budget breakdown for the study is according to the following table;

I. No Item Description
1
Stationary
2
Typing, copying & Printing

Unit
Ls
No.

Quantity
1
3

Rate
1,000.00
1,160.00

Amount
1,000.00
3,480.00

Data collection
Communication (Telephone

Ls

2500.00

2500.00

& e-mail)

Ls

1,000.00

1,000.00

Miscellaneous expenses

Ls

800

820.00
8,800.00

Total

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Project proposal on highway design

8. Bibliography
1. Budhu, M. (2011). Soil Mechanics and Foundations. Danvers.
2. ERA. (2002). Drainage Design Manual. Addis Ababa.
3. ERA. (2002). Geometric Design Manual . Addis Ababa.
4. Nicholas J. Garber, L. A. (2002). Traffic and Highway Engineering.
5. W. Schofield, M. B. (2007). Engineering Surveying. London.
6. World Bank. (2006). Country Report on Ethiopia.
7. World Bank. (2013). Country report on Ethiopia

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