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October

1970

{23rd year)

U.K.:

2 -stg

- Canada:

40 cents

France:

1.20 F

. -mm

.s-

Photo Archives Laffont. Paris

TREASURES
OF
WORLD ART

ffi -

/re/and

Iron Age 'Roundhead'


Curved motifs on this Irish bronze disk (2nd century A.D.) give it the appearance of a rotund human face. The
purpose of the disk is unknown, but its non figurative and geometrical designs are typical of the Celtic "La Tne "
style which reached Ireland a few centuries before the Christian Era. Decorative art in Ireland was completely
reshaped by the impact of Continental Iron Age art and particularly that of the "La Tne " culture (named from
the famous archaeological site at Lake Neuchtel, Switzerland). "La Tne" art combined three traditions: an
ancient geometric art, the animal art of the steppes and motifs from classical art.

Courier
OCTOBER 1970
23RD YEAR
PUBLISHED

IN 13 EDITIONS

English

Japanese

French

Italian

Spanish

Hindi

Russian

Tamil

German

Hebrew

Arabic

Persian

THE

CRISIS

IN

DEVELOPMENT

By Malcolm S. Adiseshiah
I. THE

11

II.

15

THE

HARSH

A SECOND

FACTS OF THE 1960s

CHANCE IN THE 1970s

U.S.A.
Published monthly by UNESCO
The United Nations

Educational, Scientific

PLIGHT

REFUGEE

OF

THE

PALESTINE

SCHOOLS

and Cultural Organization


Sales and Distribution Offices

Unesco, Place de Fontenoy, Paris-7e

18

Annual subscription rates: 20/-stg.; $4.00


(Canada); 12 French francs or equivalent;
2 years : 36/-stg. ; 22 F. Single copies : 2/-stg. ;

THE GOLDEN HOARD OF THE SCYTHIANS


By Alexander Kirpichnikov

40 cents ; 1 .20 F,

22
The

UNESCO

COURIER

is

published monthly,

MUSEUMS

FOR

MODERNS

except

in August and September when it is bi-monthly (1 1 issues a

By Duncan F. Cameron

year) in English, French, Spanish, Russian, German, Arabic,


Japanese, Italian, Hindi, Tamil, Hebrew and Persian. In the

United Kingdom it is distributed by H.M. Stationery Office,


P.O. Box 569, London, S.E.I.

28

UNITED

WORLD

COLLEGES

Individual articles and photographs not copyrighted may


be reprinted providing the credit line reads "Reprinted from
the UNESCO COURIER",

A new concept in international education

plus date of issue, and three

voucher copies are sent to the editor. Signed articles re


printed must bear author's name. Non-copyright photos
will be supplied on request Unsolicited manuscripts cannot
be returned unless accompanied
by an
international
reply coupon covering postage. Signed articles express the
opinions of the authors and do not necessarily represent
the opinions of UNESCO or 'those ;of the editors of the

By Tor Sylte

33

LETTERS

TO THE

EDITOR

34

UNESCO

NEWSROOM

UNESCO COURIER.

The Unesco Courier is indexed monthly in The Read

ers'

Guide to

Periodical

Literature,

H. W. Wilson Co., New York,

and

in

published

by

Current Con

tents - Education, Philadelphia, U.S.A.

TREASURES

OF WORLD

ART

Editorial Office

Unesco, Place de Fontenoy

Paris-7e, France

Iron Age 'Roundhead' (Ireland)

Editor-in-Chief

Sandy Koffler
Assistant Editor-in-Chief
Ren Caloz

Assistant to the Editor-in-Chief


Lucio Attinelli

Cover

Managing Editors

This year sees the close of the

English

United

French

Edition: Ronald Fenton (Paris)


Edition : Jane Albert Hesse (Paris)

Spanish

Edition :

Francisco Fernndez-Santos (Paris)

start of the Second Development

Russian

Edition :

Georgi Stetsenko (Paris)

Decade

German

Edition:

Hans Rieben (Berne)

international co-operation for

Arabic

Edition : Abdel Moneim El Sawi (Cairo)


Japanese Edition : Takao Uchida (Tokyo)
Italian
Edition: Maria Remiddi (Rome)
Hindi
Edition: K. D. Bhargava (Delhi)

Decade

Nations
of
a

the

Development
1960s

crucial

and

the

moment

in

economic and social progress in

the developing countries. For an


appraisal of the situation at this
turning point, see article page 4.

Tamil

Edition: T.P. Meenakshi Sundaran (Madras)

Hebrew

Edition: Alexander Peli (Jerusalem)

Aptly symbolizing man's efforts


to climb the stairway of

Persian

Edition : Fereydoun Ardalan (Teheran)

development, this metal sculpture

Assistant Editor

English Edition : Howard Brabyn


Photo Editor: Olga Rodel

Layout and Design: Robert Jacquemin


All correspondence should be addressed to the Editor-In- Chief

Is the work

of an American

artist,

Kent Addison, Dean of the Art

School at Maryville College in


St. Louis, Missouri.
Photo
St.

Louis

Gardner

Advertising

Company.

The crisis in development

o THE HARSH FACTS


OF THE 1960s
October 24, 1970 marks the 25th

anniversary of the United Na


tions.

ates

As the world commemor

this

event,

international

co-operation for economic and


social development in the Third
World is
cal

approaching

juncture.

Adiseshiah,

Dr.

criti

Malcom

Deputy

General of Unesco,

S.

Directorsets

forth

in the following pages his analy


sis

of

the

situation

as

this

year sees the close of the U.N.

Development
1960s

and

Decade

the

start

of

the

of

the

Second Development Decade of


the

1970s.

has

just

Dr. Adiseshiah,

completed

who

major

study on the role of education,


science and culture in develop
ment entitled "Let My Country

Awake," published last month

by

Unesco

(see

inside

back

cover), presents here his frank


views regarding the successes

and setbacks of the past Decade


and the

action

he

feels

gently called for to

is

ur

meet

the

problems of tomorrow.

by
Malcolm S. Adiseshiah
Deputy Director-General of Unesco

HE
simplest
and
most
awesome expression of today's deeprooted crisis In development is the
fact that the gap in the standards of
living of the rich one-third and the

aggregates do not tell the real story.

poor two-thirds of our world is grow-'

income from $100 to $200 by 2119,


and an Argentinian or Uruguayan will
double his Income from $500 to $1,000

ng wider every day and in every way.


Let us take just the dollar expression

of

this

living

countries
ment

ed

per

differential.

have

Decade

their

cent

of

per

two

per

the

capita

annually

poor countries

by

during

income

Increas

by

four

while

increased

($12).

rich

Develop

1960s

($292),

have

cent

The

the

But

the

theirs

these

If these trends persist, a person in the

United States will earn $10,000 annually


by the year 2000, while an African,
Indian

and

Pakistani

will

double

his

by 2009.

Our normal working tools do not


seem to be able to explain and resolve
this paradox. The abstract economic
models are unable to guide policy as

between
injecting
mere
physical
capital or improving human resources,
CONTINUED

PAGE

Photo Harvey Shaman, Kew Gardens,

N.Y.

t)M|

^S

CRISIS IN DEVELOPMENT (Continued)

Galbraith's air-conditioned nightmare

between
balanced
development
or
Induced growth, between, commodity
agreements or competition In the open

mobile out for a tour passes through

market.

300 million young people entering the

They picnic on exquisitely packaged


food from a portable ice-box by a

for two-thirds

The gap we have always had.


"The
poor are always with us." With our
current dedication to development, it
has become a crisis point.
But the
nature and dimension of the crisis have

further changed.
The daily widening
of the gap transforms a factor of ine
quality into a judgement of iniquity,
a crisis of development into a crisis

Churches

all

in

1958

and

later

Intergovernmental

United

Nations,

Unesco,

endorsed

bodies
the

U.N.

Conferences on Trade and Develop


ment and the Organization for Eco
nomic Co-operation and Development.
The tragedy is that
decision
was
solemnly

transfer

of

countries

resources

had

before
made,

to

reached

the

the
one

this
the

hideous by litter, blighted buildings,

countries to create meaningful employ

billboards,
posts for wires that
should long since have been put
underground.
They pass on into
a countryside that has been render
ed
invisible
by commercial
art.

ment. That is the most tragic failure


of the world development situation.
It has been computed that in the

menace

1968.

If

interest

and

public

health

and

on the curious unevenness of their

blessings.

Similarly,
the
family
valuable
institutions
in

and
the

other
poor

countries are being damaged by the


process
of
development which
is
essentially an unhappy form of mimi
cry, called westernization, since airconditioners, power-steered cars, ice
boxes
and
nylon tents
on
which
Western nations rank high have a ten
dency to be picked up as development
indicators

in

those

per

amortization

LT the social level, the de

velopment

is $6,300 million or 0.4 per cent.

by the statistical aggregates that we


employ 6 per cent G.N. P., 10 phy

In

fact,

if

all

net

interest

and

in the rich countries during the decade,


not a dollar has gone to aid the poor
countries.
The present transfer has
been compared to the annual expen
ditures by the rich countries of $35,000
million on liquor and $15,000 million
on cigarettes, and the mad $200,000
million on armaments.

seventies

there

will

be

labour market of the poor countries,


exist

and

of whom jobs do not

will

have

to

be

created.

The
equivalent
in
the
developed
countries will be merely replacing
those retiring.
Today,

20

per

cent

of

the

entire

male labour force in the developing


world
is
unemployed.
This
fast
growing unemployment trend is due
to the rate of population growth and
the economic growth policies followed
by the poor countries In the fifties and
sixties.

Increased

longevity
supply.

have

child

survival

increased

and

labour

High Gross National Product growth


rates have not helped create adequate
employment in countries like Pakistan,
Rep.
of Korea and Venezuela.
In

productivity and using capital intensive

payments from the poor to the rich


countries are deducted, the public aid

dividend payments to the rich countries


are allowed for, the flow becomes
negative in the case of Latin America.
This means that of some $600,000 mil
lion by which incomes have increased

nineteen

fact the tragedy is that higher growth


rates achieved through expanding the
industrial
sector,
increasing
labour

countries.

poor

cent target ($8,000 million in 1961).


It
became stagnant In 1967 at 0.68 per
cent and has declined to 0.64 per cent
in

to

morals.
Just before dozing off on
an air mattress beneath a nylon
tent, amid the stench of decaying
refuse, they may reflect vaguely

Another simple expression of the


crisis is what has happened to the one

by

The most serious aspect of the


crisis Is the failure of the developing

polluted stream and go on to spend


the night at a park which is a

of the conscience.

per cent target that rich countries


should contribute at least 1 per cent
of their national income to develop
ment in the poor countries
recom
mended by the World
Council
of

made

cities that are badly paved,

picture

presents

equally

disturbing features, which are hidden

sicians per 10,000, 2 cinema seats for

100 people.

If we look behind these

averages, we will find that in many


countries what little growth has been
registered is at the cost of distribu
tional justice.
In fact the countries
with the highest growth rate have had
an unequal sharing of the benefits
among their people.

In

some

therefore,

of

the

kind

of

poor

countries,

fatalistic

social

philosophy Is spreading
of economic growth is

that the price


disparities In

incomes

concentration

and

that

such

and labour saving techniques, made


falsely attractive by low interest and
exchange rates, cheap machine imports
and unrealistically high wages, have
not expanded
quately.
These
from

job

wage

the

absence

rural

of

opportunities

rates

attract

sector

labour

and

intensive,

ade

labour
in

the

export-

oriented occupations result in massive

urban unemployment.
The scarcity of
middle-level skills makes for largescale unemployment of unskilled or
semi-skilled labour in the ratio of 1:

10

or 12. As has been pointed out, the


irony of the unemployment crisis is
that there is no

need for it.

There

enough unfinished business


everyone employed.

to

is

keep

of incomes In a few hands is needed

HE development crisis is
world wide, and its tentacles reach out
to all lands, rich and poor. The rle of
the family as the basic unit of society
is disintegrating everywhere, the youth
revolt being but one expression of it.
Urban slums, the pollution of the air
and water and the use and

misuse of

science and technology are universal.

John Kenneth Galbraith whimsically


presents another side of this haunting
crisis

in

his

book

"The

Affluent

Society":
The family which takes its mauve
and

cerise air-conditioned, powersteered and


power-braked
auto

for increased savings.


In actual fact,
large and growing income disparities
have not stimulated growth.
They
have on the contrary acted as a
powerful disincentive to growth and
have channelled investments in luxury
goods
production,
corruption,
tax
evasion and expatriate capital flows.

At the back of these social problems


is the lack of public participation in
policymaking and development plann
ing.
A general
norm
of modern
government policies should surely be
to

decrease

correlations

between

ascribed characteristics such as race,

sex, caste, class, religion and region


and

achieved

characteristics

such

as

position, income, power and education,

preferably to zero.

ET the

crisis

have

tried

to portray arises out of a historic and


positive situation. One hundred coun
tries, constituting two-thirds of the
people of the world, have made their
choice for development.
Included in
this one hundred are 65 new nations of

Africa and Asia. "You have helped us


win our political liberation," said a
Chief of State to me, "now you must

walk along with us on the long, weary


but exhilarating path of economic libe
ration."

The work of development has

begun: it will not be finished in a day "7

or a year.

This is work for this cent- /

ury and beyond.


In opting in favour of development,
CONTINUED

NEXT

PAGE

CRISIS IN DEVELOPMENT (Continued)

The growing spectre of unemployment

did

the

poor countries

choice?

have

real

I have constantly faced this

It has
social,

not comprehended the


human and Institutional

Mortality
from

from

17,000

plague

In

1951

was

to

reduced

47

in

1966,

question when visiting Member States,

quisites

can

cholera from 63,300 to 4,400 and small

working

only be dealt with by development


policy.
It has been weak on the

there has been a direct benefit to the

on

their

rural

programmes,

helping them in the planning of a train


ing activity or in designing a research

for

development,

which

implementation and project preparation

side and has barely covered the dy

project.

On one such occasion, at the end

namic

private

sector.

pox

from

226,000

to

12,200.

Here

individual in the poor country.


Life
expectancy at birth has been raised
very fast.

of a long and weary day, when the

Even so, the record shows that the

people and the United Nations team

gramme, the village leader asked me

growth rates it generated represent


a break from stagnation and inertia,
an increase in the productive capacity
of the poor countries and a tool to

how he could help explain and re


concile this proposed action vis--vis

initiate wider and more complex pro

referred to earlier, the mortality rate


from 0 to 5 years of age was less than
two per thousand.
In human terms
this is the most convincing demonstra
tion of the power of applied science.

grammes.

All would benefit if the lawlessness of

had

worked

tightly

on

the

scheduled

modalities

of

renovation

pro

Above all, it raised savings

his fairly happy and contented fellow


villagers, whose culture, in conse

and

quence, included the wisdom:


"If ever
the feeling to work hard begins to
overcome you, just lie down, and the
feeling will pass away."

all their investments was from domestic

In

India,

Gandhiji

expressed

this

investments to levels

earlier times.

unknown

in

Eighty-five per cent of

savings.
Given the low income level
of the poor countries and how near
the margin its people live, this is a
proud and heroic record.

In

the

the

five

world

were

The

most

have

agricultural
are

should

behave

But

he

cannot

write

his

own

name.

What do you propose to do by giving


him a knowledge of letters? Will you
add one inch to his happiness?"

A
in

discussion

of

this

fun

damental option in an Arab country,


whose people have maintained their
basic

features

of

fierce

pride

and

passionate loyalty, unforgettlng hostil


ity and confident trust, wide ine
qualities and an abiding religious faith.
We were drawing up a detailed plan
to train their own geologists to take
over responsibility for exploiting the
mineral-laden countryside.

HE

education.

tion

has

most

spectacular

countries.

The

accepted
initial

in

all

poor

reluctance

of

parents in rural communities to forego


earnings of child labour, itself a back
wash of poverty and exploitation, has
yielded to the social prestige and
Recent

ly, I was in five countries where the


net growth of the population had fallen
to 1 to 2 per cent in three years and
where the reason given was universal
primary education and the absence of

between 1950 and 1965.


million

adults

were

Two hundred
made

literate

during the period. The annual rate of


growth of educational expenditures
1960

and

1965

has

been

The poor countries are devoting 5 per

choice

in the matter."

This

and technology are under preparation.


cent of their national income to educa

tion, compared to 7 per cent by the


rich

But

this

quantitative
has

been

expansion

of

conclusion is a representative sample

education

by a sad
qualitative deterioration.
Schools and university facilities are

accompanied

used only for 25 per cent of the day,


educational

drop-outs

and

repetition

leading to wastage average 50 per cent

induced change.

of those

This development option of the poor


countries has come to be expressed

techniques and streams of specializa


tions have little relation to personal
development, the environment and the

through

planning, which as a

social

technique has gained universal accept

ance.

Such planning has often times

lesson

that

decade

is

we
that

expansion and renovation

to

the

entire

development

million

tons

of

cereals

as

it

was

in the thirties, the developing world


became a net importer of 11 million
tons

in

the

sixties.

This

led

most

countries to revise their agricultural


policies for it was realized that there
were not enough foodstuffs for their
industrial workers, that there was less

employment, less Income, less savings


and less foreign exchange earnings.

I VEN more serious was the

human aspect; there were 500 million


hungry people and in a decade there
would be 600 million more, all living on
subhuman nutritional and protein intake
levels
with all their consequences on
body, mind and soul.
A change was

urgently needed.
Following, therefore,
the focus on revised policies, a good
part of the developing world is now
experiencing a major breakthrough in
food

production,

called

the

"Green

Revolution".

countries.

of what is common to the development

option by the underdeveloped world:


namely the
resigned
and
passive
acceptance of change, whereas de
velopment
demands
planned
and

this

Instead of being a net exporter of


14

On a world scale, enrolments in


schools and universities have tripled

which all In the


"Development is

have no

vital

In

illiteracy.

13 per cent in Asia, 16 per cent in


Africa and over 20 per cent in Latin
America.
National plans for- science

with it and accept the changes in our


society and culture that it brings; we

man's

ment.

Free and universal educa

been

between

on us and around us; we have to live

and

have

achievements have been in the field of

The social change and cultural dis


ruption being brought about by this
and other programmes were fully and
freely debated and the conclusion to
group agreed was:
here to stay; it is

process and that there is nothing


automatic in achieving such adjust

economic value of education.

Lshort time ago I was again

involved

parents,

reduced

Important

learned

"He knows fairly well how he


his

that

In
agriculture,
production
barely
kept pace with population growth and
in many areas fell alarmingly behind.

wrote.

towards

countries

energies turned from the preparation


for war to the works of peace.

thought even more brutally:


"Our
peasant earns his bread honestly," he

his children and his fellow villagers.


He understands the rules of morality.

larger
prere

enrolled,

and

the

curricula,

employment profile of the country.


In the health field, the achievements

been no more than a set of mathema

amount to a miracle.

tical targets or accounting techniques.

disease vectors have been controlled.

Epidemics and

This leap forward has been possible


through inputs of improved varieties
of

rice

and

irrigation,
education.

wheat

strains,

agricultural
In

fertilizers,

extension

1968-1969,

and

India's food

output was about 8 million tons above


the previous record of 89 million tons
in

1964-1965.

Pakistan

increased

its

wheat production by 50 per cent in


two years.
In non-cereal production,
similar advances have been registered
in sugar, coffee, tea, etc.
Prospects

for
growth,
therefore,
look
much
brighter now that It has been demons
trated that the peasant is like all of
us, who laughs when he is tickled,

r*tx*

A
-.

r-

-'

*r

j^Bnrrr"

V
PIfaSr^T

^
Photo

Parlmage

(C.P.),

Paris

Some countries tend to measure development in terms of air-conditioners, automobiles,


refrigerators and other consumer goods considered as "prestige" objects.

cries when he is hurt and responds in

irrigation

proved

normal

way

to

costs,

prices

and

credit.

This
agricultural
breakthrough
is
therefore not the result of magic.
It is
one part of the total technology which
includes
water
management,
land
reform and development, fertilizers,
pesticides, rural roads, regional centres
for storage, marketing facilities and
credit

resources,

all

of

which

must

now move ruthlessly forward.


Further,

it

is

important

to

ensure

that we do not get lost in the clouds


of the new agricultural technology and
allow

them

to

and

so

farmer

push

out

Increase

the

small

income

dis

parities and create a new class of


landless city proletariat.
In India, out
of 50 million farms, 30 million are
below 2 hectares

covering,

however,

charges,

seeds

and

six

times

twelve

on

times

im

countries has come to the end of the

on

line and needs recasting.


The possi
bilities of import substitution have been
largely exhausted and the countries
face a very real danger of producing
high cost, inefficient goods behind
their high tariff walls.
Protection in
these countries today Is simply a
contribution
to
high-cost
domestic

pesticides.
So the new technology is
pushing up land values and the tragic
biblical drama of Ahab the King going
down to the vineyard of Naboth the
Jezreelite "to take possession of it"
Is being repeated.
A further valuable lesson which has

been

gradually

learned

during

the

decade Is that there is no opposition

small

untimely supply of inputs, has no profit

margin to share in the new technology.


Case

studies

in

India

show

that

such technology requires him to spend


four

times

more

than

he

does

on

manures, one-and-a-half times more on

of

this

Bank's 23-year total of investments in


industry, is a drastic reminder, if

baskets all by their hands, their

children work in industry producing


tractors, fertilizers, pumps and pipes,
The industrial growth in the poor
countries has registered an overall

The

illustration

and

130

hectares.

infamous

trend is that In 1965, the poor countries

meal and flour, cement and silos.

million

The

between
agriculture
and
industry.
Their complementary and supplement
ary rle was,
during
this
period,
brought out by the fact that where
the parents work at yokes for their
oxen, gather manure, carry water,
winnow grain and weave their cloth

only 1/6 of the total farming area of


farmer who Is caught in the vicious
circle
of .fragmented
holdings,
in
security of tenure,
lack of credit
facilities, unsatisfactory marketing and

structures.

rate of 7 per cent compared to 6 per


cent

for the

world

as

whole.

This

gain
has
been
registered
despite
numerous handicaps such as shortage
of foreign exchange and domestic
skills, the small scale of the domestic
markets and the trade barriers erected

by the developed countries.


But now Industrial policy in the poor

spent $2,100 million of their domestic


resources

to

manufacture

cars

and

automative products, which had an


international valuation of only $800 mil

lion.

This

one-year waste of $1,300

million, which is more than the World

reminder there must be,

of the

need

for a revised industrial policy based


on
careful
choice
of
technology,
export-oriented
manufactures
and
exploration of all available outlets.
The most Important external factor
which has determined (undermined in

fact)

the

development

of

the

poor

countries has been their share in world

trade.

And

countries

here

the

share

has declined

of

these

steadily from

27 per cent in 1953 to 19 per cent in

1967,

and

even

In

primary

CONTINUED

products

NEXT

PAGE

CRISIS IN DEVELOPMENT (Continued)

The dilemma of birth rates

and economic growth

cent of the total.

minds In thanks. The birth rates being


unchanged, the result is an unprece
dented upsurge of the population of
the developing countries which is In
creasing twice as fast as that of the
developed countries.

The ratio of their exports to Gross


Domestic Product (G.D.P.) is around

countries,

25 per cent, a good indicator of their

1930 to 1950, rose to 28 million in 1950

in which they have an absolute and


comparative advantage there was a
decline from 54 to 42 per cent.
In fact
in 1967, the developing countries did
not increase their trade by even 2 per

heavy reliance on world trade for their


development.
Their trade and exports
have fallen steadily because of internal
causes such as reliance on single
export items and production lags, but
even more because of falling inter
national prices for their products and
the trade policies of the developed

The

annual

Increase

which

was

of
15

the

poor

million

in

to 1960 and 37 million in 1960 to 1965.

The resulting demographic trends are


staggering, the world population in
creasing from 3,600 million in 1970 to
4,400 million In 1980 and 5,000 million
in 1985.

countries.

In the developed countries the pre


ference patterns of consumers, tech

nological
Innovations
and
official
production and trade policies have all
meant

that

while

the

price

of

the

exports of the developing countries


continue to fall, thus reducing their
share of world trade and their export

earnings, the prices of capital goods


the latter import rise, thus worsening
their terms of trade.

Hence, the trade

policy of the developed countries is


far more decisive than their aid policy
for the development of the poor
countries.

And so it is a pity that while U.N.


Conferences for Trade and Develop
ment
(UNCTAD)
have
laid
down

very good general principles, they


have not worked out a programme of
action by the developed countries to
promote duty-free, non-reciprocal pre
ferential imports of primary products,
manufactures

and

semi-manufactures

from the poor countries, the building


up of buffer stocks and the develop

ment

of

compensatory

UNCTAD

II

developed

in

finance.

New

countries

Delhi

were

At
the

instead

preoccupied with their domestic prob


lems of liquidity, budgetary resources
and balance of payments.
A buoyant
world trade is surely the real answer
to these

The

real

world

concerns.

development

presents
overtones
regard to population.

situation

of tragedy
in
No other facet

HE development results of

jurious

Incomes

distribution,

rising

land values, increasing unemployment,


further lowering of low nutrition levels
and the depression of wages.
All
these will add to the crying problems
of our youth, education and the cities.

representing 70 per cent of the popu


lation of the developing world.
But
these programmes to bring fertility
rates into more tolerable balance with

new mortality experience, face a time


problem as well as the physical prob
lem of availabilities and the psycho
social resistance to make the program
mes acceptable in rural areas.
In the meanwhile, two further demo

graphic factors demand our attention.


The first is the effect on the cities of

the "poor world which are rapidly


spawning a culture of poverty. In the
1950s, urban population increased by
50 per cent, it is now doubling and
by 2000 will increase bythe impossible
percentage of 500.
One Indian city
will have over 30 million living in
its slums. Given the political attention
aroused
by urban slums and the
neglect of rural poverty, is it more
than mere cynicism to conclude that
poverty

seems

to

attract

more

atten

tion not only when it Is extreme but

pects for international development


than this question of the number of

also when it is visible?

And let me

make it quite clear that I approach


this urgent and complex issue from
the point of view of the sanctity of the
human person, the dignity of man and

the rights to life, liberty and well-being


vested in him.

Control over disease vectors, as we

have seen, has diminished death rates,

and for this great humanistic achieve


ment we should all lift our hearts and

serious

imbalance

in world trade is

compromising

economic

progress in the
Third

World.

Poor

countries pay
increasingly higher
prices for much-needed

goods and capital


equipment while their
share of international

Policies to spread family planning


have been introduced in countries

casts a darker shadow over the pros

men, women and babies.

10

this astounding phenomenon will be


seen during the decade we have just
entered.
They are simple facts: in

The other is the increasing juvenescence of the age structure of the


population.
Generally, over 60 per
cent of the population of the develop
ing world is under 25.
In one country
where

was

recently,

over

50

per

cent of the population was 18 years


and under.
The minority which must
feed,
clothe,
educate
and
provide
moral care for the majority is shrinking.
It Is the quality, the spiritual life of the
next generation which is at stake.

trade and the price of


their exports continue
to fall.
a

in

Photo shows

construction

site

Latin America.
Photo Ian Berry
Magnum, Paris

\
The crisis in development (Continued)

A SECOND CHANCE
IN

W
W W

As

HERE do we go from here?

result

of

the

decision

of

the

comity of nations, we are now prepar


ing
for
the
Second
Development
Decade. This is to give us a second
chance to go on from where we stand
today.
And the main outline of the
tasks for the developing and developed

countries,

for our village world,

the

world community, as one study terms

it, is emerging with startling clarity.

The developing countries are to plan


for an annual Gross Domestic Product

increase of 6 to 7 per cent, with the


resultant 3.5 to 4.5 per cent per capita
growth. This GDP Indicator must be
supported by a programme of income
distribution, structural change,
land

THE

reform
and
an
population
policy.

1970s

employment
and
The agricultural

production,

such

famine years

in

caused

two

countries

sustain the 6 to 7 per cent rate, feed


the growing population, improve the
intake
of
proteins
and
nutritional
levels, ensure growing supplies of
raw materials for Industry, insulate
pressure on domestic prices and ease
the strains on balance of payments.

assistance above the one per cent


target in order to avoid both bottle
necks to expansion and inequities In

five acre farm into a viable unit.


is

an

unavoidable

short-fall

If there
In

food

increase

the

developed

sector must increase by 4 per cent to

Agricultural growth must ensure the


participation of the small farmer in the
new technologies through the creation
of special
institutions
such
as
a
small farmers' development agency
which can help to convert the three to

must

as

India, the

their

food

welfare.

Industry, which is the sheet anchor


of modernization, must expand at an

annual average rate of 8 to 9 per cent.


There must be an appropriate expan
sion

in

the

infrastructural

network.

Consumption should rise at a slower


rate than GDP in order that a savings

target of 15 to 20 per cent may be


attained.

ties

New employment opportuni

should

be

created

through

planned employment policy based on


CONTINUED

NEXT PAGE

H -

Photos

David

CRISIS IN

Robison

Parimage (C.P.).

Paris

DEVELOPMENT (Continued)

the surplus and scarcity status of


factor supplies and using fiscal, monet
ary, trade and earnings incentives.
Education in all forms, which

I will

return to later, must move forward in

quantity and quality calling for a 5 to


6 per cent expenditure of GDP.
Research and development must be
promoted, involving a further one per
cent.

Health

conditions must be fur

ther improved and a well administered


population control programme ensured.

pressure

on

their consuming

All this should

public.

result in an increased

capacity of the developing countries to


expand their imports by one per cent
per annum in order to sustain the 6 to
7 per cent target.

it will

reach 30 per cent)

At the national level, a new institu

and will move to 9,200 million dollars

tional
framework
for
development
should be created through changing
attitudes, motivations, legislative re

in 1971.
There is need for long-term
re-scheduling and re-financing of this

forms and

social

both

end

the

services, which
and

the

means

are

Second Decade.

12

ducts,

manufactures

factures

which

exert

and

semi-manu

an

inflationary

ordination

share

their

domestic

pro

of

of aid

official

and

Increase

aid,

in

in the

other words

an improvement in the quantity and


quality of aid. One way of doing this
is to pledge ourselves to Increase the
quantity of official aid from the present
$6,300 million to between $16,000 to
$19,000 million by 1972-1975 and Im
prove Its quality.
Aid

table

is

neither a

handout.

bribe

nor a

chari

Fundamentally,

aid

policies are based on the hard fact


that we live in one shrinking world and
that every man's welfare is the concern

development.

The most important contribution of


the developed countries to the devel
opment of the Third World is "in the
trade field.
They must follow up the
Kennedy Round by giving preferences
to
Imports
from
the
developing
countries, through eliminating, or at
least drastically reducing their tariffs
and quotas.
Such a move is in their
own interest as it not only ensures
comparative cost benefits, but also
reduces the high cost agricultural pro

with

duction schedules and profit potential.

intolerable millstone at the start of the

of

The developed countries, on their


side, should expand their own devel
opment, aiming at an annual average
of 4 (3.7-4.2) per cent of GDP growth,
involving 3 per cent per capita. This is
their first task
the war against their
own poverty pockets and areas of
deprivation begins at home but it
cannot stop there.

accordance

These problems call for better co

The debt servicing burden of the


poor countries casts a pall on all devel
opment perspectives. It was 4,700 mil
lion dollars in 1967, forming 15 per cent
of their exports (in the case of India
and Brazil

vide 50 per cent of the country's


investment, deciding the nature, rhythm
and timing of its development in

of all his neighbours.

The centre-piece to the international

|N the aid field, the target

of one per cent of national income has


been agreed upon by all concerned,
involving 70 to 75 per cent of the tar
get in official government-to-govern
ment or multilateral aid, taking the form
of grants and soft loans. As the Pear
son Commission points out, this is no
give-away programme.

Given
which

It

serious
word

the

form

is

made

hesitation

"aid"

and

purposes

available,

in

even

using

for

have

the

in this context.

In one Member State, with a popu


lation of four-and-a-half million, foreign
aid
programmes
have
introduced
20 different types of tractors (with the
result that no servicing and spare parts
industry is possible).
They also pro

frame for the Second Development


Decade is Man, the resources he

represents
demands.

and

the

education

he

Let us not forget that the

purpose of all development is Man and


that he is its motive force and maker.
The

Unesco

doctrine

is

that

the

essential instrument of such develop

ment is the continuing improvement


of the resources represented by the
whole population through the supply
of

men

and

women

who

have

been

educated, trained and harmoniously


integrated into the development move
ment.

This demands a global vision of the


entire educational system and all other
institutions involved in the develop
ment of human resources, science,
CONTINUED

PAGE

14

SCHOOL IN THE SAND. Children In most countries know sand as something to make castles out of, but for
these children in a Sudanese village it serves as a notebook on which to write out words and sentences they
have learned (photos above).
Developing countries have increased their spending on education, but many millions
of children still lack classrooms, teachers and equipment.
In contrast to the makeshift school above, youngsters
in this infant school classroom (below), in an industrially developed country, are introduced to "new mathematics"
concerned with theories of sets and relations which 20 years ago were reserved for research specialists.

13

CRISIS IN

DEVELOPMENT (Continued)

Towards a global concept of education

technology,

information

and

culture.

refer to

recent studies

by

J.S. Coleman in the U.S.A. and T. Hu-

from

stress rote memory instead of ability


to solve development problems; to
channel today's splendid
drive
for
participation into self-help and selfrenewal learning patterns. In short to
innovatel But always innovation in the

evaluations

sn, in Sweden, which show that the

and applying a wider systems analysis


approach,
examining
fearlessly
all
operational
relationships
in
human

most important influence on student


performance in the school is not the
teacher and his qualifications (which

resources development and applying to


it the principles of balanced growth.

must always be high for quite other


reasons), nor the equipment in the

direction of the liberation of talent and

laboratories

and economic justice so as to make


all development serve man.

traditional

tests

and

The actual educational systems, as


they have evolved during the current
decade, with their wastages, imbalan
ces, irrelevancies, unused capacities,
obsolescences and unemployment endproducts, are knocking heavily at the
doors

of the

Second

Decade.

new relationships between education


and society, over and above the usual
economic constraints and manpower
budgeting that have been imposed on
us.

These

constraints

are

modern

in

truth

based on the philosophy that human


development planning should be inte
grated with and subordinated to eco
nomic development planning.

in

(which
the

must

interest

always
of

be

scientific

of

the

economic

and

social

environ

ment in which the school is placed.

And

this

brings

rle

and

me

social

back

to

the

demand

for

education
education
being
woven
into the development process and the
school

and

the

adult education

centre

being dynamic agents of change when


surrounded by a moving and growing
society. But this means that the impact
of education on society depends on
non-education
economic

on the other social and

institutions

which

can

gogy. In this context, we are missing


spectacular development-directed op
portunities through the poor use and

countries must postpone the education

misuse of our mass media which is so

they need in favour of training and that


in
order
to
offset the
distorting
influence of the white collar profes

largely devoted to

sions

Education must therefore be adapted


to each local society but equally it
must transform that society. And to do

heavy,
should

the

structure

almost
be

subjects,

of

education,

exclusive,

placed

on

engineering

emphasis

science-based

and

what

are

called practical skills that are needed

for a mechanizing society.


The truth is the other way around.
What is needed is a more differentiated

approach and, as appropriate, econo

mic planning should be integrated in


and subordinated- to the development
of

human

educated

resources.

The

unemployment

is

cure

not

to

there

are

we

have

seen

no

short-term

earlier,

remedies

the economy for the growing


ployment

problem.

If,

In

unem

however,

the

economy were integrated into the edu


cational system, instead of the other
way around, then the educated person
could

and

would

create

his

of the

ing,

or

induced,

or

created,

most effective

can

be

acquired flexibly as one goes along in


life.

instruments

for enlarging employment and combat


ing unemployment during the Second

two-way

planning

integration

of

economic

and human resources devel

swept

The largest and most decisive contri

bution of education is in widening the


horizons of youth, in giving them the
capacity to

condition,

adapt to the

and

by

new

preparing

human

them

share in all innovative activities.

to

Can

education fire their imagination at a


faster rate than that at which they are
setting fire to our educational struc
tures?

We cannot,

of course,

orient

our youth in certain directions or give


them a free area for participation, If
all
incentives are
lacking,
if they
observe that we do not practise that
which we preach, that the society that
we

have

created

and

dominate

is

vastly different from our verbalization


of it.

We preach peace and make or con


done war. We talk about equality and
enjoy the fruits of inequality. We Insist
vocational

education

but send

our

for their total loyalty. May not then an


increasingly
heavy
focus
on
real
equality in educational opportunities
help form young men and women who
will transform our society?

and the start

of the application of the concept in


non-formal education, strategies in
innovation, the use of new techniques,
methods, curricula, together with new
concepts in educational planning, rang

ing

from

systems

analysis

to

New learning
conceived

method

and

does

not

call

MALCOLM S. ADISESHIAH Is Deputy Direc


tor-General of Unesco.
He joined the orga

systems

where

generation

pro

gramme budgeting.

the

of instruction

need
content

are

to

be
and

relevant to

the spirit and the needs of the 1970s.


The only way to search for educational

try out new learning systems in both


in-school and out-of-school institutions;

To further support this plea for the

have

young

learning will call for fundamental chan

mic strategies.

for

which

pared for them. International Education

life-long

development of education and econo

need

those

Year 1970 inaugurated at the threshold


to' the Second Development Decade,

of

risks on speculative programmes; to

is

to

ges in educational philosophy and


educational aid and we must be pre

concept

breakthroughs Is to experiment and


to evaluate those experiments
to take

There

similar

through health and agriculture during


the first? I fervently hope so.

own sons and daughters for a uni


versity classics degree.
We cannot
effectively plan education for a so
ciety that cannot be imagined by our

central

mutual

Decade.

ILL this at long last usher


in that technological revolution in edu
cation during the Second
Decade,

on

The

own

employment, with some support from


the State and the private sector. The
supply of well-educated persons is
one

should become a life

long learning process (instead of being,


as it is, a life-long teaching and
cramming process), involving the ac
quisition of learning skills, of the capa
city to learn, so that the specific
training for specific employment, exist

will see the elaboration

LS

and

less

education so that there can be just


uneducated unemployment.

indoctrination

spurious entertainment.

this, education

use

fully use the educational output and


induce a development-oriented peda

A recent economic survey contains


the suggestion that in the interests of
increased productivity, the developing

on

Intellect, and in the direction of social

truth) but the dynamism or stagnation

social

I believe it is for us now to work out

14

opment,

Such a vision demands breaking away

nization

in

1948

and

will

at the end of this year.


Dr.

Adiseshiah

will

retire

from

Unesco

After leaving Unesco,

become

Director

of

the

Madras
Institute of Development Studies,
which he
is founding.
The Institute will
promote the study of economic and social
development problems in Tamil Nadu and in
Southern India generally.
Born in the State
of

Madras,

Dr.

Adiseshiah

was

educated

in

India
and
Great
Britain.
Before
joining
Unesco, he headed the Department of Econo
mics at the Christian College, Madras and
had

been

of

lecturer

in

Calcutta.

economics

He

at

launched

the

Uni

to leave aside some of the traditional

versity

Unesco's

impediments of academic pedagogy,


such as examination systems which

first development aid programme and has


been particularly concerned with problems of
development ever since.

SMf

;^f*;%

m-

mjjd

^fr '

I
Photo

UNRWA

Overcrowding is so serious in some schools for Palestine refugee children


that classes are run on a shift basis. Here, children change shifts at a
prefabricated school in the Baqa'a camp near Amman, Jordan. Over
220,000 school-age refugees in the Middle East attend schools run jointly
by the U.N. Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) and Unesco.
More than
83,000 children are in schools operating a double-shift system and over
10,500 go to school in tents or temporary buildings.

THE

PLIGHT

OF THE

PALESTINE

REFUGEE SCHOOLS

n the crowded
refugee
camps of the Middle East, third gener
ation Palestine Arab refugee children,

the

born to parents who were themselves


born in these same camps, are now

services.

beginning to learn to walk. Each year


more than 55,000 children are born to

refugee parents and these new births,


coupled with a fresh influx of refugees
following the Six-Day War of 1967,
have
swelled
the
original
figure
of

some

900,000

Palestine

Arabs

displaced by the war of 1948 and car


ed for by the United Nations Relief
and Works Agency (UNRWA) to over
1 ,400,000.

UNRWA was established in 1949 by

United

Nations

to

provide

refugees with food,

shelter,

and

and

health,

welfare

the

clothing

educational

Today approximately 700,000 of the


refugee population are under the age
of 18 and as a consequence the bur
den

of

the

educational

constantly expanding.

up

nearly

43

effort

is

It now swallows

percent

of

UNRWA's

resources annually
only slightly less
than is expended on rood, clothing
and

shelter.

educational programme and provides


the higher directing staff and a number
of experts who advise on the planning
and execution of the programme as a
whole and on the teaching of specific
subjects.
The joint UNRWA-Unesco education
programme now reaches some 297,000
children

of

whom

taught In the
primary
and

over

220,000

are

480 UNRWA-Unesco
first-level
secondary

schools that have been established In

Jordan, the
Gaza Strip.

Lebanon,

Syria

and

the

15

In the educational field Unesco has

an important role to play. It assumes


technical responsibility for the broad

All the refugee children receive six


years schooling between the ages of
CONTINUED

NEXT

PAGE

Right, mountain-top view of Baqa'a, a "city-camp" for


Palestine refugees, near Amman, Jordan.
The largest
of UNRWA's six emergency camps, it houses over
40,000 people.
Below right, prefabricated huts
provided by UNRWA have done much to improve
living conditions at Baqa'a. Below, a tented

camp at Djeener, also in Jordan.

REFUGEE SCHOOLS (Continued)

and

12

and

those with

satisfac

tory scholastic record continue for a


further three years in the first-level
secondary schools.
By a system of
payments to

government and

schools

some 64,000

receive

additional

refugee

upper

private

pupils

secondary

education.

The refugees are hungry for educa


tion.
Many of the schools are over
crowded and double shifts of pupils
are

not

uncommon.

enough. An important feature of the


UNRWA-Unesco programme is the
technical and semi-professional train
ing provided at 12 special centres.
The courses, generally lasting two
years, cover a wide range of occup
ational training, turning out plumbers,
draughtsmen, hairdressers, laboratory
assistants, instructors, etc.
Indication

of

the

educational

effort being made is the fact that last


year over 7,000 candidates in the Gaza
Strip alone sat for their U.A.R. matri
culation

examination.

It was the first

time that examinations of this type had


been held since the Strip was occu

The holding of these examinations


involved Unesco in delicate negotia
tions and arrangements to collect the
examination papers from Cairo and
return the candidates' papers there
for marking.
More than 5,000 of the
candidates

were

mile

of

them

journey

set

to

out

on

Cairo,

in

the

five

convoys co-ordinated and supervised


by the Red Cross, to begin courses
in universities and other higher learn
ing institutions.

UNRWA is financed by voluntary


contributions from governments and
donations from voluntary organizations
and private individuals and, therefore,
cannot count on a regular and steadily
income to

meet

its

grow

ing needs.
The rapid rise in the
refugee school population alone has
added some $5 million to the cost of
the

UNRWA-Unesco education pro


gramme since the 1966-1967 school
year.

Clearly the need for an expanding


educational effort will continue to exist

so long as the problem of the refugees


remains unsettled, yet owing to short
age of funds the UNRWA programme
is in danger.
The impact of any
substantial reduction in the Agency's
services
will
almost
certainly
fall
heavily on the education and training
programme, despite the tragic implic
ations

which

this

will

have

for

the

future of the refugee children.

pied In 1967.

16

thousand

200

increasing

But formal education In itself Is not

An

successful

and

in

February and March this year just over

As

eral,

UNRWA's

Mr.

Commissioner-Gen

Laurence

Michelmore,

told

the U.N. General Assembly in 1969,


"If education and training were to be
curtailed, the horizon of the refugees
would

be

valuable
to the

even

form

Arab

more

limited

of technical

world would

and

assistance

be

lost."

\ -n
>>

r\v

Vj

m >

>M

The golden hoard


by

of the Scythians

Alexander

Kirpichnikov

ALEXANDER KIRPICHNIKOV
Union

is

historian

who

of

has

the

Soviet

become

well

known in his country for his books and studies


on archaeology and the history of art.

Photos

V.

Chuprynin,

Archaeology

Institute,

Ukrainian

Academy

of

Sciences,

Kiev

In 1969, an archaeological expedition led


by Prof. A. Leskov excavated a Scythian
tomb in the

Kakhovka district of southern

Ukraine which had escaped the attentions


of grave-robbers.
It contained the

skeleton of a Scythian warrior, 520 gold


objects and countless other objects
of great

historical

value.

The

tomb

is

considered to be the richest 5th century


B.C. Scythian burial ever discovered.
Above,

gold

detail

torque

decorations

one

end

of a

necklet;

of

the

enamel

retain

their

colour

massive,
to

this

day.
Below, three of the many tiny
gold plaques that adorned the warrior's
quiver, depicting a deer, a wild
and a hunting-dog.

boar

^r

HE air traffic director of Moscow's Sheremetiev

airport looked askance at the two young men who stood In front of him, travelstained and red-eyed from lack of sleep. But there was an air of urgency
and determination about archaelogist Vasili Bidzilya and police lieutenant Vla
dimir Kapstov that lent authority to their demand for an immediate priority
flight to Leningrad for themselves and the battered suitcase which they
refused to put down even for a second.

A glance Inside the suitcase was enough for the airport official.

Within

minutes the two men and their precious cargo were in the air and three

hours later they were unpacking their treasures beneath the- astounded gaze
of the Director of the Hermitage Museum, Dr. Boris Piotrovsky, whose eyes
widened as, one after another, gold-rimmed vases, a gold and silver bowl,

two drinking horns embellished with gold and silver, three silver vessels and
a bundle containing hundreds of small gold discs were placed on his desk.
CONTINUED

PAGE

21

Thieves
tomb

who

near

rifled

Balki

in

the

"Gaimonov"

southern

Ukraine

failed to find this magnificent gold and


silver loving-cup (below and detail
back cover), and the gold sheep's head
that adoms the tip of a silver rhyton
or drinking horn, above. Unearthed by
a young Ukrainian archaeologist
Vasili Bidzilya in the summer of 1969,
during a routine check of some burial
mounds threatened with obliteration by
a vast irrigation scheme, the loving-cup
is a veritable archaeologist's encyclopaedia
of Scythian life, dress, habits and
customs "written" in gold and silver
by a master craftsman of the
4th century B.C.

Photos APN

The Scythians were great lovers of the


decorative arts, and by a curious quirk
of history they have preserved for us
in their tombs remarkable examples of
Greek craftsmanship.
From the
Chertomlyk tombs in the Rostov area
came this gold plate, above, depicting

20

scenes from the life of the Greek

hero Achilles,

which

once

embellished

a Scythian quiver. Right, a gold facing


for a scabbard showing scenes of
battle between Greeks and Scythians.

THE SCYTHIANS (Continued)

Faces of silver, garments of gold

It was

triumph.

moment

of

unhoped

for

Early In 1969, young archaeo

of Scythians in existence and the lov


ing-cup is clearly the handiwork of a

was the skeleton of a guard with his


lance and bow and arrows beside him.

logist Vasili Bidzilya had been detail

master

ed to supervise the excavation of some

sculptor with the eye and attention to

Scythian burial mounds, near the


Ukrainian village of Balki on the left

detail of an ethnographer.

bank

of

the

100 miles

lower

Dnieper,

north west of the

some

Crimean

peninsular. The mounds were threat


ened by the approach of the North
Rogachik irrigation canal system and
the excavation was thought to be me
rely a matter of routine. Vasili Bidzilya
could hardly have anticipated that he
would stumble across a treasure-trove

that would make his name famous.

Most of the

objects

found

In

bear

and Kul

skilled

threshold

When the

Unfortunately, the other side of the


cup is badly defaced, but two seated
figures can be made out.
They are
beardless

and

each

has

one

arm

stretched out towards the other.

One

apparently blocked by earth, which had

fallen on the grave of a woman in


which were found her leg bones and
the remains of a pair of high leather
boots adorned with 43 gold triangular-

of them has a goblet resting on his


knee.
To their right a kneeling man

shaped plates.

shields

Then, suddenly, one of the search


ers stumbled on a patch of softer

his

face

with

one

hand

and

with the other proffers something to


his seated lord. To the left a figure is
to be seen drinking from a wine-skin.

earth. A glint of gold set them digging


furiously

and

With its six figures, who judging by


their

accoutrements

must

have

been

Oba.

ed

the

treasure

The

Vasili Bidzilya ended his investig


ation of the burial mounds by tackling
the largest kurgan, a man-made hillock
over a grave, on which a watch tower
is sometimes placed.
The kurgan in
question

measures

some

30

feet

in

height by 250 feet in diameter and is


surrounded by 70 smaller mounds,
some of which had been opened up
earlier. Working under Bidzilya's su
pervision, miners from the Zaporozhe
iron ore centre took 2 1/2 months to
remove half the earth mound on top of
the kurgan which was enclosed by a

excavation

full

of

thongs.

One

belt,

on

Scythian
which

his

The other holds a quiver

arrows

while

case lie beside him.

bow

and

hand upraised and holding a whip.


By
fashioning their hands
and
faces in silver and their garments in
gold the craftsman has achieved a
luminous, vital effect.
He has given
their faces a solemn, pensive expres
sion as though they were praying or
taking an oath.
For sheer artistry
these are probably the finest portraits

Gaimonov

on display.

The earth mound over the

kurgan is to be replaced and the


ancient white stone kerbing that sur
rounds It is to be restored. Rising like
a pyramid out of the flat expanse of
the plain, the mound will continue to

mark the last resting place of Scy

low circular wall or kerb.

thian warriors, a tomb which for their

of

broken

arrow

the

amphorae,

heads.

base

ators

At

of the

also

the

mound.

found

an

bridles
base

of

The

careful

inspection

of

the

made

walls

ing fragments of the alabaster facing of


kitchen

A little farther on the

area was found with

a selec

tion
of cooking
utensils including
bronze tongs for extracting pieces of
meat, a cauldron, a cooking pot, a tray,
a

dish,

small

bucket,

window

OF SIBERIA
Near the

of

of the vault revealed a niche contain

a sarcophagus.

FROZEN TOMBS

sieve

for

point

Russia,

converge

provided

the

excav

entrance

has

looking back on to the mysteries of

and

centuries ago by grave-robbers.

bow

Each man has one

the

A museum Is to be erected on the

mound were two entrances leading to


an underground chamber 25 feet below

ankles

of

site of these discoveries and copies of


the most valuable objects will be put

terned

at the

un

and are being Investigated.

the past.

secured

lain

ing the central one, have been found

bones of sheep and horses, fragments

and

had

tomb has not yet been completed.


Three more burial mounds, Includ

On one side of the cup are


seen two long-haired, bearded, seated
figures. They wear caftans of a pat
narrow trousers

that

weaponry and dress.

thian life.

hand rests.

had

disturbed in the earth for 24 centuries.

descendants

sword

which

end the exultant searchers

On the western slope of the mound


they found traces of a funeral feast

cache

ed up its treasure, including the lov


ing-cup described above. For eighteen

Perhaps the most interesting find


is a gold and silver loving-cup on
which a bas relief depicts scenes of
military and diplomatic events in Scy

leather

the

baffled the grave-robbers at last yield

hours on

Soviet academician Boris Rybakov


has described the discovery of the
Gaimonov tomb as "a great achiev
ement that will give fresh Impetus to
the whole study of Scythian culture."

wears

plunderers of the past

had entered the tomb this area was

examined, catalogued and photograph

and in the Crimea. They were skilled


horsemen and maintained their empire
from the 9th century B.C. until the
3rd century B.C. when they were gra
dually replaced by the Sarmatians.

by

kitchen

personages of considerable eminence,

In the area of the Black Sea, the lower


reaches of the Dnieper and the Don

pointed boots

the

this bas relief gives a fascinating


glimpse of a long-vanished world and
provides invaluable details of Scythian

The
Scythians were
a
nomadic
people who established their kingdom

material,

of

the

affinity with

Scythian burial mounds of Chertomlyk,


Solokha

was

the

earlier at the famous

close

treasures found

who

the

"Gaimonov tomb", as it is now desig


nated, are unique specimens, although

they

craftsman

across

where

China
lie

the

and

the

borders

Mongolia

frozen

burial

barrows of Pazyryk.
Unlike the
Black Sea Scythian mounds which
were topped with earth, the Pazyryk
barrows were covered with great
boulders.
Rain seeped through the
boulders, was turned into ice by the
savage Siberian winter and convert
ed the tombs into huge underground

refrigerators.

Although

the

tombs

were rifled by robbers in search of

straining wine, several clay amphorae

gold, for 2,500 years

a vast range

and a ladle for drawing wine.

of

ice-encrusted

Lying

articles

remained

beneath the soil in virtually pristine


condition.
Uncovered
by
Soviet
anthropologist
and
archaeologist
Sergei Rudenko in 1947-1949, they
give us a picture of a horsebreeding
people living much like the Scythians
of the

Black

Sea

area.

The

fasci

nating story of these tombs and the


Iron Age horsemen buried in them
is told in Sergei Rudenko's book
"Frozen Tombs of Siberia", recently
translated into English for the first

time by Dr. M. W. Thompson (see


Bookshelf, page 34).

21

Museums

for moderns
by Duncan F. Cameron

HEN a child from the city

on his first country holiday collects


stones and mushrooms, a butterfly, a
dead toad, leaves and flowers, we may
dismiss it as childish curiosity.
But
notice

how

he

takes

his

treasures

to

a private place; see how he arranges


and re-arranges his collection. See his
real distress, not just when an unthink
ing parent throws out his precious

been one of man's ways of coming

Is

to

one

terms

First,

his

environment.

let us consider the traditional

museum in these terms.


us

Second, let

look at the innovations of the last

twenty

years

and

more

which

were

intended to give the traditional mu


seum relevance in the world of today's
audience

and

to

democratize

the

museum.

Finally let us speculate on

someone

else's

else's

collection

model

of their

which you may examine."

some

reality
When, on

the other hand, the museum is a public


museum, the visitor is told, "This is
your museum. This Is your collection.

Here is a sampling of a reality and a


view of the world which should

have

meaning for you."

mother tidies up the childish array,


destroying the spatial relationships he
has painstakingly established.
It is
not only through his collection but
also through its structure as a model
of a new reality, that he seeks under
standing.

the museum as Everyman's public yet

How often does the visitor find him


self in an alien environment In the

private

traditional

Similarly, consider the compulsive


ordering and arranging of objects in
the private quarters of the aged, as
they strive to maintain faith in a reality
long past. View, In this light, the

is meant the so-called public museum

finds, but also when a well-meaning

apparent chaos and random display


of objects in the private room of a

teenage girl or boy.


See their fre
quent restructuring of the "collection",
and the uncertainty of those years
expressed

model

in

the

which

can

need

be

for

flexible

manipulated

to

suit the whims of the moment as their

search for an identity


a place in the
scheme of things
goes on.
This is
what collecting is all about.

environment

for

personal

often

"public"

does

chaos.

The traditional museum, and by this


of the late nineteenth and early twen
tieth century, may have had any of
many origins. Rarely was it a museum
created in the public interest and

planned from its beginnings to serve

in

that

familiar

than

the social function

has been constant.

The arbitrary sampling of a reality


perceived, and the organizing or struc
turing of a model of that reality, has

F.

CAMERON is

National

Director

of

the Canadian Conference of the Arts, a


national
association
of
Canada's
major
organizations in the arts, and Co-ordinator of
the

International

Sub-committee

on

the

Pub

lic and Modern Art, of the International Coun

cil of Museums.

A museologist and cultural

resources consultant, Mr.

ten

widely

based on a

in

these

Cameron has writ

fields.

His

study he presented *c

article

is

recent

Unesco
international symposium
on
seums in the Contemporary World."

"Mu

more

made

of

rele

accessible

to

but rather re-enforcement for his fan

it was

The museum, as distinct from other

a private, and possibly a highly artis

media of communication, depends pri


marily on things on real things
rather than on words or mages or
symbols or replicas.
The nouns of
the museum language are objects; the

mass

audience.

More

often

tic or individualistic collection, opened


to the public.

It may have been a private house,


modest or grand, opened to the public
by virtue of its history, its contents,
past inhabitants,

or failure to find

any other use for it.

its

It may have been

democratization

naive,

were

present

which,
even

though
century

ago.

The
museum,
before
becoming
public, was the domain of its private
owner,
a
university,
a
church,
a
society, or some other persons or
body which had neither created the

museum, nor organized it for effective


use of any kind, by a mass audience.
Even

DUNCAN

chaos

was

tasy world which he can artfully con


trive from our offerings?

relationships between objects are the


verbs. The adverbs and adjectives of
the language are the supplementary

media

of print,

organization

In other terms,

world

him within? And when he does linger,


how often is he finding, not meaning
ful relationships with his day-to-day
world, not understanding or revelation,

for

standing of his world.

How

the

vance

as

ent since the first collector,

tion to come to some deeper under

to

ceived

case

them striving through their contempla

museum?

retreat

outside our museum where he can find

The museum, I suggest, has a social


function today which has been inher
at some

he

adventure in self-discovery and the


search for identity in a world of cons
tant change which is so easily per

a scholarly collection, the by-product


of research or exploration, opened to
the public by the political pressures

point distant In time, gathered objects


around him, arranged and re-arranged

22

with

If

it

had

been

effective

in

graphic,

sound,

film,

colour and form in the object environ

ment,

and so forth.
the

prime

This being the

requirement

and

for

administration

the

of

museum is the person or persons who


know most about the things which
constitute the collection, or who know
best

how to

needed

assemble

and

build

the

collection.

These experts, the curators, are of


necessity at the core of all museum
organization.
Without them and their
expertise the objects of the collection

its

cannot be encoded with the objective

private rle as a collection or museum,

and
precise
messages
which
are
required if the collection is to become
the meaningful sample of a reality
referred to above. It is the knowledge
of the curator, his researches and his

it was unlikely to be effective in its


new public rle.
I know, in fact, of
no instances where a private museum
became, in reality, a public museum.
I know only of private museums which
became open to the public.
The dif
ference is important.
Where the private museum is open
to the public the visitor is told, "This

Insight, which permit the museum to


so present the object that it can speak
for

itself.

Only
the
non-museums
of
twentieth
century the
exhibit
CONTINUED

the
and

PAGE

24

Photo

Unlike

Mike

the

Peters,

traditional

Twickenham,

U.K.

museum,

often rigidly didactic in presenting


its collections, the modern "creative"
museum seeks to put the visitor
into direct contact with what it has

to offer and help him find in these


objects meaningful relationships
with his day-to-day world.
Whereas
children have no difficulty in

making contact with objects, thus


lighting a spark of wonder and
curiosity (photo above), adults have
often become accustomed to regard
the

label

source

of

as

more

information

important
than

the

object itself (left).

23

Photo

Bruce

Davidson

Magnum,

Paris

MUSEUMS FOR MODERNS (Continued)

The

curator

'Jack-of-all-trades'

demonstration centres without research

collections

or

resources

for

original

research in their fields of interest

are

free of this dependency on the curator.


They
of
course
must
assume
a
parasitic rle, being indirectly de
pendent on those museums which do

had

to

fall

back

on

what

he

knew

best which was the private language

of
his
galleries

scholarly
became

discipline.
The
elaborate,
three-

collect, research and publish and do


provide
curatorial
expertise.
But
more of the new, non-museums later.

dimensional
expressions
of
nine
teenth century systems of the classifi

For the moment it is important to


consider the effect which this prime
dependence on the curator has had
on the organization and administration

tion

of museums.

Since the curator was the authority,


and because there was usually no
other

staff

available,

the

curator

became not only the collector and


researcher, but also the interpreter.

It was he who designed the exhibition,


who

24

therefore the interpreter.


With rare
exceptions he was untrained for these
rles.
In attempting to fill them he

determined

the

exhibition

pro

gramme, who produced the interpret


ative label and prepared messages for
other supplementary media.
It was
the curator who selected and arranged
the objects for public display and It
was often the curator who also gave
the guided tour and the lecture. Who
else? Was he not the authority?
Of course he was, but he was first

a scholar, and was being asked to


become a designer, an educator and

cation of knowledge.
of

the

The interpreta

collections,

rather

than

relating to the experience of the


visitor, or to his values, related only
to the compulsive and obsessional
attempts of scholars of that time to
find
understanding
through
ency
clopaedic exercises in the structuring
of knowledge.
In fairness

it must be said that the

its effect on museum organization and


administration, it should be noted that

references to systematics, the obses


sional ordering of knowledge, or the
manifestation of curatorshlp as a threedimensional textbook, are not directed

towards museums of natural history


or of science and technology alone.

The history museum and the art


museum, including the museum of
contemporary art, fall prey to the same
ills as the others.
in

use

in

others.

these

Private codes are


museums

as

In

the

The criteria for the selection

and organization of works of art or


for determining objects of historical
significance
constitute
a
mystique
which may be even more threatening
and baffling to the visitor than that

curator did
not ask to be given
responsibilities for which he was un
prepared.
Nor would it be fair to say

which

that all of them did not want to reach

This situation has persisted through


the reluctance of the public to protest
it and the willingness of, governing
bodies to support It.
Both have been
in awe of the mystique of curatorship,
both have been unprepared to admit

their mass audiences.


They simply
did not know how to go about it.
The
situation was compounded by the facts
that
exhibition
design,
education
through the exhibit medium, and other
museum skills recognized today, either
did not exist or were not recognized

during the first century of the period


under discussion.

In discussing the curatorial lite and

he

encountered

in

the

science

exhibit.

that

the

content

of

the

museum

is

meaningless
and
lacks
personal
relevance.
Thus,
for
many,
the
museum is a fantasy playground, an
unreal world offering escapist ad
venture.

FINGERTIP

DISCOVERIES
Visiting a museum filled with exhibits
marked

"do

not

touch"

or

locked

up in showcases is often a frustrating


experience for children.

They need

to touch objects, to handle and explore


them from every angle (photo left), fn
museums which cater to this need,

playing or working with exhibits offers


children a "discovery in learning"
and an exciting experience.
Right,
introduction to a new dimension in

sculpture

an

Alexander

Calder

mobile.

For others It becomes, after minimal

experience,
ment

in

threatening

which

the

environ

frustration

of

attempting to understand or to find


meaning in the incomprehensible leads
to anxiety.
For a few, the uppermiddle class with higher education and
therefore some key to the secret
codes, it becomes a domain with class
and

status

connotations.

It

is

this

segment of society which has, in the


past at least, tended to support the
traditional

museum

as

described

above.

The

have

last

two

produced

attitudes

decades,

new forces

towards

the

grammes, sponsored by museums but


not growing out of fundamental or
core programmes of the museum.

satisfy the public appetite.

The rejection of traditional museum


functions (collecting and identification,
conservation, original research, publi
cation), and of the curator, in favour
of public exhibition and interpretation

largely dependent on media other than


the museum collections.

however,

tatively

contained within the existing museum

democratization

of cultural resources and have brought


change.
But since conferences are

different

institution

though

development

of

special

mu

seums for the blind, the handicapped,

the poor, the oppressed, or for what


are often called "the culturally depriv

recent past

insufficient.

or function

of

the

museum

is

long-standing need.

The argument that the museum is


properly a part of the formal education

system is, in my view, indefensible.


The museum, like the playground, the
park must
ment
for

remain a
personal

private environ
experience
no

matter how greatly it may be shared


with

others.

The

The

still being held to discuss the rle of

have been

rle

organization.

the museum In society, it would appear

that the changes of the

The open

and uncommitted search for the social

concert hall, the theatre or the public

The
development
of
children's
museums as a separate and quali

and

new

of any real understanding of either


the nature of the very evident public
hunger today or of past failures to

ed minorities."

museum's

move

towards

inte

gration with the educational system,


I suspect, is primarily a result of the
fact that education in our society is
established; accepted, and was vir

tually immune from any general public


attack or criticism in the 1940s or the

If there Is one sentiment which has

While

all

of

this

has

been

in

1950s.

Alliance

with

the

education

been pervasive in the museum reform


movement of the past twenty years

progress (erroneously designated the

establishment

"museum revolution"), there have con

it is a desire to be both wanted

currently been both reactionary move

and above all, an unquestioned social


usefulness.
That, I believe, was the

ments within the

attraction.

useful.

and

Several trends are apparent:

from

without,

museum world

an

increasing

and,

public

M An open and uncommitted search


for the rle of the museum in society.

demand for and use of museums (the


"museum
explosion").
There
has
been pressure from both the public

An argument for the museum as an

and government for democratization.


The picture is by no means clear.

integral part of the public education


system, yet to be fully appreciated

I would suggest, first of all, that the

(financed) or exploited.

reforms

The

development

of

popular

pro

have

been

well

intentioned

but have been effected In the absence

meant

money,

status,

The objection, of course, is not that


museums

that

the

are

not

museum

educational.

It

achieves

edu

its

is

cational goals through a process alien


to

the

traditional

Current

innovation

education

may

school
and

bring

system.

research

the

two

in

closer

together, but that does not justify the


ill-founded alliances of the past.
CONTINUED

NEXT PAGE

MUSEUMS FOR MODERNS (Continued)

The creative museum

adventure in self-discovery

The development of museum spon


sored activities which are peripheral
to the essential programme of the

comparisons

museum

film

is

not

new.

The

1950s

and

museums, and thus prompt compari


sons
potentially
as
misleading
as
or

between

between

television

film

and

and

theatre.

1960s however produced a proliferation


of supplementary activities and some
museums, while remaining basically
unchanged,
surrounded
themselves

Even more regrettable has been the


too common practice of publicizing the

with:

break from the "musty, dusty" museum


tradition.
Museums may have brought
such
negative
comparison
upon

concert

series,

art

and

craft

classes, women's organizations, attrac

tive

programmes

of

social

events,

exhibit centre, not in terms of its own

and

special

partments grew enormously.

values,

but

terms

compete with the exhibit centre on its

countries,

museum's

fashion

to

were

it

true

that

these

activities

grew out of the museum's basic func


tion and social usefulness.

The more

common pattern, I fear, has been for


museum

centre,

to

become

social

club,

recreation

school,

college or a market place because it


did

not

The

know

how

defence

to

be

that

museum.

these

added

attractions are necessary for fund


raising or for the involvement of new
audiences, or that they bring depth
and

relevance

to

the

traditional

museum programme is weak.


admission

that

museum,

has

the

It is an

museum,

been

unable

as

to

win

public support, to create involvement,


to provide depth and relevance.
One
the

seek
own

excellence

In

the

terms.

The exhibit centres arc popular, and


do appear to meet a real need in
informal education, especially in the
highly industrialized urban complexes.
But there is danger in the temptation

LLL this might be commend

the

but

not to

shows.

A
ed

terms

is

its

themselves

and

solution

of

and study groups, film and theatre


programmes, guided tours of foreign
auctions

but the

in

luncheon clubs for men, lecture series

bazaars,

of the

"museum

most visible
revolution"

trends
in

in

North

of museums was also affected during


this period by the establishment of
either new departments or the growth
of offices which had previously been
In the background.
Some museums
set up public relations departments

imitate

That

success

danger

is

for

its

real

for

own

sake.

the

many

museums which have to compete for

public funds

in

political

popularity

contest.

Something must be said of the


effects of the trends already discussed
on museum organization and adminis
tration.

The

most

important

effect

has been that greater status has been


gained

by

non-curatorial

personnel,

television

offices.

Education

de

Member

ship secretariats and offices for the


planning of special programmes were
enlarged.
Design departments, which
in some instances had previously been
no
more
than
carpenter's
shops
became design studios with large,
well-qualified staffs.
The term "exten
sion" was often used to designate
departments responsible for the wide
range of activities supplementing the
museum programme.
The lowly book
keeper's office became the Depart
ment of Administration.
The

overall

effect

has

been

one

of

confusion and at times open dispute.


Good public relations and publicity,
massive education
programmes
for
schoolchildren and appealing, if irrele
vant,
adult
programmes
have
all
appeared to be necessary to win
public support and to get public funds
from government.
In
some cases
these have been at the expense of
the

essential

museum

functions,

and

and there has become the possibility

the curators have justifiably rebelled.

of a power-balance within the museum

The enlarged organizations for admi

organization.

nistration

The designers, educators and admi


nistrators gained control of a larger
share of budget and of programme
and

became

more

powerful

in

the

organization.
Conservators and other
highly skilled technical staff, registrars,
and librarians, demanded and got new

have

sometimes

exceeded

need and become stifling bureaucra


cies.
The desire for popularity has
often led to evaluations of success in

which
gross
attendance
were given more weight

statistics
than the

quality of the experience being enjoyed


by the visitor.

status and recognition.

America has been the creation of non-

museums, by which I mean exhibit


and activity centres concerned with
public education through the medium
of the exhibit, but without dependence
on collections of original materials.
There

are

centres

of

science

and

technology, for example, which depend


almost entirely on audio-visual pre
sentations

and

monstrates
Health

they

apparatus

principles

museums

are

or

Some

natural

de

processes.

similar

rely .primarily on the

replica.

which
in

model

science

that

or
mu

seums, especially those with industrial


sponsorship, tend to rely more and
more on
audio-visual
and
graphic
media

original

and

less

on

collections

There is no criticism of this develop


ment Implied here, but it must be
remembered that an exhibit centre, no
matter how effective, is not a museum,

26

primary medium is the


collection, the sample of

reality, referred to earlier.

clerical

velopment of the new exhibit centres

is

that

they

are

frequently

called

of

one

suit

or

museum
tailored

where
dress

staff

tended

to

wear

the
was

Female
smocks

N summary, the organiza

and technicians and skilled tradesmen

tion

wore white
laboratory coats.
The
white coat, however, seemed to be a
symbol of the scientist or scholar for

changed In two principle ways.

the non-curatorial staff of the museum

the

staff the

visiting

donned

public.

the

white

Soon

curators

coat

and

the

and

began

to

administration

share

with

direction

of

of

museums

the
the

First,

curatorial
institution,

although a harmonious balance of po

technicians and tradesmen were given

wer was

buff-coloured

clerical

the

their

smocks

blossomed,

fashion

an Increasing degree with its public


and the building of an audience.

staff

and

then

while

ably

coats.

abandoned

some

dressed,

others

Female

adopted

achieved.

Second,

concerned

itself to

In my view this concern too often


related

One

seldom

administration

the

white coat.

might

have

expected

to

the

institution's

emotional

the

need for acceptance or to the competi

curators, or at least the director, next

tion for public funds, and related too


rarely to the public's need for the
museum as a unique learning environ
ment.
The
exceptions
are
those

to appear in a white coat with purple


hem,
but
the
silly
game
never
advanced to that stage.
Curators
returned to business suits and tailored

dresses.
The point of the ancedote
is simply that the game of status and
the power struggle is both real and
transparent, and bears all the marks
of

One regrettable aspect of the de

know

once the mark of the curator.

of

materials.

unless its
object, the

business

insecure

and

defensive

behaviour

in the face of change.

museums created not for


broad-spectrum
audience,

children

and

for

a mass,
but
for

certain

minority

groups.

Although children's museums existed


in some centres long before the post
war period under discussion, and some

The administration and organization

had won an enviable reputation, the


CONTINUED

PAGE

32

EXPLORING
THE

WORLD

BEHIND

MASK

These three imaginatively designed masks


were among 200 works recently displayed at the
Museum of Man In Paris in an exhibition concerned with

African
artists.
success
Cantini
schools
In this

art.
But they were not made by African
The exhibition demonstrated the outstanding
of an educational experiment in which the
Museum in Marseille collaborated with many
in the Provence region of south-eastern France.
French museum, collections of modern art

and temporary exhibitions are used as study and


discussion material by children and students aged from
5 to 20.
This year, the children showed concretely'
and in highly individualistic ways how their knowledge
has been enriched by a museum exhibition of African
art, combined with their lessons on Africa.
Using all
kinds of materials, children produced original works
that reflected their personal interpretation of African
art. These masks, for example, were fashioned by
15 and 16-year-olds, using nails and sieves (left), straw,
buttons and odds and ends of leather (below) and
cores from rolls of paper (below left). The experiment
showed how museums can open a meaningful
dialogue and participate directly in educational and
community activities.
It also illustrates how the beauty
of a work of art in a museum can become the link

between children of today and peoples of


another age and culture.

Photos courtesy Daniele


Glraudy, curator Muses
des Beaux-Arts, Marseille
- Atelier de Reprogra
phie, Marseile

UNITED WORLD
COLLEGES

by Tor Sylte

a new concept in international education

V W ILL there ever be such a


person as International Man or Inter

of the project and to the college in


Wales to see and hear for myself.

for their last two years of secondary


school.
In these schools the organ

national

The aims of the project were out


lined to me in London by an Irishman,

izers hope that students will discover,

Woman?

Someone

whose

attitudes and beliefs are not enclosed

by national or racial boundaries? Some


one for whom words like "foreign"

Director of Studies of the college and

or

now as Chief Executive Officer of the

"alien"

have

menace?

been

Someone

defused

whose

of

. values

Robert

Blackburn,

who

was

project, works for Lord

the

first

Mountbatten,

have been formed specifically by the

the

international

Council of the United World Colleges.

received?

education

he

or

she

has

These are good questions

to ask in International Education Year.

President

Robert

was

In international education

that

The United

Wales which was opened in 1962.


I went to the London headquarters

the

Blackburn

told

International

me

that

the

the

first

of

number

of

such

colleges all based on a simple belief:


international

education

is

no

longer an expensive luxury but must


be made general In this century for
the sake of survival.
The project aims
to

use

education

nations,
create

to
new

to

break

unite

down

forms

of

not

divide

barriers,

to

international

education.

28
TOR SYLTE, Norwegian writer and journa
list. Is foreign editor of the daily newspaper
' Verdens Gang", published in Oslo.

living

and

ideals

studying
based

on

together,

service and

loyalty to the International community.


The intention is that they should then
return to their own countries, welcom

ing International diversity, convinced


that International problems must be
settled by reason and discussion; not
by force.

United World College of the Atlantic

Some answers may perhaps be


found in a new and major experiment

World Colleges
and at the first of
these colleges at St. Donat's Castle in

of

by

common

This

is an Idealistic aim but if such

colleges could turn out each year


several thousand able and carefully
selected

students,

their

influence

could be of lasting International value.


Half a dozen such Colleges could have
a major impact by the turn of the
century.

There
today

are

for

special

practical

International

needs

education

at

The plan is to set up a chain of


international colleges In Europe and

pre-university age which make this


project of particular interest in Inter

in

enter

national

young men and women of high ability

national

other

continents

which

will

Education

business

Year.

The

inter

community

is

A 13th century Welsh


fortress, St Donat's Castle

(left) is the setting for


the modern campus of
Atlantic

College,

new

experiment in international
education.

It is the first

link in a proposed chain


of

international
United

Colleges

schools

World

to be

established

in

different

parts of the world. Atlantic


College provides two final
years of secondary
education to 300 students

boys
15

to

and
19

girls

from

aged

36

countries and every walk


of life.
Its programme is
a working example of
international

education

co-operation.
mealtime

in

the

banqueting
St

hall

Donat's,

been

ancient

of

which

extensively

Similar

and

Right,

United

has

restored.

World

Colleges are soon to be


set up in the Fed. Rep.
of Germany, Canada
and Singapore.

growing
of

rapidly;

increasing

international

civil

numbers

servants

and

diplomats are moving around the world


with

their

families

and

have

great

groups from the Fed. Rep. of Germany,


U.S.A.,

Canada

difficulty getting suitable education for

have

Europe.

They want to give


secondary
education

India.

home.

of

tional

existing

systems

needs.

Also,

national

cannot

meet

international

educa
these

organiza

tions and businesses desperately need


staff with a genuinely international
outlook and training.
From what I saw, I believe that the

United World Colleges can help meet


these idealistic and practical needs.
The first United World College Is in

a fabulous setting
a modern college
campus based on a 13th century castle
which

was owned and


extensively
modernized by the American millionaire
and newspaper owner, William Ran
dolph Hearst
It was purchased by
a prominent French internationalist,
Antoine Besse, who donated it to the

college.

Now

it

stands,

spectacular

and
secure,
a
medieval
fortress
surrounded by ultra modern dormitory
blocks
and
academic
buildings.
Terraced
Elizabethan
gardens
lead
down to the rough and dangerous
waters of the Bristol Channel.

At St. Donat's the first experimental


phase of the United World Colleges

project has now been completed.


By
September 1969 the first college was
at full strength with some 300 students

been

Africa,

in the country in which they are


based
but university
education
at

The

Scandinavia.

Most other western European countries


are represented, and the first students

their
their

children.
children

end

entered

from

eastern

Smaller numbers come from

South America,

Malaysia

this International experience: at school


in Norway one does not have to
explain and describe and defend ones
own country.
At St. Donat's a Nor
wegian, Welsh or Polish student must
do just this.

and

Students

who

enter

the

college

(maximum age 17 1/2) must be of good

Here, in action, is a working example


international

education

and

co

operation.
The students (boys and
girls)
are
mixed
internationally
in
classrooms
and
in
the
dormitory
houses where they live.
English is
the common language and all students
must speak it well as it is their
language of instruction, their common
meeting ground.
But in the corridors,
in the dining hall, in the coffee bar
you can hear any language from
Finnish to Swahili.

The study of modem languages is


particularly emphasized and all students

learn at least one foreign language.


The college has proved academically
to be an outstanding success and
already former students have returned
to more than 150 universities through
out the world.

A large group of these first students


at St. Donat's have been Norwegian,
and I had an opportunity to meet some
of them in Norway after their two
years at the college.
They have come
back

convinced

internationalists

but

none the less Norwegian for that.


The

former

students

have

university potential.
Most enter with
scholarships, financed by local educa
tion authorities for the British students,

by the State in some countries,


private
sponsoring
groups
in
U.S.A.

and

This

several

support

and
the

other countries.

from

Ministries

missions

has

been

essential

as

the

college s a private foundation.


It
ensures, through a competitive entry,
high academic standards, also a wide
variety of backgrounds among the
students
from the sons or daughters
of

Welsh

miners

and

Greek

taxi

drivers to the children of Scandinavian

shipowners and steel magnates from


the Ruhr. The daughter of a Nor
wegian carpenter is a student along
side the sons of the largest car
manufacturer in Italy and the leading
shipowner in Greece.
This is no snob,
lite school
except in terms of ability.
The range of nationalities, religious
belief and political allegiance Is equally
wide.

There

are

students

from

eastern as well as western European

just

started an Association Journal and the

countries;
political
refugees
from
South Africa with the sons of European
settlers in Rhodesia; students from the

first Dano-Norweglan edition has been


published.
It Is clear their links with

Arab

United Kingdom provided one quarter

their

is an adolescent U.N. in miniature.

of

been

from

more

the

than

students,

36

countries.

followed

by

The

large

own

culture

strengthened

and

countries

have

not weakened

of

Education and Foreign Affairs, and


United World College National Com

by

The

states

as

well

curriculum

In

as

this

Israel.

This

international

CONTINUED

NEXT

PAGE

29

UNITED WORLD COLLEGES (Continued)

We're all in the same boat

community is tough. Students choose


three or four major (Advanced Level)

subjects and then add four or five


subsidiary

courses.

Then

there

are

their afternoon "activities" which take

eight hours a week, followed by


evening lectures, seminars, debates,
college societies, evening tutorials.
A lecture by a representative from
the Soviet Embassy may be followed
by a symposium on the Middle-East
led by Jordanians and Israeli students.

of

inflatable

be called out to assist at the great


mining disaster at nearby Aberran
when a coal tip slipped and engulfed
part of the village and an entire
primary school.

The first college is now also becom


ing known as an important pioneering

exile

with

Here

phase

of

United

World

in

the

international

for the work


International

Mounbatten has said:

education,

it

is

doing

Baccalaureate

"I

accepted

this

office

because

believe that this new venture In inter


national

education

can

make

real

re

Office in Geneva, to establish an inter

contribution

understanding and peace; also because

History is a central, subject in the

national university entry examination,


which would be widely recognized
throughout the world.

every

political

point of view

is

presented.

curriculum.
books

Students

used

in

bring

the

their former

text

schools;

No

such

examination

there Is little agreement on the inter


pretation of the great issues of modern

the college started.


essential

that all

history. What a Greek and a Turk


are taught about Cyprus, or what an
English and German student are taught

college,

irrespective

examination.

stories.

the

In fact, so serious are these

take on a major project in the com

parison of national history text books


as seen by the students from a
working
level
in
an
international

when

students

of

at the

nationality,

programmes
matriculation

examinations

of

ministries of education and universities

so

that

their

students

national

might

be

matriculation

examinations.

w
barriers

HEN they first arrive, the

and

divisions

between

the

students are real and bitter; as real as


the divisions of our time.
Therefore,
in

addition

to

the

international

work

done in classrooms, debating hall and

dormitory, the college has designed a


special activities programme to further
its international purpose, based on that
most international activity of all
the
saving of human life.

These bilateral equivalence agree


ments
were
the
college's
first
piece of pioneering educational work.
However, it has been expensive in
time and money, infinitely complex
and only partially successful as a
number of countries have not accepted
G.C.E. qualifications, France and Bel
gium in particular.
However,

all

national

examinations

are ill-suited to an international school

and

therefore

founder of the

the college

became

International

Baccalau

Beach Rescue Unit, Cliff Rescue


Team or Inshore Rescue Boat Corps

reate (I.B.O.).
The teaching staff have
played a considerable part in develop
ing the programmes of the Inter
national Baccalaureate and the college
currently provides the majority
of

or the Social Service Unit.

students for the first trial examinations.

Therefore all students are taught


first aid and life saving and take part
in one of the college rescue services

This is no

playing matter, no schoolboy game.


These services are responsible to the
competent British national authorities
for the safety of the public along the
ten mile stretch of rocky coast of
which St. Donat's is the centre.

They

have already answered 46 emergency


calls, have prevented many accidents
and saved 30 lives at sea, on the
beaches, or on the cliffs.
The

skill

and

ambition

of

the

students is so great that one of them,


an 18-years-old Norwegian girl, Eli
zabeth Hostvedt, has qualified as the
first woman coxswain in the history
of the highly professional and rather
conservative
British
Royal
National
Lifeboat Institution.
(The college is
an

and

accredited

operates

station

its

of

own

the

R. N.L.I,

small

fleet

must

force to

"I

now

unite

be

harmonized

as

nations.

believe

that

education

without some international

today

element is

as outmoded as education which gives


no training
technology."

in

modern

science

or

the

country
in
which
the
college
is
situated (in this case British G.C.E.
Advanced
Level
examinations)
and
then negotiating agreed additions with

excused

international

in the present world situation educa


tion

However, it was

the

towards

This was done by taking

matriculation

abroad

community.

existed

should follow common


leading
to
a
single

about Bismarck are still not the same

variations that the college is going to

30

second

For this purpose an International


Council has been set up under the
presidency of Lord Mountbatten (an
outstanding example of International
Man himself).
In giving his' reasons
for taking on this major task of
establishing a chain of international
colleges throughout the world Lord

particularly

scholarship.

the

The college rescue services were


one of the first voluntary services to

be questioned by a Bantu student in


U.N.

and

boats

Colleges development has begun: to


make the project multi-college.

venture

rescue

built by the

An official South African lecturer will

on

inshore

which are designed


students.)

This I.B.O. experiment, which


the
full
support
of
Unesco,

has
has

lATIONAL committees have

already been set up in eleven countries


to further the project, mobilize public
interest,
raise
money
and
select
students.
Active plans are now being

made for the next two Colleges in the


Fed. Rep. of Germany and North
America.

In the Fed. Rep. of Germany a


strong founding committee has been
established and there is widespread
interest and support.

In Canada a widely based national


committee

and

with

Mr.

Senator Donald

Lester

Pearson

Cameron

is

now

making active plans for the establish


ment of a North American College
which will be sponsored jointly by the
U.W.C. American and Canadian Com

mittees.
be

in

This

British

college
Columbia

will

probably

and

will

look

toward Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia and


Australia

for Its

non-national

students

in the same way as the College of the


Atlantic in Wales looks toward Europe.
It Is hoped to enter the first students
in September 1972.

created widespread interest in univer

Considerable Interest has also been

sities throughout the world.


Many
have already accepted the International
Baccalaureate as equivalent to their

shown in Italy and Scandinavia in


founding United World Colleges while
in France a survey has just been
completed on the practicability of a
United
World
College
within
the
French educational system. A college
for South East Asia in Singapore is
also being considered.

own

matriculation qualifications.
The
college at St.
Donat's
intends to
change over to the I.B. course com
pletely from September 1971 and there
is no doubt that the I.B. will provide
the academic structure for subsequent
United World Colleges.
The interest which

in
this
success
St.

Donat's

demand

has been

shown

pioneering
work
and
the
of
the
first
college
at
has

revealed

for international

this level,
throughout

wide

education

at

not just in Europe, but


the
world.
Therefore,

When several such colleges have


been established throughout the world
the venture will be of major importance
In developing International education.
And as for the first students, they
say "We'll never be the same again.
These two years will be with us for
the rest of our lives."
I am sure they
are right.

Atlantic College has a special


activities programme based
on

the

most

international

of all activities the saving of


human life. Already 30 people
owe

their

lives

to

the

college's beach, cliff and inshore


rescue

units,

which

are

responsible for the safety of


the public along a 10 mile
stretch of rocky Welsh
coastline.

One student, an

18-year-old Norwegian girl


has qualified as the first woman
coxwain in the history of
Britain's Royal National Lifeboat
Institution. The college is an
accredited

station of the

Lifeboat Institution and operates


its own fleet of rescue boats,

designed and built by the


students. Above and right,
regular training keeps student
sea

rescue

teams

peak efficiency.

at

MUSEUMS

FOR

MODERNS

growth of these museums since the


late 1940s has been so great as to
demand our attention.

In

effect,

museum

educators

re

cognized
the
inadequacies
of the
traditional museum as an experiential,

or "discovery
for children.
frustration

learning", environment
They saw the child's

when

confronted

with

the

static, untouchable display of objects


which by their nature demanded to be
touched, fondled, explored, discovered.
They understood the child's need to
work with the materials in an intimate

relationship, to manipulate the exhibits


and to create new structures.
who

have

worked

with

Those

children

in

museums where these


things
are
possible know the intensity and depth
of the child's adventure.

(Continued from page 26)

development of note.
From a middleclass
observer's
viewpoint
these
models may be meaningless, childlike,
crude or vulgar.
But the permissive
environments

experimental

I T Is curious, of course, that

the inadequacies of the traditional mu

seum were seen as relative only to the


child's museum experience. I suspect
that

was

so

because

the

adult

audience was thought of as only those


who frequented the museum rather
than the much larger audience which
did

not.

most

The

likely

adult

to

have

museum

users

contact

with

staff might also tend to be members


of the educated middle-class minority
which, I suggested earlier, supported
the traditional
the class
There

museum while valuing

limitations of Its form.


is

some

adult was excluded

evidence
in

that

children's museum was created.


want to visit children's

the

error when the

Adults

museums

and

in some instances special regulation


of visiting hours has been necessary
to keep the children's exhibits clear
for children.
Experience with chil
dren's
exhibits
planned
for world
expositions
includes
cases
where
adults were of necessity barred from
admission.

The children's museum, wherein the

the

best

of

these

not permit

the Imposition of bourgeois values.


The

patronizing

programmes

of

"culture for the masses" have nothing


to

do

with

these

museums.

What

is

permitted Is the programming of Infi


nitely variable models of reality by
the museum users. What may appear
there as fantasy Is seldom irrelevant.
The codes employed in the model may
be private
but private to the audience
or users, who are also the exhibitors.

These
museums
recognize
their
potential relevance to day-to-day life.
They do not strive to make their
audience visually literate in the sense
that they will learn to verbalize about
artists

of

museums do

and

schools

and

the

influence

to the future.

ally deprived minorities and the handi

capped are also of great importance.


To

create

museum

for

the

blind

where understanding can be achieved


through tactile exploration of materials
is not only to recognize that the blind
cannot see but also to recognize the
validity of the tactile learning expe
rience.

32

context

of

the

total

human

new

minorities

museums
differ

rles

and

the

which

are

in

for

that

modified.

The

interpreter
not

new

curator

the

The

assume
but

now

is

are
cast

only in his most essential rle as


scholar, developing the resources with
which

the

visitor

must

create.

The

educators, designers and others whom


I have grouped together as "inter
preters", now have a rle which that
title best Implies.
encoded

In

ment

of

the

museum

resources

for

The

curator

in

return

responds

to

his public by making available collec


tions supported by such thorough
research

and

documentation

that

he

can encode in it what his scholarship


dictates to be the most objective ans
wers to the questions implicit In the
public's concern.
He also presents
the questions which the collection

but

which

his

scholarship

answer.

in the

audience becomes the exhibitor.

curator

influence

environ

designed

most

of

which the curator is responsible.

ment, with all its beauty and its horror,


perhaps for the first time.
The

flow

public, as manifested in its needs,


anxieties or simply desires, is trans
mitted to the curator through the inter
preter. This influences the develop

poses

the users see their own world

the

product to be placed before a passive


audience.
Now, the Influence of the

cannot

They Interpret the

resources of the museum to

the user so that he can work creativ

ely with them.


In order to do this the
interpreter must be bilingual In the

HIS is the way in which the


dialogue between curator and user is
effected through the medium of the
collection, with the interpreter decod

ing

and

re-encoding

as

required

In

his intermediary rle.

This dialogue must be active to be


effective. There is no place here for
the permanent, static exhibit which
purports to be a definitive statement.
The organization of the museum must
keep communication channels open so
that there can be a prompt feedback
of responses between curator and
user.

common

In considering this proposal It is


important to see that the museum's

languages with both the curators and


the visitors whom I prefer to call users.
But here we are discussing what I
propose as deals for tomorrow which
can be observed today in but a. few
isolated experimental situations.

traditional responsibility to collect and


preserve that which is most excellent,
or unique or which is an expression
of man's highest achievements
Is
neither discarded nor pushed aside.
That
responsibility
has
not
been

sense

that

he

must

share

discussed since It is assumed and not

The creative museum,


Inherent

social

earlier,
the

fulfilling the

function

requires

traditional

described

organization

different

from

museum

and

that

because

of
the

balance of power has shifted and the


goals are achieved through the active,
creative
participation
of
the
user
rather than through the indoctrination
of the passive visitor.
Since

the

museum

must

be

responsive resource, sensitive to the


changing needs of the users, it is, in

effect,
The
experimental
Inner-city
or
ghetto museum where the content s a
product of the users' desires to create
what I call models of reality is another

Further,

decision making no longer moves from


curator to interpreter, to produce a

well-rehearsed visitors at art gallery


openings.
Rather, they strive to make

administration
The museums created for the cultur

but now shares with the interpreters


equal status in the internal hierarchy.

of someone on someone else like the

child Is turned loose to work with the

museum
materials to the greatest
possible degree, is one of the clues

of the scholarly functions as before,

programmed

by

the

users.

considered endangered by that which


is proposed.
Further, excellence can
only be fully appreciated when the
criteria

accepted.

are

both

understood

This the creative

and

museum

enables rather than Inhibits.

Finally, as must be apparent, this


proposal depends for its realization
upon the application of the methods
and insights of the social sciences.
The sociology and social psychology
of museums is admittedly a subject
which only recently has been consider
ed for research.
If, however, we are

Thus, if there is a dominant power in


the organization of such a public
museum It Is the public itself. The

concerned with exploring the rle of


the museum in contemporary society, is

curatorial

we must turn first for guidance?

staff

continues

to

fulfil

all

it not to

the social scientist to whom

Letters to the Editor


TOBACCO AND ADVERTISING

another
South

Sir,

to

Improve

Africa

itself.

the

situation

The

list

is

in

inter

minable.

Congratulations on the articles deal


ing with tobacco and cancer (May
1970)

and

the

letter

on

this

subject

from Jean Chaumier (July 1970).


This
reader doubted whether France had any
laws governing the advertising of ciga
rettes. Tobacco advertising is, in fact,
banned

on

French

television

under

some solution

has to be found to the

problem of using the idealism of youth


others

to

create

the

Third

World

through the work of Unesco while still


preserving a political detachment; but If
any government

provides

resources

it

is surely going to want a say in how

regulations which also forbid the publi


cizing of alcoholic drinks.
Consumer
associations
such
as
ours
brought

those resources should be used.


Thus
youth often seems to be faced with a

pressure to bear for this


be adopted and applied.

potent

measure

to

choice:

either you

idealist

can

remain

or you can

an

Im

carry out

the measures which we desire.


A.

without

the

discoveries

cybernetics,

etc.,

in

elec

during

the

past 50 years.

It would be wrong to give the credit


to NASA which has merely been the
beneficiary. It Is not science that bene
fits from the astronauts' achievements,
but the other way round.

No one could deny that of the


thousands of millions of dollars spent
on space programmes a few . crumbs
have
fallen
which
have
benefited

science. But how far have these meagre


yet costly results met the needs of,
scientific

Gaussel

Laboratoire Coopratif
d'Analyses et de Recherches,
Gennevilliers,

able

tronics,

Yet if these doubts are to be allayed

and

a moon shot would have been unthink

research.

Meakin

Even more disturbing than the space

King's Lynn, U.K.

programme
itself
Is
the
formidable
power of electronics which seems to

Martin

France

have modern man at Its mercy.


WHEN ALL ELSE

FAILS...

PERENNIAL PROBLEM

H. von Gunten

Sir,
Sir,
Since

the

with the
from an

"Unesco

Courier"

deals

Berne,

two letters of special Interest.

Marlene

great problems of our time


objective and non-sectarian

Hung Fok King, of Mauritius, suggests


that the "Unesco Courier" should report

viewpoint, why not examine in a future

on the world's various religions.


Our
cultures stem from our religious herita
ges. All revealed religions have had a
tremendous impact on the people to

issue a social problem that is particu


larly acute and widespread In capitalist
countries

prostitution.
Yves

Auriol

Savigny-sur-Orge, France

man
and

Sir,

awareness.

sneered at

their idealism.

One of the

greatest difficulties is to reconcile what


has been called "the social conscience"

with a political Impotence.


The youth
of my country have complete freedom
of speech and are no doubt grateful
for

the

social

advances

made

here

in

the past few years; many, like myself,


will feel great satisfaction as they read
of the excellent work carried out by
Unesco and hope that they too will be
able to help in this work in the near

Divine

direction

has

not

of the world; but are we forced to make

Mao"

or

the

rather than

"All

Are we forced
no longer has
Indo-Chinese

as

Men

Are

Brothers"?

to say that the latter


any relevance to the
prove

civilized

nations

when

in

of

the

it.

There

is

a sign

wash

my clothes;

it

reads

"When

all

else fails, read the instructions."

I am

inclined to believe

soon

that

be ready to return to
tions.
I
agree
with

man will

Divine instruc
Marlene
that

United

1 agree that it could be given

that day could feature films and docu


mentaries

on

the work

of the

that

itself from

U.N.

agencies.
all

should
youth

those

various

I should like to
interested

if possible

hear

I suggest

In

the

idea

contact the various

movements

who

in

turn

could

solicit support from their respective


governments.
Unesco should propose
the Idea to its member states and ask

for their moral and financial support.

features on the true essences of the re-

ligons

of

the

world

In

the

Christian

"Unesco

The

second

letter was

from

Dr.

in

the

cosmic

or

eternal

truths

that run through all religions, and he


quotes from various religions, includ

ing Christianity, to convey his meaning.


Why not have Dr. Bongers do the
Neal

J.

Overeem

HANDY SEWERS

SPACE

FOR

INDUSTRY

Sir,

The article on man's quest for water


by Raymond L Nace (June 1970) was
most informative and I was glad to see
him mention the vast problem of ocea
nic, atmospheric and riverine pollution.

Cicero, U.S.A.

CRUMBS

France

H.

Bongers, of the Netherlands.


He dis
cusses exactly the kind of thing I be
lieve

Duchemin

Paris,

Courier" would be of great value.

In

nations

where

the

Industries

are

privately owned it Is easy to under


stand the why of pollution.
Take, for
example, the company that is planning

FROM

to

RESEARCH

build

steel

mill.

Water

is

used

in the manufacture of steel.


Money
will be saved and profits Increased if

Sir,

The "Unesco Courier" as a general


rule pleads the cause of the develop
ing countries and, bearing in mind their

our worth to be

Secretary-General

Nations.

hold

on the wall of the laundromat where 1

Constitution

Peninsular?

How do we
educators

American

annual "State of Mankind" address by

the views of other readers.

Yet still there are nagging doubts.


Few would disagree with the virtue of
providing education for all the peoples
the choice for primary reading matter
between the "Thoughts of Chairman

I fully endorse K. Joan Wright's pro


posal (Letters, October 1969) for an

been withheld from mankind, but man


kind has found it difficult not to with

religious articles?

future.

Sir.

on United Nations Day, October 24,


and that radio and TV programmes on

The

effect has always been to raise


to a higher plane of existence

there is
is often

MANKIND' ADDRESS

the

Arabian desert after Mohammed.

group in society.
However,
one aspect of youth which

OF

whom they were revealed.


Consider
what happened to the tribes of the

CRUCIAL CHOICE

I am accepting your invitation to


young people to write to you on the
problems of youth.
I am an 18-yearold English university student, and I
do not think that the problems of youth
are so very different from any other

Switzerland

Your issue of February 1969 carried

poverty

and

needs,

was

most

the

company can

free
build

use the

river for a

sewer instead of also


a water

repurification

having to
plant.

But how about the new steel mill

disappointed to see the publicity given

the

country where

the

industries

in

are

1968 the world military expenditure was

to

$159,000
million
("SIPRI
Yearbook"
figure)? Surely there is some anomaly
in the situation where the May Issue

and Space Administration) in your issue


on the fruits of space research (March

owned by the government and there


isn't the private profit motive?
If the
government has to allocate resources

1970).

to water purifying plants, that will mean

of

The laws of gravity which made it


possible to calculate space flights have
been known for 250 years ; Jules Verne

the

cancer,

"Courier"
and

deals

institutions

with
such

curing
as

the

microbiological establishment at Por


ton,
England,
carry out
government
financed research for defence purposes?
It

is

one

African

thing

cricket

to

call

tour

off the
of

South

Britain

but

NASA

(U.S.

National

Aeronautics

described a moon flight 100 years ago.


The astronauts can teach us little about
the moon that we did not know at the

beginning of the century.

Furthermore,

industrialization

as

typified

construction of steel mills

by

the

will be slow

ed down.
In some nations, speed of
industrialization has been an overriding
consideration.

Henry R. Korman
Washington, U.S.A.

G3

ib

BOOKSHELF

RECENT

Violence and the mass media

problems,

scouts

Television, radio and newspapers cannot


be made the scapegoats for violence In
modern society, but they have a responsi
bility not to add to it, declared specialists
from the mass media, sociologists, psycho
logists and child welfare experts at a
symposium on "The Impact of Violence In
the Mass Media" held recently at Unesco's
Paris headquarters.
The symposium warn
ed

that

the

mass

media

could

contribute

to violent behaviour by exaggerating prob


lems
and
over-simplifying
alternatives,
suggesting that violence was the solution
to
some
questions
and
by
Identifying
certain groups with violence, so that these
people felt they had to live up to the
mage which the media presented.

The Tower Of Babel


"The

Tower

of

Babel",

an

article

by

"Aramco

World"

as

the

source

of

U.N. volunteer corps

for development
A proposal to establish an International
corps of volunteers to aid development is
to be considered by the U.N. General
Assembly.
The project is based on a
suggestion made by the Shah of Iran in
1968.
A U.N. study published last April
recommended

the

creation

of

conference

of Tamil studies
The

International

Conference

of

Tamil

Studies met in Paris, recently for the first


time outside Asia.
The Tamil language,
its
relation
to
Sanskrit,
classical
and

contemporary
culture

In

Tamil

the

literature

fine

arts

S.

Adiseshiah,

mother

tongue,

session

of

Tamil

the

culture.

an

and

were

spoke

at

current
A

Indian

recital

world
of

Tamil

Twenty-eight works of fiction,


poetry
and literature from many lands, translated
into English in the Unesco Collection of
Representative Works, are listed in an
8 page leaflet produced by the English
publishers Allen and Unwin Ltd.
Copies
of the leaflet can be obtained by writing
to

Allen

and

Unwin

inaugural
interest

Tamil

in

dances

the conference by two noted artists, Anandavalli and Padma Subrahmanyam.

Mini 'U.N.' at scout camp

34

miniature

"United

Nations

Ltd.,

Park

Lane,

Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, England.


Three volumes of Bengali poetry translated
by
Deben
Bhattacharya,
figure
in
the
list
"Love Songs of Vidyapati",
"Love
Songs of Chandidas" and "Mirror of the
Sky" (U.S. title "Songs of the Bards of
Bengal"). These books have now also been
published as paperbacks by Grove Press,
New York (see Bookshelf).

General

Publishing

in

Assamese

some
to

twenty

Urdu

and

languages,
including

scout

"Security Council" directed camp order


and operations, "Unesco" organized camp
programmes and discussions on pollution

World Guide to Technical


Information

and

Documentation

Composite

Services

English-French

1969 ($4.00, 24/- stg.)


International

Yearbook

of Education

Vol.

XXXI

1969

1970 ($6.50, 39/- stg.)


National

Science

Policies

Europe
17 of Science

Policy Studies and Documents)


1970 ($9.50, 57/- stg.)
Mass Media in Society

1970 ($1.00, 6/- stg.)

Council for aid in setting up a publishing


and bookselling training institute.

UNESCO'S

TRANSLATIONS

SERIES

INDIA

Love Songs of Vidypati (30/- stg.)


Love

Songs of Chandidas

(40/- stg.)

The Mirror of the Sky (45/- stg.)

Mexico's school in the park


Chapultepec Park in Mexico City is the
setting for a unique experiment giving edu
cational
opportunities
to
thousands
of
people.
Each Sunday the park becomes
a kind of open-air school offering a wide
range of courses from basic reading and
writing to higher mathematics.
Many cour
ses stress practical skills
cooking, tailoring,
hairdressing while others cover the arts,
including musical theory.
Begun by a
husband and wife teaching team, Mr. and
Mrs Abad Gomez, the centre has 120 volun

teer teachers and more than 5,000 students.

All translated from the Bengali by


Deben Bhattacharya, and published in
U.K. by George Allen and Unwin Ltd.
Also published by Grove Press, New

York as paperback "Evergreen origin


als", each volume $2.95 (see item on
this page).

Frozen

Tombs

of

Siberia

The Pazyryk Burials


of Iron Age Horsemen

By Sergei

I.

Rudenko

Translated and with preface


by Dr. M.W. Thompson
J.M.

Dent

&

Sons

Ltd.,

London

(See box page 21). 1970; 12 12s. stg.

Flashes...
International Development of
the Junior College

India is to launch a University of the


Air, using radio broadcasts and correspon
dence courses to reach students throughout
the country.

Young people from 32 countries recently


took part in Belgrade in a U.N. seminar on
youth and human rights
the first world
meeting on this question to be organized
for youth.

Sweden is to raise grants for part-time

preventative measure against tooth decay


are under way in over 33 countries and
are serving
120 million people, reports
the World Health Organization.

English-French-Spanish

1970 ($1.50, 9/- stg.)

dicapped by shortage of raw materials,


lack of type foundries and an inadequate
distribution system.
To help the industry,
the Indian government has set up a Natio
nal Book Development Council and a Book
Information Centre and granted tax rebates
to publishers.
It is also negotiating with
Unesco and the British Book Development

Scout

Sweden.

Vacation Study Abroad XIX


Trilingual:

(No. 59 of Reports .
and Papers on Mass Communication)

education by over 50 per cent under


new plans to expand adult education.

of

Planning

A world survey of problems


and prospects
1970 ($4.50, 27/- stg.)

English, India ranks as the world's fifth


largest book-producer, although it is han

Assembly" and other U.N. bodies were set


up by 1,400 young people attending a
recent International scout camp at Ransberg, Sweden, organized by the N.T.O.
Association

Literacy 1967-1969

(No.

India's book industry

BOOKS

Progress achieved in literacy


throughout the world

in

Tamil

was given at Unesco headquarters during

needy

among

of

the

world's

Educational

the themes discussed by 200 specialists.


Unesco's Deputy Director-General, Dr. Mal
colm

studied how the

the

"United

Nations Group of Volunteers", and was


supported recently by a U.N. Economic and
Social Council resolution proposing that
the volunteer body should be administered
by the U.N. Development Programme.

International

help

Unesco translations series

from

the article.

"UNICEF"

children.

Friedrich Ragette which we published in


our August-September 1970 number, origi
nally appeared in "Aramco World". By an
oversight, "The Unesco Courier" failed to
credit

and

could

UNESCO

Water

flouridation

programmes

as

its

o
z

<

Edited

by Roger Yarrington

American

Junior

1970

Association

of

Colleges

($2.50)

Who

Shall

Live?

(Man's control over

birth and death)


Report prepared
American

Friends

Hill & Wang

for the
Service

Committee

Inc., New York

1970 ($1.75, cloth-bound $3.95)


The

Idea

Lives

of

William

Benton

By Sidney Hyman
University of Chicago Press,
Chicago and London
1969 ($10)

o
UJ

Just published

let

Let

my country awake
ihr human mir in

development: thought! on ihr next

my country

ten yean

M.tL itlm S. A discs}.... h

awake
The human role in development :
thoughts on the next ten years
by Malcolm S. Adiseshiah
Deputy Director-General of Unesco

A humanistic approach to the


role of education, culture and
science in economic and social

development

" The philosophy of development set forth in

unesco

this volume is a bright beacon which should

help guide Unesco successfully into the


Second Development Decade. "
U Thant

375 pages

42/-(2.10)

$7.00

Secretary-General of the United Nations

28 F

Where to renew your subscription


and order other Unesco publications
Order from any bookseller, or write direct to
the National Distributor in your country. (See list
below ; names of distributors in countries not

cape Coast

listed will be supplied on request.) Payment is


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HONG-KONG, Swindon Book Co., 13-15, Lock Road,


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Vici u. 22, Budapest V; A.K.V. Konyvtarosok Boltia,
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Trg. 26, Ljubljana.

"V

FT'
M,'

- -J""

:*-.*-.

fr

Phcto

V. Chuprynin, Archaeology Institute of the Ukr.

ciences, Kiev

One of the great archaeological surprises of 1969 was the unearthing

SCYTHIAN

by a young Ukrainian archaeologist, Vasili Bidzilya, of a magnificent


Scythian
loving-cup in a tomb in the southern Ukraine where it had

SPLENDOUR

lain
for nearly 2,400 years. (See story page 18). Above, detail of the cup
!
(reproduced in full on page 19). The clever contrasting use of silver for
the faces and hands and gold for the garments imbues the figures with
a strangely luminous quality.