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Definition of a leader

Leadership is a much broader concept than is management.

Although managers should also be leaders, management is focused on the
achievement or organizational goals. Leadership, on the other hand:...occurs
whenever one person attempts to influence the behavior of an individual or group
up, down, or sideways in the organizationregardless of the reason. It may be for
personal goals or for the goals of others, and these goals may or may not be
congruent with organizational goals. Leadership is influence (Hersey & Campbell,
2004, p. 12)
In order to lead, one must develop three important competencies: (1) ability to
diagnose or understand the situation you want to influence, (2) adaptation in order
to allow your behaviors and other resources
to close the gap between the current situation and what you are hoping to achieve,
and (3) communication. No matter how much you diagnose or adapt, if you cannot
communicate effectively, you will probably not meet your goal (Hersey &Campbell,
2004). Effective nurse leaders are those who engage others to work together
effectively in pursuit of a shared goal. Examples of shared goal is providing
excellent client care, challenging the ethic of a new policy.

Followership and leadership are separate but reciprocal roles. Without followers, one
cannot be a leader; conversely, one cannot be a follower without a leader (Lyons,
2002). Being an effective follower is as important to the new nurse as is being an
effective leader. In fact, most of the time most of us are followers: members of a
team, attendees at a meeting, staff of a nursing care unit, and so forth.
Followership is not a passive role. On the contrary, the most valuable follower is a
skilled, self-directed employee, one who participates actively in setting the groups
direction, invests his or her time and energy in the work of the group, thinks
critically, and advocates for new ideas (Grossman & Valiga,2000). Imagine working
on a client care unit where all staff members, from the unit secretary to the
assistant nurse manager, willingly take on extra tasks without being asked
(Spreitzer & Quinn, 2001), come back early from coffee breaks, complete their
charting on time, suggest ways to improve client care, and are proud of the high
quality care they provide. Wouldnt it be wonderful to be a part of that team?

Becoming an effective follower

There are a number of things you can do to become
a better follower:
If you discover a problem, inform your team

leader or manager right away.

Even better, include a suggestion in your report
for solving the problem.
Freely invest your interest and energy in your work.
Be supportive of new ideas and new direction and suggested by others.
When you disagree, explain why you do not support an idea or suggestion.
Listen carefully, and reflect on what your leader or manager says.
Continue to learn as much as you can about your specialty area.
Share what you learn.

Effective leadership

Trait theories: born leaders, share four common trait that hold truth.
Management of attention: sense of goal or direction to attract follower
Management of meaning:
Management of trust
Management of self

2. Behavioral theories : what you do as a leader

Three styles involved:
1. Autocratic: moves group towards leaders goal
2. Democratic:
3. Laissez-faire leadership: no attempt.
3.Motivational theories: getting a job done to get our salaries or doing thing
to get what we want and vice versa.
4. Emotional intelligence: works with addressing peoples feelings.

First understand your own feeling.

Welcome constructive criticism
Listens attentively to others, bring people together with respect,
cooperation collegiality.

5. Situational theories: understanding all factors that affect the group, believes
in the complexity of the group. the leaders behavior focuses on appropriately
fulfilling the followers needs.
6. Transformational leadership: meaning , inspiration and vision are features. They
do no seek reward but goes beyond good interpersonal rltship. There are excited
with their job and removes negativity.
7. Moral leadership

Qualities of effective leader

Courage Initiative Energy Optimism Perseverance Balance ,Ability to handle stress ,Selfawareness
Behavior of effective leader
Important leadership behaviors include setting specific goals, thinking critically, solving problems,
respecting people, communicating skillfully (listen to other, encourage exchange of info, provide
feedback), communicating a vision for the future, and developing oneself and others

What is management?
The classic definition of management is Henri Fayols 1916 list of managerial tasks:
planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling the work of a group of
Differences Between Leadership
and Management
Based on influence
An informal role
An achieved position
Part of every nurses
Requires initiative and
independent thinking

Based on authority and shared meaning
A formally designated role
As assigned position
Usually responsible for budgets,
hiring, and firing people
Improved by the use of
effective leadership skills


McGregors theories X and Y provide a good example of the difference between scientific
and human relationsbased management. Theory X, said McGregor (1960), reflects a
attitude among managers that most people do not want to work very hard and that the
job is to make sure that they do work hard. To accomplish this, according to Theory X, a
manager needs to employ strict rules, constant supervision, and the threat of punishment
(reprimands, withheld raises, and threats of job loss) to create industrious, conscientious
Y Theory; Theory Y, which McGregor preferred, is the opposite viewpoint. Theory Y managers
that the work itself can be motivating and that people will work hard if their managers
provide a supportive
environment. A Theory Y manager emphasizes guidance rather than control, development
rather than close supervision, and reward rather than punishment (Fig. 2.1). A Theory Y
nurse manager is concerned with keeping employee morale as high as possible, assuming
that satisfied, motivated employees will do the best work. Employees attitudes, opinions,
hopes, and fears are important to this type of nurse manager. Considerable effort is
expended to work out conflicts and promote mutual understanding to provide an
environment in which people can do their best work.
Qualities of effective manager
Leadership possession

Clinical expertise
Business sense

Behavior of effective manager

Employee evaluation
Resource allocation
Hiring and firing employees
Job analysis and redesign
Representing employees
Representing the organization
Public relations monitoring
Conflict negotiation and resolution
Employee development and coaching
Rewards and punishment