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Submitted in the partial fulfilment for the degree of
Bachelor of Engineering
SESSION (2012-16)







This is to certify that MR.CHANDRAJEET SINGH student of B.E in
Electrical&Electronics Engineering, Roll. No. 0101EX121016 from University
Institute of Technology R.G.P.V., Bhopal M.P has undergone 2 week industrial
training in BHEL, BHOPAL under the guidance of Mr. S.K.SHRIVASTAV
Senior Engineer FRX DEPARTMENT , Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited
(BHEL),Bhopal from JUNE 25, 2015 to JULY 08, 2015 & her training work
entitled TRANSFORMER submitted in the department of HRDC is a
bonafide work carried out during this period. It is further certified that the
work reported in the project fulfils the requirement of the ordinance related to
the degree of B.E. in Electrical& Electronics Engineering from UIT-RGPV,
Bhopal. HIS discipline and performance during the training period was
excellent. We wish him a very prosperous and bright career in future.

Senior Engineer,FRX dept.
BHEL, Bhopal

Presenting the Training report today remains an unparalleled event for us as
it recapitulates all our toils and effort to every one who made it possible for
us to achieve something.

Wherever and whatever we present today has been made possible by the
undying efforts of Training Guide MR. S.K.SHRIVASTAV(SENIOR ENGG.,
FRX). He always made available whatever we needed lab time, extended lab
hours and most important his guidance.

Last but not least, we wish thanks all those noble hearts who directly or
indirectly helped us to complete this training.

I hereby declare that work which is being presented in the training
entitled on TRANSFORMER is the partial fulfillment for the
award for degree for bachelor of engineering in Electrical &
Electronics Engineering. The work has been carried out at BHEL,
Bhopal and is the authentic record of my own work.

I hereby declare that the above statement is true to the best of my


Token no. VT-1379/2015

1. Introduction to Organisation
2. Introduction to Transformers
3. Transformers construction
4. Testing of transformers

1.1 Introduction to BHEL

In the post independence era when India was moving towards
industrialization, the thrust by the government was in the core sector. With
this 1956, with a view to reach self sufficiency in industrial products and
power equipments. This plan was setup under collaboration of M/s.AEJ,
U.K. .
Now more plants were setup at Trichy, Hyderabad and Haridwar with
Czechoslovakian and Soviet Union assistance in May 1956, Dec. 1956 and
Jan 1957 respectively. Today B.H.E.L. has become the largest engineering
plant employing approximately 72000 employees. Its headquarters are
located at Delhi. B.H.E.L. is the largest engineering and manufacturing
enterprise in India in the energy/infrastructure sector today. B.H.E.L. was
established more than forty years ago ushering in the indigenous heavy
electrical equipments industry in India dream that has become more than
realized with a well-recognized track record of performance. It has been
earning profits since 1971-72 and paying dividends since 1976-1977.
B.H.E.L. manufactures over 180 products under thirty major product groups
and caters to core sectors of the Indian Economy viz., Power Generation
and Transmission, Industry, Transportation, Telecommunication,
Renewable Energy, etc. The wide network of B.H.E.L.s fourteen
manufacturing divisions, four power sector regional centres, over hundred
project sites, eight service centres and eighteen regional offices, enables the
company to prompt severe its customers and provide the with suitable
products efficiently and at competitive prices.

The quality and reliability of its products is due to the emphasis on design,
engineering and manufacturing to international standards by acquiring and
adapting some of the best technologies from leading companies in the world,
together with technologies developed in its own R&D centres.
B.H.E.L. has acquired certificates to Quality Management Systems- ISO 9001,
Environmental Management Systems- ISO 14001 and Occupational Health and
Safety Management Systems- OHSAS 18001 and has also adopted the concepts of
Total Quality Management.
B.H.E.L. has installed equipment for over 90,000 MW of power generation- for
Utilities, Captive, and Industrial users. It supplied over 2,25,000 MVA
transformer capacity and sustained equipment operating in transmission and
distribution network up to 400 KV- AC & DC.
It supplied over 25,000 motors with Drive Control System to power projects,
petrochemicals, refineries, steel, aluminium, fertilizer, cement plants, etc. It also
supplied traction electrics and AC/DC locos to power over 12,000 km railway
network. It supplied over one million valves to power plants and other industries.
B.H.E.L.s vision is to become a world class engineering enterprise, committed to
enhance stakeholder value. The company is striving to give shape to its
aspirations and fulfil the expectations as a Navratna Company.
The greatest strength of B.H.E.L. is its highly skilled and committed 44,000
employees. Every employee is given an equal opportunity to develop himself and
improve his position. Continuous straining and retaining career planning, a

positive work culture and participative style of management have endangered

development o a committed and motivated work force leading to enhanced
productivity and higher levels of a quality.
With an export presence in more than 60 countries, BHEL is truly Indias
industrial ambassador to the world. This list is intended as a general guide
and does not represent all of BHEL's products and systems.

Thermal Power Plants

Steam turbines and generators of up to 500MW capacity for utility and
combined-cycle applications; capability to manufacture steam turbines with
super critical steam cycle parameters and matching generator up to 1000
MW unit size.
Gas based Power Plants
Gas turbines of up to 260MW (ISO) rating.
Gas turbine based co-generation and combined-cycle systems for industry
and utility applications.
Hydro Power Plants
Custom-built conventional hydro turbines of Kaplan, Francis and Pelton
types with matching generators, pump turbines with matching motorgenerators. Mini/micro hydro sets.
Spherical, butterfly and rotary valves and auxiliaries for hydro station DG
Power Plants
HSD, LDO, FO, LSHS, natural-gas/biogas based diesel power plants, unit
rating up to 20MW and voltage up to 11kV, for emergency, peaking as well
as base load operations on turnkey basis.
Industrial Sets
Industrial turbo-sets of ratings from 1.5 to 120MW.

Gas turbines land matching generators ranging from 3 to 260MW (ISO)

Industrial stream turbines and gas turbines for drive applications and cogeneration applications.

Boilers and Auxiliaries

Steam generators for utilities, ranging from 30 to 500MW capacity, using
coal, lignite, oil, natural gas or a combination of these fuels: capability to
manufacture boilers with super critical parameters up to 1000 MW unit size.
Steam generators for industrial applications, ranging from 40 to 450t/hour
capacity using coal, natural gas, industrial gases, biomass, lignite, oil,
biogases or a combination of these fuels.
Pulverized fuel fired boilers.
Stoker boilers.
Pressure vessels.
Heat Exchangers and Pressure Vessels
Air-cooled heat exchangers.
Surface condensers.
Steam jet air ejectors.
LPG/propane storage bullets.
Feed water heaters.
Power Station Control Equipment
Microprocessor-based distributed digital control systems.
Sub-station controls with SCADA.
Static excitation equipment/automatic voltage regulator.

Electro-hydraulic governor control.

Turbine supervisory system and control.
Controls for electrostatic precipitators.
Controls for HP/LP bypass valves.

Switchgear of the various types for indoor and outdoor applications and
voltage ratings up to
400 kV.
Minimum oil circuit breakers (66K 132kV).
SF6 circuit breakers (132 kV 400 kV).
Vacuum circuit breakers (3.3 kV 33 kV).
Gas insulated switchgears (36 kV).

Power transformers for voltage up to 400 kV.
HVDC transformers and reactors up to + 500 kV rating.
Series and shunt reactors of up to 400 kV rating.
Current transformers up to 400 kV.
Electro-magnetic voltage transformers up to 220 kV.
Capacitor voltage transformers up to 400 kV.
Special transformers: earthing; furnace; rectifier; electrostatic
precipitator; freight loco and AC EMU and traction transformers.

Introduction to Transformers
A transformer is a device with two or more stationary electrical circuits that
are conductively disjointed but magnetically coupled time varying magnetic
field and is used for transferring power one circuit to another by means of
electromagnetic induction at the same frequency. A transformer consists of
the following circuits.
Electrical energy generated at generating stations is transported to remote
load centres. Between generating station and consumers we have
transmission, sub transmission and distribution levels of voltage. Since the
long distance transmission at high voltage is cheap and low voltages are
required for utility purpose, the voltage levels goes on decreasing from the
transmission system to the distribution system. For this high voltages and
low voltages transformer is necessary in transmission and distribution
A transformer consists of the following circuits
Magnetic circuit
Comprising limbs (cores), yokes and clamping structures. This offers low
reluctance path for magnetic flux.
Electrical circuit
Comprises of the primary, secondary and territory windings. The primary is
the winding, which receives electric power and secondary, which may
deliver it. These coils are wound on laminated core of magnetic material.

Dielectric circuit
Consisting of insulation in different forms and used at different places in the

transformer (i.e. core to LV, LV to HV etc.).

Working principle:
The physical basis of a transformer is mutual inductance between two
circuits linked by common magnetic flux through a path of low reluctance. A
transformer can rise or lower the voltage with a corresponding decrease or
increase in current. In its simplest form, a transformer consists of two
conducting coils having a mutual inductance. The primary is the winding,
which receives electric power, and the secondary is the one which may
deliver it. The coils are wound on a laminated core of magnetic material.
The two coils possess high mutual inductance. If one coil is connected to a
source of alternating voltage, an alternating flux is set upon the laminated
core, most of which is linked up with the other coil in which it produces
mutually induced emf (electromotive force) according the Faradays laws
electromagnetic induction, i.e.

e =M di/dt
Where, e =induced emf M = mutual inductance If the second circuit is
closed, a current flows in it and so electric energy is transferred from the
first coil to the second coil.

Induction law
The voltage induced across the secondary coil may be calculated from
Faraday's law of induction, which states that:

Where Vs is the instantaneous voltage, Ns is the number of turns in the

secondary coil and is the magnetic flux through one turn of the coil. If the
turns of the coil are oriented perpendicularly to the magnetic field lines, the
flux is the product of the magnetic flux density B and the area A through
which it cuts. The area is constant, being equal to the cross-sectional area of
the transformer core, whereas the magnetic field varies with time according
to the excitation of the primary. Since the same magnetic flux passes through

both the primary and secondary coils in an ideal transformer, the

instantaneous voltage across the primary winding equals

Taking the ratio of the two equations for Vs and Vp gives the basic equation
for stepping up or stepping down the voltage

Np/Ns is known as the turns ratio, and is the primary functional

characteristic of any transformer. In the case of step-up transformers, this
may sometimes be stated as the reciprocal, Ns/Np. Turns ratio is commonly
expressed as an irreducible fraction or ratio: for example, a transformer
with primary and secondary windings of, respectively, 100 and 150 turns is
said to have a turns ratio of 2:3 rather than 0.667 or 100:150.
1. Power Transformers:
These are large transformers generally used to step up voltage at generating
stations and to step down voltage at substations for supply of power to
distribution systems. A transformer rated over 1600 KVA is generally termed
as power transformer.
2. Distribution Transformer:
These are used to lower voltage to a suitable level (440 volts) for use in
street distribution cables, factories and domestic distribution.
3. Special transformer:

Instrument transformer
Furnace transformer
Rectifier transformer
Welding transformer
Booster transformer etc.
These are further classified as
1. Oil filled transformers: these are the one in which windings and core
immersed in insulating oil.
2. Dry type transformers: in dry type transformers they are not placed in

The type of transformer core construction depends on the technical
particulars of the transformer and transport considerations. In general it is
preferable to accommodate the windings of all the three phases in a single
core frame. For single phase and three phase transformers, the cores can be
broadly classified as
1. Single phase three limbed core.
2. Single phase two limbed core.
3. Three phase three limbed cored.
4. Three phase five limbed core

For building the transformer cores, lamination sheets of different widths

and packet heights are needed. Laminations are produced by the
following operations.
1. Core slitting:
The manufacturing schedule may include cores of different diameters
and different types of constructions necessitating slitting laminations in
many widths and lengths. CRGOS rolls cannot be ordered in so many
different widths and quantities. These rolls are available in standard
widths of 790, 840, 1000 etc. For slitting operation, some widths can be
combined together by suitably adjusting the cutter distances in the
slitting machine. It is evident that full width of roll cannot be utilized at
any time of slitting operation and the leftover material will vary from
stage to stage and depending on the widths selected in combination
during the process of slitting. The meticulous care in planning is
imperative to minimize wastage of core steel.
2. Core cutting:
Different shapes and sizes of laminations are needed for different types of
transformer cores. Hence, in this operation a cropping machine is for
cutting laminations from slotted rolls. Depending upon the shape of
cutting these laminations are grouped into following sets.
2. PQR

3. Piercing:
The yoke punching (laminations) usually need holes for bolting the yoke
laminations. These holes are punched after the cropping operation by
suitably adjusting the hole piercing positions in the piercing machine and
selecting the right piercing tool for having specified hole punch size. In
some cases cores are also constructed without yoke bolts.
4. Deburring:
During the process of slitting, cutting and piercing of laminations, the cut
edges get some burrs. These burrs occur mainly during the cutting
operation and are due to following reasons: 1.Shearing blades blunt2.More
clearance between blades3.V-notch tool blunt Presence of burrs impairs the
stacking factor, resulting in gaps, cut into the insulation coatings and bridge
adjacent laminations there by increasing the eddy current losses. These
burrs are removed bypassing the laminations through debarring operations.
5. Annealing and Varnishing:
Annealing is a process of heating and subsequent cooling gradually. During
the process of slitting, debarring, cutting, handling etc., mechanical stresses
are developed inside the laminations that disturb the original grain
orientation and thereby increase the iron loss. This problem is eliminated by
annealing the laminations in roller hearth furnace or batch annealing
furnace at temperature of 810c with a tolerance of 10c preferably in a
neutral atmosphere zone (N2) and subsequently cooled by blast air. The
glass film and phosphate coating uniformly coated on both sides of the
lamination sheets serves as surface insulation. Therefore the laminations
withstand stress relief annealing, without deterioration in its adhesion or

electrical insulation valve, at temperatures upto840c.for this reason we

maintain annealing temperature to less than840c.If the insulation coatings
at the edges are scratched during deburring process or extra varnish
coating is desired, the laminations are processed in a varnishing plant,
which provides a thin coating of varnish and quickly dried up at high
6. Core assembly:
Core building from the finished lamination sheets is done in horizontal
position on specially raised platforms. At first the clamp plates and end
frame structure of one side of the core assembly are laid out. Guide pins are
used at suitable positions for maintaining the proper alignments during core
building process. Oil ducts are formed by sticking strips on lamination and
put in positions required. For each packet, the laminations are
manufactured in two different lengths and these sets are laid out alternately,
keeping at a time two to four laminations together. The two alternate
arrangements provide over-lapping at the corner joints and when the
lamination packets are clamped together, these overlapping edges provide
sufficient mechanical strength in holding the edges in tight grip. After laying
out the complete laminations, the clamp plates and end frame structure of
the other side are laid out and the entire core-end frame structure is
properly secured through bolts and steel bands at a number of positions.
Depending upon the shapes of the formed laminations, different types of
core assemblies can be formed.


Windings form the electrical circuit in the transformer. These produce

magnetic flux in the core. These are mainly divided into two parts, one is
primary winding and other is secondary winding. In terms of voltages we
classify them LV Winding and HV winding. The positioning of the HV and
LVwindings with respect to the core is also important from the point of view
of insulation requirement. The low voltage winding is placed nearer to the
core in the case of concentric windings and on the outside positions in the
case of sandwiched windings on account of easier insulation facilities. For
core type transformers the windings are cylindrical and are arranged
concentrically. For shell type transformers the coils are usually rectangular,
around which rectangular shaped core laminations are assembled and
surrounded. The conductors used in transformers may be copper or
aluminium depending upon the customer requirement. Small transformer
with AL winding is cheaper compare to CU winding. However, with increase
in rating and voltage, the transformer with CU winding much cheaper in
overall cost as compared to the transformer with AL winding

The choice of the type winding is largely determined by the rating of the
winding. Some of the common types of windings are described below.
1. Distributed Cross-Over Windings
These windings are suitable for currents not exceeding about 20 A. They
comprise of circular cross section (Fig. 1) and are used for HV windings in
small transformers in the distribution range. A number of such coils are
joined in series, spaced with blocks which provide insulation as well as duct
for cooling.
2. Spiral Windings

This type of winding is normally used up to 33 KV and low current ratings.

Strip conductors are wound closely in the axial direction without any radia
ducts between turns. Spiral coils are normally wound on a bakelite or
pressboard cylinder (Fig. 2).

Though normally the conductors are wound on the flat side, sometimes
they are wound on the edge. However, the thickness of the conductor should
be sufficient compared to its width, so that the winding remains twist-free
(Fig. 3).

Spiral windings may be made as single layer or multilayer type. Fig 4.

Shows a double layer spiral coil where an oil duct separates the tow layers.
For such a coil, both the start and the finish leads lie at one end of the coil
and may at times prove to be advantageous for making the terminal gear.

Normally it is not necessary to provide ant transposition between the

parallel conductors of a spiral winding as the lengths and the embracing of
leakage flux are almost identical.

3. Helical winding
This type of winding is used in low voltage and high-current ratings. A
number of conductors are used in parallel to form one turn. The turns are
wound in a helix along the axial direction and each turn is separated from

the next by a duct. Helical coils may be single layer (Fig 5) or double layer
(Fig. 6) or multi-layer, if the number of turns are more.

Unless transposed, the conductors within a coil do not have the same
length and same flux embracing and therefore have unequal impedance,
resulting in eddy losses due to circulating current between the conductors in
parallel. To reduce these eddy losses, the helical windings are provided with
transposition of the conductors which equalise the impedances of the
parallel conductors.

4. Continuous Disc winding

This type of winding is used for voltage between 33 and 132 KV and
medium current ratings. These coils consist of a number of sections placed
in the axial direction (Fig. 7), with ducts between them. Each section is a
flat coil, having more than one turn, while each turn itself may comprise one

or more conductors (usually not more than four or five), in parallel. The
sections are connected in series, but without any joints between them. This is
achieved by a special method of winding. It is not necessary to provide a
cylindrical former for these coils, as these are self-supporting. Each disc is
mechanically strong and exhibits food withstand of axial forces. Another
particular advantage of these coils is that, each section can have either
integral or fractional number of turns for example


The various fittings and accessories used in transformer:
1. Bushings (Porcelain, metal, oil)
2. Radiators / cooling tube
3. Buchholtz Relay
4. Conservator (Tank & OLTC)
5. Pressure Relief Valve
6. Pressure gauge
7. OTI, WTI, Magnetic oil gauge
8. Cable boxes
9. OLTC, OCTC circuits
11. Oil inlet valve (oil filtering valve)
12.Thermometer pocket
13.Explosion vet
14.Change over switch

15.HV fuse link

16.LV circuit breakers

1. Bushing:
A bushing is a hollow electrical insulator through which a conductor may
pass. Bushings are used where high voltage lines must pass through a wall
or other surface, on switchgear, transformers, circuit breakers and other
high voltage equipment.
The bushing is a hollow insulating liner that fits through a hole in a wall or
metal case, allowing a conductor to pass along its centre and connect at
both ends to other equipment. The purpose of the bushing is to keep the
conductor insulated from the surface it is passing through. Bushings are
often made of wet-process fired porcelain, and may be coated with a semiconducting glaze to assist in equalizing the electrical stress along the length
of the bushing.
The inside of the bushing may contain paper insulation and the bushing is
often filled with oil to provide additional insulation. Bushings for mediumvoltage and low-voltage apparatus may be made of resins reinforced with
paper. The use of polymer bushings for high voltage applications is
becoming more common. The largest highvoltage bushings made are usually
associated with high-voltage directcurrent converters.

2. Conservator Tank
Tank which is use to connected outside of the
transformer. It is a small drum mounted over
the top of the main tank. It is connected

through a pipe to the transformer tank containing oil. The function of the
conservator is to take up the expansion and construction of the oil with
changes of temperature in service, without allowing the oil to come in
contact with the air, for which it is liable to take up moisture.
3. Buchholz relay
It is a safety device, which trips off the transformer circuit in case of short
circuit or an excessive heat in the cores and oil etc. it is connected in
between the transformer tank .When oil is decomposed due to an internal
fault, gases are produced; oil vapour is produced at high or short circuit
among windings, the Buchholz relay is operated
The core legs and yokes are braced by means of fibre glass epoxy bands.
The top and bottom yokes braced with suitable steel beams. Later designs
constructed the core by stacking layers of thin steel laminations, a principle
that has remained in use. Each lamination is insulated from its neighbours
by a thin non-conducting layer of insulation. The effect of laminations is to
and so

4. Tap Changer
There are special device call Tap Changer which are use to change the
winding of transformer in high voltage side. Configuration of Tap changer is
given in Figure 2.6. A transformer tap is a connection point along a

transformer winding that allows the number of turns to be selected.

Selection of the tap in use is made via a tap changer mechanism. By using
Tap Changer device 11kv voltage can be controlled. There are different Tap
positions according to different voltage levels.

It has following parts1. Tap changer type M

2. Motor drive MA7
3. Protective relay RS2001
4. Drive shaft and bevel gear
5. Breather
The breather is provided at the entrance of the conservator of oil immersed
equipment such as Transformers and reactors. Breather removes the
moisture and dust in the air inhaled and prevents the deterioration of the
Transformer oil due to moisture absorption. The breather uses silica - gel as
the desiccating Agent and is provided with an oil pot at the bottom to filtrate
the inhaled air.

3.5Transformers manufacturing at BHEL


52KV TO 525 KV OIP condenser Bushings up to 3150
amps. Rating

25 kV, up to 300 amps. Bushing for Indian Railways.

Bushing for miscellaneous applications such as

bushings, roof bushings, T.G. bushings etc. To suit customer

SRBP cylinders for transformer application up to 1400

mm I/D, up to 2400 mm long.

Shunt Capacitor banks with all film dielectric
impregnated with non PCB Impregnate of desired ratings from
6.6 to 400 kV complete with manual / automatic control
equipment for Industrial and power system application.

Pole mounted Capacitors for mounting in line with Rural

Electrification scheme up to 11 KV

Roof Capacitor in Traction Motor application: 4

microfarad, 2 KV DC

Series capacitors for Reactive compensation and voltage

regulation in power system from 33kV to 400 KV

Capacitor to improve power factor
substations suitable for Railway Electrification.



Surge Capacitor for protection of Rotating Machine and

Generator transformers winding 15 kV and 40 kV, 0.125 micro

AC filter Capacitor for Harmonic filtering suitable for

HVDC application up to 500 kV.

Coupling capacitors / CVT up to 800 kV class for Power

line carrier communication application, meeting and protection.

Power Transformers upto 420kV class, 50/60 Hz 930
MVA, 3-phase Bank.

Power Transformers upto 420kV class, 50/60 Hz 400

3-phase Unit.

HVDC Converter Transformers and Smoothing Reactors.

500 MVA, 500kVDC, 3 winding, 1- Phase. Convertor


254 MVAR, 360mH, 1568A, 500 kVDC 1 Phase

Smoothing Reactor.


Current transformers up to 400 kV.

Capacitor voltage Transformer up to 420 kV.

Gapped core Shunt Reactors up to 420 kV class, 125
MVAR 3 Phase Unit.

Series and Neutral Grounding Reactors.

Controlled Shunt Reactor up to 420 kV class, 80 MVAR 3

Phase Unit.


The DC test plant is adequate for test levels suitable up
to +800 kV HVDC transmission.

Suitability for testing AC equipments up to 1200KV




Control for protection Panels for substations up to 400

distribution feeders and capacitors banks.
OLTC control panels.
Controls for Nuclear Power Plants.

Manufacturing Facilities
Core & Punch
Highly accurate gang slitting machine which can slit minimum25 mm
and maximum 850 width from a roll. Slitting capacity 14 Tons per
Two nos. cropping machines capable to crop 14 Tons per day with a
maximum burr of 30 microns. Minimum 55 mm and Maximum 750
mm width can be cropped.

2 No. CNC cropping line for 1000 mm width laminations having

speed accuracy of 0.2 mm.
3 No. Core building platform of size 5000 mm X 6000 mm on which a
core up to 300 Tons can be built.
One very accurate and sophisticated Resin Impregnation and Vacuum
plant to impregnate cores.
Fourteen numbers Vertical winding machine on which a winding for
2600 mm O/D and 300 Tons can be built.
26 numbers Horizontal winding machines capable of any type of
winding upto O/D of 3000 mm and height of 3600 mm.
300 Tons/500 tons (2 No.) coil pressing Hydraulic press.
One number coil reversing cradle for safe reversing of coils.
Eight numbers high frequency Induction Brazing machines to braze
joints in coil winding area.

3 NO. 400 KW Vapor phase plant with drying unit.
2 No. Conventional Vacuum Plant.
3 No. transformer oil filtration and degassing plant.
2 No. Oil Circulating Plant.
2 No. 250 Tons EOT cranes.
Aero Caster movement system for handling coils & complete

Isostatic press 250 Tons for coil stabilization

A well equipped insulation shop with facilities like circular saw,
guillotine, band saws, rolling/bending and scarifying facilities, hot and
power presses and currying oven etc.

Tests and evaluation definitions are listed below:
There are mainly two types of test;
1. Type Test
2. Routine Test

A. Routine Tests:
1. Measurement of winding resistance
2. Measurement of voltage ratio and check of phase displacement
3. Measurement of short-circuit impedance and load loss
4. Measurement of no-load loss and current
5. Dielectric tests
6. Separate source AC withstand voltage test
7. Induced AC voltage test
8. Partial-discharge measurement
9. Tests on on-load tap-changers
B. Type Tests:
1. Temperature-rise test
2. Lightning-Impulse tests
C. Special Tests:
1. Switching impulse voltage test
2. Measurement of dissipation factor (tan ) and capacitance
3. Measurement of zero sequence impedance(s)
4. Determination of sound level
5. Measurement of harmonics of the no-load current