Anda di halaman 1dari 36

ADMINISTRASI PUBLIK

KELOMPOK I

ADMINISTRATION
(Simon 1950)
Secara luas : administration as a cooperative group behaviour
(perilaku kerjasama kelompok)
Secara sempit : pattern of behaviour that are common to many
kinds of cooperating groups and that do not depend upon either
the specific goals toward which they are cooperating or the
specific technologhycal methods used to reach these goals
(pola perilaku yang umum untuk berbagai jenis kelompok
bekerja sama dan yang tidak tergantung pada baik tujuan spesifik
ke arah mana mereka bekerja sama atau metode teknis khusus
yang digunakan untuk mencapai tujuan tersebut)

ADMINISTRATION
(Raj Kumar Pruthi, 2005)
Administration is that part of the activity of a body or
group of men which is concerned with the management
of the affairs of that body or group

Administrasi adalah bagian dari aktivitas seseorang atau


sekelompok orang yang peduli dengan pengelolaan
urusan seseorang atau kelompok tersebut

DEFINISI ADMINISTRASI
S P. Naidu (1996) :
Administration defined as a cooperative group effort to
accomplish the common goals
Administrasi didefinisikan sebagai upaya kerjasama kelompok
untuk mencapai tujuan bersama
John M. Pfiffner :
Administration maybe defined as the organization and direction
of human and material resources to achieve desired ends.
(Administrasi: organisasi & pengarahan sumberdaya berupa
manusia dan material utk mencapai tujuan akhir yang
diinginkan)

DEFINISI ADMINISTRASI
Dwight Waldo (1955):
Administration is a type of cooperative human
effort that has a high degree of rationality
(Administrasi adalah sebuah bentuk usaha
kerjasama antar manusia yang mempunyai tingkat
rasionalitas tinggi)

Administrasi

Sistem yang didalamnya terdapat proses


2 orang atau lebih
Sumber daya
Pengorganisasian
Tujuan bersama

DEFINISI PUBLIK
Gripsrud (2010)

1. Public is refer to physical places (ruang terbuka


untuk semua individu).
2. The term public is used as a social category with
variations on the boundaries of a specific public.
3. Public means that something is the common
interest to all those in a polity, while private
lacks this quality.
4. 4) The term public is also used as an indication
of the aggregation of individual views
7

Kesimpulan
ada sesuatu sebagai domain publik, ruang
publik, sektor publik, dan kepentingan umum.
Istilah-istilah ini semua menunjukkan ada bagian
terpisah dalam masyarakat dengan perbedaan
karakteristik yang disebut dengan publik.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
(Dwight Waldo, 1955)
Public administration is the organization and
management of men and materials to achieve the
purposes of government (Administrasi publik adalah
organisasi dan manajemen dari manusia dan sumber
daya untuk mencapai tujuan pemerintah)
Public administration is the art and science of
management as applied to affairs of state
(Administrasi publik adalah seni dan ilmu manajemen
yang diterapkan pada urusan negara)

Public administration
Marshall Dimlock 1983 (cited in Parashar 1997, p.142)

Public administration is the production of


goods and services designed to serve the
needsof citizens-consumer
Administrasi publik adalah produksi barang
dan jasa yang dirancang untuk melayani
kebutuhan warga - konsumen

10

Public administration
(Robert B.Denhardt dan Catlaw, 2008)

Public adminisration is concerned with


managing change processes in persuit of
publicly defined societal values
Adminisration publik berkaitan dengan
mengelola proses perubahan pengejaran dari
nilai-nilai sosial yang didefinisikan publik

11

Public administration
(Rumki Basu, 1994)

Public administration is th management of


affairs of the government at all level-nation,
state, local (Administrasi publik adalah
pengelolaan urusan pemerintahan di semua
tingkat negara, negara bagian, lokal)

12

Public Administration
(Cole Blase Graham Jr.,1986)

In ordinary usage,public administration is a


generic expression for the entire bundle of the
activities that are involved in the establishment
and implementation of public policies.
(Dalam pengertian umum, administrasi publik
adalah ekspresi generik untuk seluruh
rangkaian kegiatan yang terlibat dalam
pembentukan dan pelaksanaan kebijakan
publik)
13

Teori Organisasi
1. Classical organization theory
a. Taylor's scientific management approach
b. Weber's bureaucratic approach
c. Fayol : Administrative theory

2. Neoclassical theory
3. Modern theories

14

Taylor's scientific management approach


(Bhosale, 2012)

Science
Scientific selection of the worker
Management and labour cooperation
Scientific training of the worker

15

Weber's bureaucratic approach


(Bhosale, 2012)

Concept of the formal organization :


1. Structure
2. Specialization
3. Predictability and stability
4. Rationality
5. Democracy

16

Administrative theory
Fayol (1949)
14 elements of administrative theory :
1. Division of work or
specialization
2. Authority and responsibility
3. Discipline
4. Unity of command
5. Unity of direction
6. Subordination of individual
interest to general interest
7. Remuneration of personnel

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Centralization
Scalar chain
Order
Equity
Stability of tenure of
personnel
13. Initiative
14. Esprit de corps Pride

17

Neoclassical theory
(Bhosale, 2012)

Principles of the neoclassical approach :


1. The individual An individual is not a
mechanical tool
2. The work group : informal
3. Participative management

18

Perbedaan Teori Klasik dan Neoklasik


(Sarker & Khan, 2013)

Points of distinction
Focus
Structure
Application
Emphasize
Work goal of worker
Concept about men
Content about men
Relation
Nature

Classical approach
functions and economic demand of workers
Impersonal and mechanistic
Autocratic management and strict rules
Discipline and rationality
Maximum remuneration and reward
Economic being
Scientific management, administrative
management, and bureaucratic management
Formal
Mechanistic

Neoclassical approach
Emotion and human qualities of workers
Social system
Democratic process
Personal security and social demand
Attainment of organizational goal
Social being
Hawthorne experiment , human relation movement
and organizational behavior
Informal
Organistic

19

Modern theories
(Bhasole, 2012)

a. Concept : Organization is a system which has


to adapt to changes in its environment
b. Designed and structured process in which
individuals interact for objectives
c. Classified into:
a. the systems approach,
b. socio-technical theory, and
c. a contingency or situational approach.
20

Teori Administrasi Publik


(Frederickson, Smith, Larimer, J. Licari, 2012)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Theories of Political Control of Bureaucracy


Theories of Bureaucratic Politics
Public Institutional Theory
Theories of Public Management
Postmodern Theory
Decision Theory
Rational Choice Theory and Irrational Behavior
Theories of Governance
21

Public Administration
(Felix A.Nigro and Llyod D.Nigro (1989), cited in Stillman (2010, p.2)

1. Coorporative group effort in a public setting


2. Cover all three branches executive,legislative,and
judical, and their interrelationship
3. Has an important role in the formulation of public
policy, and it thus part of the political process
4. Is different in significant ways from private
administration
5. is closely associated with numerous private groups
and individuals in providing service to the
community
22

Scope of Public administration


(Denhardt, R.B & Denhardt, J.V, 2009)

Concerned with the management of public


programs.
Public administrators work at all levels of
government, and they manage non provit
organizations
The substantive fields within which public
managers work range across the varied interests
of government and public affairs,
commitment to public service.
23

PRINSIP ADMINISTRASI PUBLIK


(Simon, 1946)
1. A specialization of the task among the group
(spesialisasi tugas pada bidang tugas)
2. Arranging the members of the group in a
determinate hierarchy of authority (Hirarki
penentuan otoritas)
3. Limiting the span of control at any point in the
hierarchy to a small number (Rentang kendali)
4. Grouping the workers, for (a) purpose, (b)
process, (c) clientele or (d) place
24

UNSUR MANAJEMEN PUBLIK


(Allison, 1992)

Personnel Management
Work Force Planning
Collective Bargaining and Labor Management
Relations
Productivity and Performance Measurement
Organization/Reorganization
Financial Management
Evaluation Research, and Program and
Management Audit.
25

Three Functions Of Government Are Related To


Three Views Of The Role Of Public Administrators
(Rosenbloom)
1.The managerial approach to public administration,
a. connects to the executive function,
b. concerned with eficiency.

2.The political approach to public administration,


a. related to the legislative function in government
b. concerned about ensuring constitutional safeguards,
3. .........

26

Three Functions Of Government Are Related To


Three Views Of The Role Of Public Administrators
(Rosenbloom)
3. The legal approach to public administration,
related to the judicial function,
a. emphasizes the administrators role in applying and
enforcing the law
b. It is also concerned with the adjudicatory role of
public organizations.

27

Functional Elements
(Luther M Gullick)

Planning
Organizing
Staffing
Directing
Co-Ordinating
Reporting
Budgeting
28

Kesimpulan
Berkaitan dengan kebijakan publik
Menata organisasi, dengan fungsi POSCORB
Untuk mencapai kesejahteraan

29

TIGA MASALAH DALAM ADMINSTRASI


PUBLIK
( Robert A Dahl )

Public Administration and Values


normative
Public administration and human
behavior
Public Administrasi and social
setting
30

No science of public administration is possible


unless:
1. the place of normative values is made clear;
2. the nature of man in the area of public
administration is better understood and his
conduct is more predictable
3. there is a body of comparative studies from it
may be possible to discover principles and
generalities that transcend national
boundaries and peculiar historical experiences
31

KESIMPULAN
Penerapan administrasi publik di satu lingkungan
tidak dapat diterapkan secara menyeluruh di
lingkungan yang berbeda.
Tidak akan ada generalisasi benar-benar universal
tentang administrasi publik tanpa studi yang
mendalam dari berbagai karakteristik nasional dan
sosial pada administrasi publik.
studi administrasi publik harus di lakukan secara
lebih luas, berdasarkan variasi historis, sosiologis,
ekonomi, dan lainnya
32

Comparison Of Government
Management And Private Business
John T. Dunlop
No

Comparasion

1 Time perspective

2 Duration.
3 Measurement of performance.
4 Personnel constraints.
5 Equity and efficiency.
6 Public processes versus private processes.
7 Role of press and media.
8 Persuasion and direction

9 Legislative and judicial impact.


10 Bottom line.

Government Management

Private Business

Short time horizons dictated by political necessities


and the political calendar

A longer time perspective oriented toward market


developments/technological innovation and investment, and
organization building
The length of service of politically appointed top
private managers have a longer tenure both in the same position
government managers is relatively short
and in the same enterprise
Little on the standards and measurement of
various tests of performance (financial return, market share,
performance
performance measures for executive compensation
The civil service and political appointees, more under much more authority, line responsibility
the control of staff
Providing equity among different constituencies
relatively greater stress is placed upon efficiency and competitive
performance.
To be exposed to public scrutiny and to be more
more private and its processes more internal and less exposed
open
to public review.
Contend regularly with the press and media; its
Private decisions are less often reported in the press, and the
decisions are often anticipated by the press.
press has a much smaller impact
Variety of pressures and must often put together a private management proceeds much more by direction or the
coalition of inside and outside groups; to many
issuance of orders to subordinates by superior managers with
superiors
little risk of contradiction; one higher authority
Often subject to close scrutiny by legislative oversight uncommon in private;
groups or even judicial orders
Rarely have a clear bottom line,
have a clear bottom line : profit, market performance, and
survival.

33

PERBEDAAN PUBLIC DAN PRIVATE MANAJEMEN


Rainey, Backoff dan Levine
No

Topic

Proposition

I. Environmental Factors
1 Degree of market exposure (reliance reduction, operating) 1 Less market exposure results in less incentive to on appropriations)cost
efficiency, effective performance.
2 Less market exposure results in lower allocational efficiency (reflection of
consumer preferences, proportioning supply to demand, etc.).
3 Less market exposure means lower availability of market indicators and
information (prices, profits, etc.).
2 Legal, formal constraints (courts, legislature hierarchy)

1 More constraints on procedures, spheres of operations legislature, less of


autonomy of managers in making such choices)
2 Greater tendency to proliferation of formal specifications and controls

3 Political influences

1 More external sources of formal influence, and greater fragmentation of


those sources
2 Greater diversity of intensity of external informal influences on decisions
(bargaining, public opinion, interest group reactions)
3 Greater need for support of constituencies client groups, sympathetic
formal authorities, etc.

34

PERBEDAAN PUBLIC DAN PRIVATE MANAJEMEN


Rainey, Backoff dan Levine
No

Topic

1 Complexity of objectives, evaluation : and decision criteria

Proposition
III. Internal Structures and Processes
1 Greater multiplicity and diversity of objectives and criteria
2

Greater vagueness and intangibility of objectives and criteria

Greater tendency of goals to be conflicting (more tradeoffs)

Less decision-making autonomy and flexibility on the part of the public administrators

Weaker, more fragmented authority over subordinates and lower levels (1. Subordinates
can bypass, appeal to alternative authorities. 2. Merit system constraints.)

Greater reluctance to delegate, more levels of review, and greater use of formal
regulations, More political, expository role for top managers

3 Organizational performance

1
2

Greater cautiousness, rigidity, less innovativeness


More frequent turnover of top leaders due to elections and political appointments results
in greater disruption of implementation of plans

4 Incentives and incentive structures

Greater difficulty in devising incentives for effective and efficient performance

2
3

Lower valuation of pecuniary incentives by employees


Variations in personality traits and needs, such as higher dominance and flexibility, higher
need for achievement, on part of government managers Lower work satisfaction and lower
organization commitment

2 Authority relations and the role of the administrator

35

Perbedaan antara Presiden dan Chief Executive Officer


(Richard E. Neustadt )

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Time-Horizon
Authority
Career-System
Media relations
Performance measurement
Implementation

36