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Active/Passive Verbs

Prepositions
Shifts
Pronoun & Antecedent
Agreement
Pronoun Reference & Case
Peer Review
ENG101_SP15

What is a verb?
Word that shows action or state of being
Run, swim, jump, be, appear, seem, feel
There are numerous verb tenses:
Present tense, past tense, future tense, present
perfect tense, past perfect tense, future perfect
tense, present progressive, past progressive, future
progressive, present perfect progressive, past
perfect progressive, future perfect progressive,
emphatic

When should you use present tense?


Present action
I want to eat pizza right now.

Action that happens over and over


I eat pizza almost every day.

Scientific facts and other things that are always


true (literature included)
Eating twenty-five pizzas a day is not good for you.

Passive voice

Less dynamic
Downplays or ignores doer of action

The ball was hit and a run was scored.The score was
kept and eventually the game was won. Strong
emotions were felt by the fans and much applause
was heard.

It is okay to be passive when...

The doer of action is unimportant or unknown


School is canceled today! (Who cares who canceled it?)

You want to be polite or avoid sounding bossy


Your application was rejected.

It is okay to be passive when...

You want to emphasize that thing youre talking


about more than the person performing the
action
This big blue ribbon will be given to the winner.

You are writing in an impersonal, scientific


manner
The mice were separated into two groups.

What is a preposition?

Word used to show a relationship between


noun/pronoun and another word in the sentence

Tell us something about where something is, when


something happens, shows some other type of
relationship between two things

About, above, after, around, at, before, beneath,


between, by, down, for, from, in inside, of, off, on,
opposite, since, through, throughout, to, underneath,
up, with, without

Is it good writing to end a sentence in a


preposition?
Change words to not end in preposition...if it
sounds normal...if not, rewrite the sentence
completely
A senator is someone most people look up to.
A senator is someone to whom most people upwardly
look.
Most people look up to a senator.

Try it...
Notice the ease Harley hits the ball with.
Notice the ease with which Hartley hits the ball.

Eliminate distracting shifts


These distract or confuse readers
Point of view
Verb tense
Mood or voice
Indirect to direct questions/quotations

Make the POV consistent in person


& number
First person emphasizes writer
Good for informal letters and writing based on
personal experience
Second person emphasizes reader
Good for giving advice or explaining how to do
something
Third person emphasizes subject
Best for formal academic and professional writing

Make the POV consistent in person


& number
One week, our class met in a junkyard to practice rescuing
a victim trapped in a wrecked car. We learned to
dismantle the car with the essential tools. You were
graded on your speed and your skill in extricating the
victim.
One week, our class met in a junkyard to practice rescuing
a victim trapped in a wrecked car. We learned to
dismantle the car with the essential tools. You were
graded on your speed and your skill in extricating the
victim.

Maintain consistent verb tenses


Consistent verb tenses clearly establish time of the
actions being described
Which sentence is incorrect?
A. She caught the ball and then throws it to the catcher for
the out.
B. She caught the ball and then threw it to the catcher for
the out
C. She catches the ball and then throws it to the catcher
for the out.
A. She caught the ball and then throws it to the catcher for
the out.

Maintain consistent verb tenses


When writing about literature or current research, use
present tense
A. Research showed that the Great Pyramids were built
before wooly mammoths became extinct.
B. Research shows that the Great Pyramids were built
before wooly mammoths became extinct.
B.

Make verbs consistent in mood &


voice
Three moods in English
Indicative is used for facts, opinions, questions
Imperative is used for orders or advice
Subjunctive is used to express wishes or conditions
contrary to fact
A.The officers advised us against allowing anyone into our
homes without proper identification.They also suggested that
we alert neighbors to our vacation schedules.

B.The officers advised us against allowing anyone into our


homes without proper identification. Also, alert neighbors to
our vacation schedules.
A.

Avoid sudden shifts from indirect or


direct questions or quotations
Indirect question: Alex asked whether the potatoes
were ready and whether he could cut them for the
salad.
Direct question: Are the potatoes ready and can I cut
them for the salad?

Avoid sudden shifts from indirect or


direct questions or quotations
Which of the following is incorrect?
A. My instructor asked whether I was prepared for the
course and have I bought myself a laptop.
B. My instructor asked whether I was prepared for the
course and whether I had bought myself a laptop
C. My instructor asked, Are you prepared for the course,
and have you bought yourself a laptop?
A. My instructor asked whether I was prepared for the
course and have I bought myself a laptop.

Avoid sudden shifts from indirect or


direct questions or quotations
A. Mother said that she would be late for dinner and asked
me not to leave for choir practice until Dad came home.
B. Mother said that she would be late for dinner and please
do not leave for choir practice until Dad comes home.
A. Mother said that she would be late for dinner and asked
me not to leave for choir practice until Dad came home.

Revising training

Underline all verbs to ensure that none of the


verbs shift

Ensure that there arent any shifts from a


statement to a question or vice versa

Newsletter Revising
2.Turn down the heat when are you more likely to
wake up at night when you are hot or cold? The
body prefers to be in a colder milder climate to
sleep. Experts recommend bedroom
temperatures to be 65 70 degrees.
3. Exercise every day This will greatly improve your
ability to sleep at night. However be careful not to
exercise too close to bed time as it can have a
negative effect on sleep.

Newsletter Revising
2.Turn down the heat when are you more likely to
wake up at night when you are hot or cold? The
body prefers to be in a colder milder climate to
sleep. Experts recommend bedroom
temperatures to be 65 70 degrees.
3. Exercise every day This will greatly improve your
ability to sleep at night. However be careful not to
exercise too close to bed time as it can have a
negative effect on sleep.

Newsletter Revising
2.Turn down the heat People are more likely to
wake up at night when they are hot.The body
prefers to be in a colder milder climate to sleep.
Experts recommend bedroom temperatures to
be 65 70 degrees.
3. Exercise every day This will greatly improve an
individuals ability to sleep at night. However one
must be careful not to exercise too close to bed
time as it can have a negative effect on sleep.

Pronouns

Pronoun & Antecedent Agreement


What is a pronoun?
Substitutes a noun
He, she, it, her, him, they, we, us, them
What is an antecedent?
Noun or pronoun that a pronoun refers to
Isabela gave her dog its bath.
Zack gave his sister her doll.

Pronoun & Antecedent Agreement


Do not use plural pronouns to refer to singular
antecedents
Runners must train rigorously if he or she wants to
excel.
A medical student must study hard if they want to
succeed.
The recruiter may tell the truth, but there is much
that they choose not to tell.

Pronoun & Antecedent Agreement


The pronoun almost always refers to the noun
closest to it.
It was pitch dark and my cat was still outdoors. I
grabbed my flashlight to begin the search and
listened for its purr.
What is purring?
The flashlight
It was pitch dark and my cat was still outdoors. I
grabbed my flashlight to begin the search and
listened for Magics purr.

Pronoun & Antecedent Agreement


The pronoun almost always refers to the noun
closest to it.
While driving it at 200 mph around the North Pole,
Santa swerved to avoid hitting an elf and landed his
sleigh in a snowdrift.
What is it?
We dont know until the end of the sentence.
While driving his sleigh at 200 mph around the
North Pole, Santa swerved to avoid hitting an elf
and landed in a snowdrift.

Pronoun & Antecedent Agreement


The pronoun almost always refers to the noun
closest to it.
Ive been to Canada, and I like them because they are
very kind to Americans.
Who are they?
Ive been to Canada, and I like the Canadians
because they are very kind to Americans.

Pronoun & Antecedent Agreement


Compound subjects joined by and always take a
plural referent.
Jones and Smith made their presentation.
With compound subjects joined by or/nor, the
referent pronoun agrees with the antecedent
closer to the pronoun.
Neither the director nor the actors did their jobs.
Neither the actors nor the director did his or her job.

Pronoun & Antecedent Agreement


Collective nouns (group, jury, crowd, team, etc.)
may be singular or plural, depending on meaning
The jury read its verdict.
The jury is acting as one unit.
The jury members gave their opinions.
The jury members are acting as twelve individuals.

Pronoun & Antecedent Agreement


Indefinite pronouns are singular (anybody, anyone,
anything, each, either, everybody, everyone,
everything, neither, nobody, no one, nothing,
somebody, someone, something)
When someone has been drinking, they are likely to
speed.
When someone has been drinking, he or she is
likely to speed.
When drivers have been drinking, they are likely to
speed.
A driver who has been drinking is likely to speed.

Pronoun & Antecedent Agreement


People are who/whose
Things are which/that
She is a person that likes pie.
She is a person who likes pie.
There is the dog who ate my pie.
There is the dog that ate my pie.

Revision Checklist

Highlight all pronouns. Circle each pronouns


antecedent. Check to ensure that they align in
singularity and plurality. If an antecedent can not
be found, create one.

Newsletter Revisions

With the belief of a flawed human body comes the


destiny of suffering and cancer.This approach to health
takes on a defensive rather than an offensive stance. If
you believe that more pink solves our countries cancer
epidemic you choose to participate in this flawed
thinking. Here lies the problem with pink it
represents all things incorrect with allopathic western
medicine and the theory that you will get cancer, no
action can change it so find it early keep your fingers
crossed and hope for the best.The majority of money
outside of marketing and huge salaries for their top
personnel (I bet their checks are even pink) goes to
early detection of cancer with mammograms and
treatment with drugs and surgery.

Newsletter Revisions

With the belief of a flawed human body comes the


destiny of suffering and cancer.This approach to health
takes on a defensive rather than an offensive stance. If
one believes that more pink solves this countries
cancer epidemic one chooses to participate in this
flawed thinking. Here lies the problem with pink it
represents all things incorrect with allopathic western
medicine and the theory that everyone will get cancer,
no action can change it so find it early keep his or
her fingers crossed and hope for the best.The majority
of money outside of marketing and huge salaries for
the companys top personnel (Dr. Alex bets the top
personels checks are even pink) goes to early
detection of cancer with mammograms and
treatment with drugs and surgery.

Eng101_SS15
Peer review narrative analysis

Each body paragraph should


* Give answer (How does this element
contribute to the narrative?)
* Explain answer
* Give specific examples supporting
answer
* Explain how the examples support the
answer and contribute to the narrative

Works Cited page

A Work in an Anthology, Reference, or Collection


Works may include an essay in an edited collection or anthology, or
a chapter of a book. The basic form is for this sort of citation is as
follows:

Last name, First name. "Title of Essay." Title of Collection. Ed. Editor's
Name(s). City of Publication: Publisher,Year. Page range of entry.

Medium of Publication.

Peer Review Narrative Analysis


On peer review sheet, write
Reviewed by: (insert your name)
Summary author: (peers name)
Exchange essays.
Read the essay and complete the
peer review sheet.
Give both to author (your peer).

For Wednesday
Essay #1 due
Order of materials for submission
rubric, final copy, prewrite (freewrite done in
class, notes on stories written for homework and
class discussions), plan (outline), rough draft(s), peer
review
Read chapter 13 (Comparison [pages 219 231])
Read pages 527 - 537