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Ancient coins of Crete

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457

[Svoronos, Numismatique de la Crete ancienne, 1890. Wroth, Cretan Coins in Num. Chron.
1884, pp. 1-58. Wroth, Brit. Mus. Cat., Crete, &c., 1886.]
The oldest coins of Crete, so far as they have been identified, cannot be assigned to an earlier
period than circ. B.C. 500 (cf., however, A. Evans on Minoan weights and currency in Corolla
Num., p. 336 f.), while the most important period of coinage is from circ. B.C. 400 to 300. The
autonomous issues cease about B.C. 67 with the conquest of Crete by Q. Caecilius Metellus.
Imperial coins were struck at some of the principal cities of the island, and there was also an
issue of money for the Province of Crete generally.
The usual standard is the Aeginetic, the chief denominations being the stater or didrachm and
drachm. After the age of Alexander the Attic standard gradually replaces the Aeginetic. It is
probable that Alexan- drine coins circulated in Crete, though only a few of the mint-symbols
have been satisfactorily made out. About B.C. 200 many of the cities (see under Cnossus)
struck imitations of the Athenian tetradrachm with their own names and symbols.
The Cretan cities furnish many remarkable examples of fine coin- engraving, notably Cnossus,
Cydonia, Gortyna, Phaestus, and Sybrita, and two engravers, Neuantos and Pythodoros, record
their signatures on the money of Cydonia, Aptera, and Polyrhenium. R. S. Poole (N. C., 1864, p.
240; cf. Gardner, Types, p. 161) has called attention to the frequent portrayal of animal and
vegetable subjects in Cretan coin-art and its fondness for perspective and foreshortening.
Everywhere, however, side by side with these fine coins, there exist unskilful copies and even the
most barbarous reproductionssee, for example, the various copies of the fine Gortynian
didrachm representing Europa in the tree (B. M. C., Crete, Pl. IX. 5-10). Any large collection of
Cretan coins has therefore a somewhat bizarre appearance, and the crudities of style and fabric
are emphasized by the common practice of the Cretan mint-masters of employing the coins of
other placesCyrene, Argos, Euboea, &c.as flans on which to restrike their own designs. Such
restriking, however, often offers to the numismatist a useful clue to the chronological
arrangement of the coins.
The types are of great interest, especially when they embody such distinctively Cretan myths and
persons as those of Minos, the Minotaur, and the Labyrinth at Cnossus; Europa at Gortyna;
Herakles, Velchanos, and Talos at Phaestus; and the local heroes of Aptera and Cydonia. The
principal gods represented are Zeus (cf. N. C., 1893, p. 237) and Artemis, the latter often in the
local forms of Diktynna and Britomartis. Apollo, too, is of frequent occurrence, sometimes
apparently in the character of a hunters god, the patron of those who pursued the wild goat of
the island. Demeter, Hermes, Dionysos, &c., are also found.

Allaria issued drachms (74 grs.) of third or second century B.C. Obv. Head of Athena. Rev.
(sometimes retrograde), Herakles standing resting on club.
ANS

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458
Anopolis (Anopolis), also called Aradn (Steph. Byz.; Svoronos, p. 5).
After circ. B.C. 250.
Young male head (rude style).
and palm-branch.
.9, &c.
; in field, palm-branch
(Hunter Cat., II., p. 168).
.55
i.e. . No type.
.5

Horn of goat; in field,


palm-branch.
No type.

Apollonia, near Cnossus (?) (Svoronos, p. 7; Eph. Arch., 1889, p. 195).


Head of Apollo.

Third century B.C.


Stern of vessel with
aplustre [B. M.].
.5
[] Aplustre and palm-branch.
.6

Id.
Aptera, on the north coast, near Cydonia.
M'berg

SNG B

ANS

Circ. B.C. 400-300.


(or )
(sometimes
Head of the Artemis of Aptera
- ) Armed warrior
with ornamented stephane;
standing with r. hand raised to
on some speci- mens, artists
salute a sacred tree
name .
AR Stater.
Id.
Bow.
AR Dr.
Id.
Id.
.5
The hero called is perhaps the oekist ( ) Apteros or Pteras (Paus. x. 5.
9 and 10; B. M. C., p. xxx). The artist, Pythodoros, also signs coins of Polyrhenium.
Circ. B.C. 250-67.
Head of Apollo.
Warrior standing
fac- ing [Svor., p. 20, No. 39]
AR Stater.
Head of the Artemis of Aptera.
Warrior advancing.
AR Dr.
Id.
Apollo seated; lyre be- hind.
AR Dr.
Head of Zeus.
Hermes standing
AR Dr.
The bronze coins have on obv. Head of Artemis; rev., Torch; Three torches crossed; Torch and

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arrow-head; Bee; Lyre; Dove; Bearded term;


Head of Apollo), &c.

(i. e. Aptera); Warrior standing facing (with obv.

Arcadia, an inland town between Cnossus and Gortyna.


Head of Zeus Ammon.

Id.

Circ. B.C. 300.


Athena standing,
armed.
AR Drachm.
within wreath.
.5-.4
459

Head of Zeus.

Circ. B.C. 200.


Athena standing,
armed; laurel-wreath
[Bodleian Libr., Eph. Arch.,
1889, Pl. II. 9].
AR Tetradr. 231 grs.

ANS

Arsino, apparently near Lyttus (see Svoronos, p. 29, on Steph. Byz.).


Head of Athena.

Third century B.C., or later.


Two dolphins.
.6-.4

(On the attribution to the Cretan Arsino see Svoronos in Journ. Int., 1904, p. 397 f.) Cf.
Methana (p. 442).
ANS

Axus, to the north of Mount Ida and south-east of Eleutherna.


M'berg

WW

SNG B

ANS

Fourth century B.C.


Head of Apollo (usually of rude NIA (i.e. with distyle).
gamma) Tripod [Svor., p. 36
f.], also with I
[Ephem. Arch., 1898, p. 265]
and without inscr.
AR Stater, Drachm, Drachm.
Also with C.
Head of Apollo.
F Tripod.
AR Didrachm, Drachm, Obol.
Head of Zeus.
Head of Artemis.

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Circ. B.C. 300-67.


C Tripod.
.75 and smaller.
C Fulmen.
.4

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Head of Zeus.

Id.
Id.
Id.

F Tripod; above, fulmen and


.
AR Drachm
C Tripod; above, fulmen.
.5
Tripod.
.75
Fulmen.
.75 and smaller.

ImperialTiberius to Caligula. Inscr., () () (); rev.


Head of the Senate, bearded and veiled, AR 118 grs. (Paris); and
, () Heads of Caligula and Germanicus, AR 33 grs. (Hirsch, Auctions-Cat.,
xiii. 2912). Cf. Cydonia, p. 464.
Biannos or Biennos (Viano), in the southern part of Crete between Priansus and Hierapytna.
Third century B.C. (?).
Female head (Artemis ?)
N Rose [B. M.].
Id.

.55
in dotted circle [Svor., p.
43].
.45

ANS

460
Ceraea, near Polyrhenium (Svor., p. 45; cf. N. C., 1902, p. 339).
Third and Second century B.C.
Head of Artemis with quiver.
Arrow-head and
spear- head within wreath.
AR Drachm.
Head of Artemis.
Arrow-head and spear-head
[B. M.].
.6
Head of Apollo.
Similar.
.7
Chersonesus or Cherronesus (Chersoneso), on the north coast near Lyttus, had a temple of
Britomartis (Strabo x. p. 479).
Circ. B.C. 370-300.
Head of Britomartis, laur.
Apollo, naked,
seated on omphalos holding
lyre; in field, thymiaterion.
AR Stater
Head of Britomartis.
(or )
Hera- kles striking with
uplifted club.
AR Stater usually of rude style

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(copied from stater of


Stymphalus, p. 454 supra).
Head of Athena.

Id.
Id.

Circ. B.C. 300-220.


... Eagle [Ephem. Arch.,
1889, p. 199].
AR Drachm.
Eagle.
.45
(or ) Prow.
.7-.45
Eagle.
.65

Other types, Head of Zeus; Arrow-head (inscr., ).


M'berg

ANS

Cnossus, in the northern part of the island near Lyttus. Its types chiefly relate to Minos and the
Minotaur, and to Zeus and Hera, whose marriage was commemorated at Cnossus by a festival of
the .
M'berg

WW

SNG B

ANS

Circ. B.C. 500-400.


Minotaur running, holding stone Labyrinth of cruciform maeander
in each band.
pat- tern; in centre, star; at
[Babelon, Trait, pt. 2, 1. No.
each corner, deep square
1968.]
depression.
AR Stater.
Id. with inscr. .
Similar [N. C., 1896, p. 90]
AR Stater.
Minotaur running.
Star in inc. sq., within
ornamental frame [Babelon,
Trait, No. 1972].
AR Triobol.
Minotaur running, inscription
Square labyrinth of maeander
- S(N).
pattern (Ephem. Arch., 1889,
p. 199, No. 13)
AR Stater.
Minotaur running, holding
Beardless bead (Theseus ?)
stones.
within square frame of
maeander pattern. (the
labyrinth).
AR Stater.
Id.
Square labyrinth of maeander
pattern.
AR Stater.
Id.
Star within ornamental frame
AR Dr., Dr., Obol.

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461
Circ. B.C. 400-350.
Female head (Ariadne ?) in
Zeus seated, holding
maeander frame.
phiale and sceptre [Svor., Pl.
IV. 33].
AR Stater.
Head of Demeter or
Minos seated on throne,
Perse- phone in maeander
hold- ing sceptre [Berlin.
frame.
Svor., Pl. IV. 34].
AR Stater.
Head of Demeter or Persephone. Zeus seated, holding
phiale and sceptre; whole in
maeander pat- tern.
AR Stater.
Id.
Labyrinth of maeander pattern
formed like the swastika; in
centre, star. (Also with
labyrinth of square form,
sometimes inscribed ).
AR Stater.
Id.
(or ) Bull's
head in maeander frame.
AR Stater.
Small bronze usually with a head (Demeter, Zeus, &c.) on each side. Some of the AR have a
curious countermark (pomegranate (?) within circle of dots), found also on the coins of several
other Cretan cities (cf. Svoronos in Bull. corr. hell., xii. p. 410, explaining it as a lebes; see also
Th. Reinach, L'hist. par les monn., p. 27 note).
Circ. B.C. 350-200.

Head of Hera, wearing


stephanos with floral
ornaments (Fig. 243).

Head of Apollo.

Id.

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FIG. 243.
Square labyrinth,
usually with on l. and on
r.; also with symbols,
spear-head and fulmen.
AR Stater, Drachm, Tetrobol.
Male figure (Minos?),
seated on square labyrinth
holding Nike and sceptre.
AR Drachm.
Square labyrinth.
AR Drachm; same types .
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Star.

Square labyrinth.
.4

Head of Athena.

Id.

AR Drachm.
Europa, with inflated veil, riding Square labyrinth;
on bull; beneath, dolphins;
symbol, star.
border of rays. (type of
.75-.6
Gortyna).
Coins of the last described type were probably first struck in B.C. 220,
462
when Cnossus united with Gortyna in an attack upon Lyttus and other cities of Crete (N. C.,
1884, p. 20; Polyb. iv. 53-55, cf. vii. 12. 9).
Circ. B.C. 200-67.

FIG. 244.
Head of Athena (as on coins of
Athens) (Fig. 244).

. Owl on amphora;
symbol, square labyrinth; all
in olive-wreath.
AR Attic tetradrachm.

Similar imitations of Athenian tetradrachms appeared circ. B.C. 200 at various Cretan cities,
Cydonia, Gortyna, Hierapytna, Lappa, Polyrhenium, and Priansus. These types may have been
adopted for commercial rather than political reasons (cf. N. C., 1884, p. 26 f.).

FIG. 245.
Head of Apollo laur.
(magis- trates name?) (Fig.
245).

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Circular labyrinth.
AR Attic Tetradrachm.

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Head of Apollo.

Square labyrinth [Hunter


Cat., II. p. 176].
.85
Head of Zeus Ammon, bearded. Square labyrinth.
AR Drachm.
Head of Zeus Ammon,
Fulmen between two
beardless.
stars.
.8

FIG. 246.
463
Head of Zeus (or Minos); some Square labyrinth.
speci- mens restruck on AR of
(Fig. 246)
Antiochus IX. Cyzicenus, B.C.
AR Attic Tetradrachm.
116-95 (Fig. 246).
Head of Zeus.
Square labyrinth.
.9-.55
Id. (sometimes with ). Eagle and name of magistrate,
- , ,
, &c.
2-1.0
Head of Artemis.
Quiver with strap; magistrates
name, ,
, &c.
.85
Id.
Quiver with strap
(also Quiver and bow).
.8
Id.
Caduceus.
.6
Cnossus a Roman Colony (after B.C. 36).
with heads of M. Antonius and Octavius and names of Duumviri. with head of Augustus
rev. Labyrinth. Inscr. on all these. CINC (or CNC) EXDD = Colonia Iulia Nobilis Cnossus
ex decreto Decurio- num. Also inscr., CNIGNOS rev. Roma holding Victory. There are also
small with inscr. CC; types., Plough, Labyrinth. For other coins, Tiberius to Nero,
sometimes ascribed to Cnossus, see Svor., p. 92 f. The AR coin (wt. 103.3 grs.) in Brit. Mus. (N.
C., 1894, p. 4) with obv. Head of Messalina, rev. Octavius, Britannicus, and Antonia may be
assigned here rather than to Corinth.

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Cydonia (Khania), one of the most important cities of Crete, was situated on the northern coast
near the western end of the island. Its supposed founder was Kydon, the son of Apollo and
Akakallis, daughter of Minos (Paus. viii. 53).
M'berg

WW

SNG B

ANS

Circ. B.C. 400-300.


Female head (nymph or
Naked archer (Kydon?)
maenad?), wreathed with
stringing his bow; before him,
vine-leaves and grapes; some
some- times, a dog.
with artists signature AR Stater.
.

FIG. 247.
Female head (nymph or
maenad?), wreathed with ivy
(Fig. 247).
Head of Athena.
Female head in ivy-wreath.

Youthful head.

Hound suckling infant


(Ky- don?).
AR Stater and Drachm.
Similar.
AR Drachm.
Three crescents (or bucranium
in place of ).
AR Trihemiobol.
Three crescents.
AR Obol; Hemiobol.
464

Head of Demeter.

Amphora.
AR Obol.

Young horned head.


Young male head (Kydon ?).
Young male head.
Female head.

Hound seated.
AR Trihemiobol; also similar .
Hound seated.
.55-.45
Bunch of grapes.
.8-.55
Bunch of grapes.
.6-.45

Miletos, the brother of Kydon, was said to have been suckled in Crete by a wolf; a somewhat
similar story may have been told of Kydon himself.
Circ. B.C. 200-67.

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About B.C. 200 Cydonia, after a long interval, struck tetradrachms of the Athenian type (see
Cnossus). Inscr., ; symbols, Hound suckling Kydon or Zeus hurling fulmen; on
the obverse, magis- trates name .
Head of Artemis (Diktynna),
with bow and quiver;
magistrates name .

Artemis
(Diktynna) standing in
hunting-dress, holding long
torch; dog beside her; whole
in olive-wreath
AR Attic Tetradrachm.

Diktynna, elsewhere in Crete called Britomartis and more or less assimilated to Artemis, had a
temple on Mount Tityrus near Cydonia (Strab. x. 4, p. 479).
Head of Apollo.

Id.
Head of Apollo.
Owl (inscr. , , , &c.).
Head of young Dionysos.

Hound suckling
Ky- don.
AR Drachm.
Nike standing.
.85
Star and crescent.
.85
Id.
.6-.5
Crescent.
.7-.55

ImperialAE Augustus to Trajan (or later ?). Inscr., . TypesHound suckling


Kydon; Temple, &c. Also AR of Tiberius (about 119 grs.) with rev.
(the Proconsul Cornelius Lupus) and (Laches);
type, Veiled and bearded bust of the Senate; also with rev. ,
Radiate head of Augustus (see also Svor., p. 116 f. and p. 325). The use of the dative after is
noticeable; it occurs elsewhere in Crete in this period, and it is probable that all these coins were
executed at the same mint.
Eleutherna (near modern Prinias), one of the most important towns in the interior of the
island, was situated between Rhithymna, Sybrita, and Axus. Apollo is the principal god
represented on its coins, generally in the character of a hunter (N. C., 1884, p. 28 f.).
M'berg

SNG B

ANS

Circ. B.C. 450-300.


Apollo advancing, holding stone V (retrograde) Artemis
and bow; on r. and l., a tree.
hun- tress shooting with bow;
in front, dog; rude style.
(Paris) AR Stater.
465
Head of Apollo laur., sometimes (sic), within laurel-wreath (obv. and
, , &c. Apollo,
rev. often barbarous).
naked, standing holding stone
and bow.

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Head of Zeus.

Male head (Apollo ?).


Grapes.
Head of Apollo.

AR Stater, Dr., Dr., Obol.


Same types in .
Apollo, naked,
standing holding stone and
bow [Eph. Arch., 1889, p.
202)
AR Stater, Dr.
(No type).
AR Trihemiobol.
Apollo (as before).
.65
Bow.
.5

Third century B.C.


Head of Apollo; border of dots; Apollo with
also with border of rays.
bow, quiver, and stone,
seated on omphalos, beside
which, lyre.
.75-.7
Imperial.
Tiberius. Inscr., . AR (wt. 34 grs.), rev. Head of Augustus radiate. Struck under the
Proconsul Cornelius Lupus ( ).
Elyrus (Rhodhovni), the most important town of south-western Crete.
Circ. B.C. 400-300.
Head of Cretan goat;
Bee (sometimes with inscr. ).
be- neath, arrow-head.
AR Drachm.
Cretan goat standing
Bee.
with forefoot placed on tree.
AR Drachm.
Head of Apollo.
[] Cretan goat raising
right fore- foot [Myres in N.
C., 1894, p. 92; Svor., p. 310,
No. 2].
.7
(for ?) Forepart of Cretan Bee [N. C., 1894, p. 95;
goat recumbent, looking back;
Svor. p. 146. Specimens have
arrow-head near neck. (Also
been found at Rhodhovni].
with Head of goat.)
.55
The goat is probably connected with the hunter Apollo of Crete (N. C., 1884, p. 31). The people of
Elyrus dedicated at Delphi (Paus. x. 16) the representation of a bronze goat suckling the infants
Phylakis and Phylandros, who were children of Apollo by Akakallis. The bee may refer to a
legend connected with the infancy of Zeus (N. C., 1884, p. 33).
SNG B

ANS

Gortyna (now village of ), in the southern part of central Crete, rivalled Cnossus in
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wealth and importance.


M'berg

WW

SNG B

ANS

Europa riding on bull.

Circ. B.C. 480-430.


ICV (
) on the four sides of
a square, within which, lions
scalp facing; in- cuse square.
(Others of similar types
without inscr. Also a
somewhat later didrachm with
rev. inscr. V- ).
AR Stater.
466

Bull recumbent.

Same inscr. as No. 1. Lions


scalp; incuse square [Weber
Coll., N. C., 1892, p. 198; var.
in Brit. Mus. Also Dr., Dr.,
and Obol, without inscr.].
AR Drachm.

Cf. see Phaestus, infra. Lenormant supposes to be derived from


, to strike, as from ; cf. the coin struck by Seuthes,
supra, p. 282.
Circ. B.C. 430 (or later) to circ. B.C. 300.

FIG. 248.
Europa seated in tree (Fig.
248).

VS, V (or
without inscr.) Bull, usually
standing
AR Stater.

Many specimens are of barbarous execution, especially on the obverse; the prototype is,
however, of beautiful work. Some are restruck on coins Of Cnossus and Cyrene (obv. Zeus
Ammon, rev. Silphium). The tree, though somewhat diversely represented, is probably intended
for the Gortynian platanus mentioned by Theophrastus (Hist. Plant. i. 9. 5) and Pliny (xii. 1.5):
Est Gortynae in insula Creta iuxta fontem platanus una insignis utriusque linguae monimentis,
numquam folia dimittens, statimque ei Graeciae fabulositas superfuit Iovem sub ea cum Europa
concubuisse. On the earlier staters Europa [1] is seated in pensive atti- tude, and an eagle (Zeus)

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sometimes perches on a branch near her. Some specimens are inscribed SVS =
(?), an inscription hard to explain; according to the Scholiast on Theocritus (Num. Chron., 1891,
p. 417), was the name of a Cretan town. On the somewhat later series the seated Europa
much resembles a figure of Hera, wearing a polos and holding a sceptre surmounted by a bird;
on her knees is the eagle with expanded wings, and a bulls head is sometimes seen in front of
the trunk. It would seem that the Gortynian version of the myth was that Zeus, after carrying off
Europa in the form of a bull, approached her again in the form of an eagle.
Female head (Europa ?),
Forepart (or head and neck) of
wearing sphen- done;
bull.
sometimes inscribed V.
AR Dr., Dr.
Head of Persephone or Demeter. Bulls head.
AR Dr.
1

Svoronos (Rev. belge, 1894, p. 113; cf. N. C., 1894, p. 182) considers that the figure is Britomartis seated in an oak.

467
Third century B.C.
Europa seated in tree, holding
Bull standing.
out veil; on tree, eagle.
AR 96 grs.
Id.; border of rays.
Europa seated on
bull; wreath.
.8-.65
A Gortynian decree of the third or second century B.C. enjoins, under a penalty, the use of the
bronze money ( ) which the city has put in circulation, and also fixes a fine
to be paid by any one who accepts in payment silver obols (
); see the inscription in Journ. Int., 1898, p. 165 (Halbherr); ib., p. 173 (Svoronos); and
Th. Reinach in Rev. Num., 1904, p. 12, and cf p. 465.
Circ. B.C. 200-67.
Tetradrachms of Athenian types (as at Cnossus, &c.). Inscr., - . Symbol, Bull
rushing, and magistrates name (N. C., 1899, p. 93).

FIG. 249.
Head of Zeus (Fig. 249.).

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Athena armed
standing holding Nike; before
her, serpent; olive-wreath.
Magistrate, .
AR Attic Tetradrachm.

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Id.

Naked male figure,


with bow and quiver, seated
on rock .
AR Attic Drachm.
Id.
Naked male figure
(the founder Gortys ?)
advancing with spear and
shield; border of rays.
AR Dr. (Similar rev. on .)
Id. [Svoronos, p. 172, No. 113.] Bull.
AV 133 grs.
Id.
Europa on bull
AR Dr.
Head of Helios.
Eagle holding serpent;
border of rays.
AR Dr.

BRONZE. TypesHeads of Zeus, Hermes, Artemis, Apollo; Athena holding serpent; Bull;
Europa on bull (N. C., 1884, p. 38).
Circ. B.C. 66.
Head of Roma in winged Ephesian Artemis (as
helmet, adorned with
on AV staters of Ephesus); in
elephants head; in front,
field, bee and elephants
mon. . [Svor., p. 181.]
head; laurel-wreath [Ber- lin,
Paris].
AR Attic Tetradrachm.
468
The elephants head is the family emblem of the Caecilii Metelli, and this tetradrachm was
doubtless struck at Gortyna after the conquest of Crete by Q. Caecilius Metellus, B.C. 67, and
while he was organizing the government of the island, which was constituted a Roman Province
in B.C. 66. (For a cistophorus, probably struck at Gortyna, see infra, Province of Crete.)
ImperialInscr., , &c. Tiberius, AR rev. Radiate head of Augustus; name of Proconsul
Cornelius Lupus ( ). Caligula and Germanicus. rev. Head of Germanicus; inscr.,
- . The name of Augurinus occurs also at Hierapytna and Polyrhenium. For
with the dative see Cydonia. Trajan. rev. C Warrior (Gortys ?), with spear and
circular shield. See also Province of Crete, infra.
Hierapytna (Gierapetra), on the southern coast, west of Cape Erythraeum.
M'berg

WW

SNG B

ANS

Circ. B.C. 400-350.


V between the limbs of a Forepart of boar; wreath
tris- keles; wreath.
[Berlin; Svor., p. 188, No. 1;
Z. f. N., xxi. 215].
AR Stater.
Circ. B.C. 300.

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FIG. 250.
Head of Zeus; one specimen of Palm-tree with eagle at its
this type is from the same die
foot (Fig. 250).
as a stater of Eleutherna.
AR Stater.
Head of Zeus.
Id. [Svor., p. 188, No. 3].
AR about 12 grs.
Circ. B.C. 200.
Tetradrachms of Athenian types (as at Cnossus, &c.). Inscr., . Symbol, Eagle, or without
symbol. Magistrates, ; .
Female head, turreted.

Id.
Id.

Circ. B.C. 200-67.


Palm-tree and
eagle; magistrates name;
whole in wreath
AR Spread Tetradr. 230 grs.
Id.
AR Didr. 116 grs.
Id.
AR Dr. 57 grs.

Among the names on these coins are :, (Eph. Arch., 1889, p. 203),
.
,
,
,
,
,
, .
469
Female head, turreted.

Head of Zeus.

Young male head.


Head of Zeus.

15 of 30

(on the mon. see Svor.,


p. 301 f.) Palm-tree and eagle
[Imhoof, Mon. gr., p. 220, No.
51).
.75
Palm-tree; in field,
aplustre
.6
Id. mag., .
.45
Palm-tree [N. C., 1897, p.
32].
.5

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Star.

and mag. Palm-tree


[Svor., p. 192, No. 33].
.5

Young head.

Mon. of Hierapytna. Prow


[Svor., p. 193, No. 41].
.4

Imperial. AR Divus Augustus. rev. (= )


Head of Zeus Kretagenes. Wt. about 138 grs. Tiberius. AR with
and rev. Head of Augustus radiate. Wt. about 41 grs. Caligula. AE. Inscr.,
or , rev. Eagle; in field, palm-tree.
Hyrtacina has the same types as Elyrus, to the west of which it was situated.
SNG B

ANS

Circ. B.C. 400-300.


,, Head of Bee.
Cretan goat; behind,
AR Drachm.
arrow-head.
Goats head.
Bee, and monogram [N. C.,
1894, p. 96].
.55-.45
Also small thin AR pieces (some specimens in gold, N. C., 1892, p. 199) recording an alliance
between Hyrtacina and Lisus. Usual type: Dove (or eagle?) on obv. and rev. Inscr., -; -;
-, or without inscr. Also types: dolphin, star.
Similar uninscribed thin AV pieces with eagle-type, &c. (wt. 10 - 12 grs.), procured at
Polyrhenium, probably belong to Hyrtacina or Lisus (Brit. Mus. = Montagu Sale Cat., March,
1896, lot 448).
Itanus, an important town on the eastern coast.
M'berg

WW

SNG B

ANS

Fifth and fourth century B.C.


Sea-god (Glaukos or Triton ?),
Ornamented star in incuse
half-man, half-fish, striking
square. (Later specimens with
downwards with trident.
wreath encir- cling the star).
AR Stater.
Id.
Star.
AR Obol.

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FIG. 251.
470
Id. (Fig. 251).

Head of Athena in Athenian


helmet.

Id.

Id.

or Two
sea-monsters face to face;
incuse circle.
AR Stater, Drachm, Dr.
Two sea-monsters face
to face; inc. sq. [some with
the name instead of
; Svor. in Journ. Int.,
1898, p. 157].
AR Stater.
or Eagle
looking back; in field of some,
small figure of sea-god.
AR Stater, Dr., Dr.
Star; incuse circle [see also
Svor., p. 206, Nos. 42-44].
AR Obol, Obol.

The eagle doubtless refers to the Zeus worshipped at Itanus (Michel, Recueil, No. 1317;
inscr. of Itanus).
Lappa (Polis or Argyropolis), an inland town of western Crete.
M'berg

SNG B

ANS

Circ. B.C. 400-300.


Female head, r.
Bulls head facing; one horn
[N. C., 1894, p. 10, No. 10.]
turned downwards.
AR Drachm.
Young head.
Similar bulls head.
AR 11-13 grs.
Head of bull.
.
AR 11 grs.
with bulls head and rev. or ; Svor., pp. 211, 212.
Circ. B.C. 200 or earlier to B.C. 67.
Head of Poseidon.
Trident and two
dolphins [Svor., p. 212, Nos.
11, 12].
1.0
Head of Artemis.
Tripod.
.5
Id.
Bulls head with one horn turned
down- wards.
.5
Tetradrachm of Athenian types. Inscr., . Symbol, bulls head with one horn turned
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down (Eph. Arch., 1899, p. 204, No. 39).


Head of Apollo.

Apollo standing holding


lyre and plectrum. Mag.
.
AR 53-45 grs. (reduced Attic
drachm).
Lyre.
.85
Lyre.
.55

Id.
Id.

Imperial. Inscr., , Augustus , rev. Apollo standing with lyre. Tiberius AR, rev.
Head of Augustus (). Domitian , rev. Apollo standing; Athena; Three ears of corn.
Domitia , rev. Artemis with bow. Hadrian , rev. Athena (Svor., p. 216, No. 35).
Latus (Svor., p. 217).
Circ. B.C. 200-67.
Head of Artemis (or Eileithyia). Hermes walking.
.55
Id. [Svor., p. 220, No. 3.]

Bust of Hermes.
.4
471

There was a temple of Eileithyia at Latus (Michel, Rec., No. 28, No. 60), and Hermes was one of
the gods honoured by the citizens (C. I. G., No. 2554).
Imperial. Caligula , rev. - Head of
Germanicus (N. C., 1891, p. 128). For with dative see Cydonia. For bronze coins with large
, &c., on rev., see Svor., p. 220 (Latos-Etera).
M'berg

ANS

Lisus, in the south-west of the island (Svor., p. 222 f.), near Hyrtacina and Elyrus.
Head of Artemis.

Fourth century B.C.


Dolphin.

Dove (or eagle ?).


Id.

Goats head.
Caps of Dioskuri.

.7
Dove (or eagle ?).
AV 17 grs.
Plain reverse [N. C., 1891, p.
129].
AR 9.5
Bee.
.45
Bow and quiver.
.7

Also alliance coins with Hyrtacina (q. v.).

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M'berg

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ANS

Lyttus (Xyda), an important city in the eastern part of central Crete.


SNG B

ANS

Eagle flying.

Eagle standing.
Eagle flying.

Eagle flying.

Circ. B.C. 450-300.


VS Head and forefoot of
boar; inc. square [Brit. Mus.
(Bunbury Coll.); cf. Eph.
Arch., 1889, p. 205, Nos. 41,
42].
AR Stater.
VSN Boars head; inc. sq.
AR Dr.
VSN; V; VSS; Boars head; inc. sq.
AR Stater, Dr., Dr.
Head and forefoot of boar; inc.
sq. [Hunter Cat., ii. p. 191,
No. 7].
AR Dr.

The eagle doubtless refers to Zeus; for it was in a cave of Mount Aegaeum, near Lyttus, that
Rhea gave birth to the god (Hes. Theog., 477; N. C., 1884, p. 42).
Boars head.
Head of Athena.
Head of Zeus.

Circ. B.C. 300-220.


Eagle standing.
AR Attic Drachm.
Prow.
.5
Eagle standing;
symbol, boars head.
.7

Other bronze coins with Boars head and Eagle types: inscr., - , &c.
Imperial. The autonomous coinage appears to end in B.C. 220, when
472
Lyttus was destroyed by the Cnossians. But the city was afterwards rebuilt, and seems to have
been of some importance in Roman times. There are AR coins of Caligula (rev. Head of
Germanicus), inscr., : Svor., p. 239.
Malla (Mallasi), a town near Lyttus (Svor., p. 240). Its chief divinity was Zeus or
.
Head of Zeus.

Third or Second century B.C.


Eagle standing.
.65

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Id.

Fulmen.
.5

ANS

Moda (? modern , near Polyrhenium), known only from coins.


Fourth century B.C.
Head of Zeus. [Svor., p. 244.]
Bulls head facing.
AR Stater.
Myrina, mentioned in Plin. N. H. iv. 12. 59 (Svor., p. 245 f.).
Bulls head and neck.

Fourth century B.C.


V Bulls head and neck;
circular incuse.

Female head; hair rolled.


Bulls head and neck.

SNG B

AR Dr.
Id. [N. C., 1895, p. 96. No. 11].
AR Dr.
in circular incuse.
AR 16 grs.

ANS

Olus (mod. and ), on the north-east coast. Its temple of Britomartis


contained a statue of the goddess by Daedalus (Paus. ix. 40. 3). It had also a temple of Zeus
Tallaeos (B. C. H., iii. p. 293).
Circ. B.C. 330-200.
Head of Artemis Britomartis
Zeus seated holding
wearing laurel-wreath; quiver
eagle
at neck.
AR 166 grs.
Similar.
in laurel-wreath.
AR 34 grs.
Similar.
[] Tripod.
AR 20 grs.
Similar.
Star.
AR 11 grs.
Similar.
.
AR 9 grs.
Head of Artemis Britomartis.
Zeus seated holding
eagle.
.5
Also small with head of Britomartis, and rev.

, (in mon.), &c.; symbol, dolphin.

ANS

Phaestus, west of Gortyna, one of the most ancient and important towns of Crete. Many of its
types relate to Herakles, father (or grand- father) of Phaestus, the eponymous hero.
WW

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SNG B

ANS

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Circ. B.C. 480.


Europa riding on bull (cf. the
ICIIIC (
earliest coin of Gortyna with
) Lions scalp within
similar types and
square; whole in incuse
corresponding inscr.).
square.
AR Stater.
473
Circ. B.C. 430-300.
[ O]SSC Europa seated on Hermes seated holding
rock welcoming with raised
caduceus.
hand the bull advancing
AR Stater.
towards her.
Female head (Europa).
Forepart of bull kneeling [Hunter
Cat., ii. p. 192, No. 1, Pl. XLII.
12]
AR Stater.
Herakles with bow and club
Bulls head.
standing; lion-skin hanging
AR Stater.
behind, in field.
Id.
C Bull feeding; legs
tied.
AR Stater.
Herakles standing; on l.,
Bull tethered; laurel-wreath
serpent; on r., tree.
AR Stater.
Herakles with club
Bull; wreath [Z. f. N., xvii. p. 7].
attack- ing serpent.
AR Stater.

FIG. 252.
Herakles with club attacking
hydra; at his foot, crab (Fig.
252).

Bull.
AR Stater.

When Herakles with the help of Iolaos destroyed the Lernaean hydra, a gigantic crab came to
the assistance of the hydra and wounded Herakles in the foot (Apollod. ii. 5. 2). The bull on the
coins is probably the famous Cretan bull bound by Herakles.
Herakles seated,
Bull walking.
resting; bow and quiver tied
to tree (or to a column); large
vase beside him.

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Head of Herakles.
[Svor., p. 256, No. 8.]

(sic) Two bulls


standing r.
AR Stater.

FIG. 253.
C (retrograde)
(, ) Bull
Youthful male figure seated in
rushing (sometimes walking).
tree; in r. hand holds a cock
AR Stater.
(Fig. 253). Zeus Velchanos(?), but cf. Rossbach
(Rhein. Mus., n. s., vol. 44, p.
437 f.) on Hesy- chius s.v.
.
474

FIG. 254.
Naked male figure
winged (Talos) hurling stone
(Fig. 254).
Similar, with dog between legs
of Talos.
Young male head (Herakles or
Phae- stos). Also with Female
head.
[Svor., p. 255, Nos. 4, 5.]
or Young male bead
(Hera- kles or Phaestos).

Bull rushing
AR Stater.
Forepart of bull.
AR Stater.
Talos hurling stone; dog
between legs [Z. f. N., xvii. p.
7, No. 2]
AR Stater.
Bulls head [Cf. N. C., 1892, p.
200, No. 29].
AR Dr., Dr.

Circ. B.C. 300-250.


Talos running, hurling stone.
C Hound on the scent
.7

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Talos (or Talon), the wondrous man of brass made by Hephaestos, was the guardian of Crete,
who daily perambulated the island and hurled stones at strange vessels that approached it. The
dog is doubtless the golden dog made by Hephaestos, and set as a protector to the infant Zeus in
Crete, and afterwards to the temple of Zeus (N. C., 1884, p. 50 f.).
Phalasarna, at the north-west extremity of the island, possessed a temple of Artemis Diktynna
and a fortified harbour (Svor., p. 268).
Circ. B.C. 400-300.
Head of Diktynna, her hair
Trident.
bound with crossing cord.
Id.; hair rolled.
Id.

Id.
(mon.). (No type.)
(No type).

WW

AR Stater.

AR Drachms Dr.
(Sometimes restruck on coins
of Argos.)
Id. [Svor., p. 270, No. 9].
.5
Id. [Svor., p. 271, No. 11].
.8
Dolphin.
.45

ANS

Polyrhenium (Palaeokastro Kissmou). Its territory occupied most of the western end of the
island. It had a temple of Artemis Diktynna (Strabo x. 479).
M'berg

SNG B

ANS

Circ. B.C. 400-330.


Head of Diktynna, hair rolled
Bulls head facing, with pendent
(some- times with hair in
fillets. (Sometimes restruck on
coif). Signature of the
coins of Argos; N. C., 1900, p.
engraver ; see
18).
also Aptera, supra.
AR Drachm.
For small AV coins sometimes attributed to this city see under Hyrtacina, supra.
475
Circ. B.C. 330-280.
Head of Zeus.
Bulls head facing,
with pendent fillets; beneath,
arrow-head. Mag.,

AR Stater.
(and
Spear-head.
, Hunter Cat., II.
AR Dr.
p. 196, No. 5) Bull's head
facing, with pendent fillets.

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Head of Athena.

Bulls head facing.


Round shield, on which bulls
head.
Bow. [Svor., p. 281, No. 38.]
Boeotian shield (probably
recording an alliance with
Thebes).

Bulls head facing,


with pendent fillets.
.65
, &c. Spear-head.
.65
, &c. Id.
.7-.45
Arrow-head.
.6
Goats head and
arrow-head [N. C., 1894, p.
94].
.6

Circ. B.C. 200-67.


Male head, with whisker; wears Female figure
taenia; bow and quiver at
(Dik- tynna ?) seated holding
neck (Philip V of Macedon as
Nike.
Apollo ?).
AR Attic Tetradrachm.
[N. C., 1884, p. 54.]
Bust of Diktynna facing, with
Apollo (?)
bow and quiver.
advancing with bow.
AR Attic Dr.
Tetradrachms of Athenian types (as at Cnossus, &c.). Inscr., - . Symbol-Artemis
shooting with bow. Also with types referring to Apollo and to Hermes (Svor., p. 282 and p.
283), and with obv. Head of Athena, rev. Owl. (Svor., p. 283, No. 50.)
Imperial. Augustus. Radiate head of Augustus,
rev. (cf. Hierapytna) Head of Zeus Kretagenes laur.; beneath,
fulmen. AR Wt. 147 grains (Paris, Svor., p. 284, No. 52). Caligula. with rev. Head of
Germanicus. . For with dative see Cydonia.
Praesus (Annual of Brit. School at Athens, viii. 1901-1902, p. 231 f.). The territory of this city
occupied the greater part of the eastern end of Crete, bordering upon that of Itanus. The city was
destroyed by the Hierapytnians some time after B.C. 148. Several coins refer to the worship of
Zeus , whose temple stood on Mount Dikte east of the town.
WW

SNG B

ANS

Circ. B.C. 450-400.


Gorgoneion.
Youthful figure (Herakles ?) in
chlamys, kneeling and
shooting with bow; in- cuse
square.
AR Stater.
Cow suckling infant (Zeus ?).
S Herakles (?) kneeling and
shoot- ing with bow [Svor., p.
286, No. 2 (Paris); N. C.,
1896, p. 18 (Weber Coll.)].

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Youthful figure (Herakles ?) in


chlamys, kneeling and
shooting with bow.

S Eagle; incuse square.


AR Stater, Dr.

476
Circ. B.C. 400 to circ. B.C. 148.
Zeus Diktaeos enthroned,
Bull butting [B. M. C.,
holding eagle and sceptre.
Crete, Praesus, No. 5; cf. N.
C., 1892, p. 30].
AR Stater.
Zeus Diktaeos (as above).
Forepart of goat looking back.
AR Stater and Dr.
Id.
Herakles standing wielding
club and holding bow [Svor.,
p. 288, No. 21].
AR Stater.
Head of Apollo.
Forepart of goat looking
back; behind, arrow-head.
AR Stater.
Id.
Herakles with club
and bow (as above).
AR Stater.
Id.
Goats head in laurel-wreath
AR Dr.
Id.
Bulls head.
AR Dr.
Head of Demeter or Persephone Rushing bull; symbol,
wreathed with corn (as on
rose.
Syracusan coins).
AR Stater.
Id.
Bulls head; symbol,
rose.
AR Dr.
Id.
Bee; symbol, rose
AR Dr.
Head of Apollo.
Bee.
AR Dr.
Id.
C Fulmen.
.7
Priansus, probably an inland town in the valley of the Katarrhaktes, near Mount Dikte (Svor.,
p. 293).
M'berg

ANS

Circ. B.C. 430-200.


Goddess enthroned beneath
Poseidon in
palm-tree, caressing serpent
himation standing holding
which rises to her hand.
trident and dolphin.
AR Stater.

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Similar.

Female head (Artemis ?).

Id.
Id.

Forepart of goat looking back; in


field, arrow-head [Svor., p.
296, No. 6]
AR Stater.
Palm-tree between
dol- phin and rudder.
AR Dr.
Trident.
AR Dr.
Palm-tree.
AR .65

The goddess fondling the serpent may be Persephone approached by Zeus in the likeness of a
serpent (cf. coin of Selinus in Sicily, supra, p. 169; N. C., 1884, p. 56), or possibly Hygieia, for
there was a temple of Askle- pios at Leben near Priansus.
Circ. B.C. 200.
Tetradrachms with Athenian types (as at Cnossus, &c.). Inscr., ; symbol, palm-tree.
Magistrates, ; - (N. C., 1899, p. 94).
Female head (Artemis?).

Id.

Poseidon striking with


trident
.65
CW Palm-tree between
rud- der and dolphin; border
of rays.
.7
477

Rhaucus lay between Gortyna and Cnossus. Though an inland town, it had a cultus of
Poseidon, like Mantineia, the various Thessalian towns, &c. Circ. B.C. 166 Cnossus and Gortyna
made a combined attack upon Rhaucus and divided its territory between them (Polyb. xxxi. 1).
SNG B

ANS

Circ. B.C. 430-300.


Poseidon Hippios, naked,
Trident (on the earlier
holding trident and standing
specimens within incuse
beside his horse (horse's foot
square).
sometimes on prow).
AR Stater.
Circ. B.C. 300 to circ. B.C. 166.
Head of Poseidon; trident at
Trident between two
shoulder.
dol- phins.
AR Dr.
Head of Poseidon.
Two dolphins.
[Svor., p. 307, No. 24.]
AR Dr.
Head of Demeter or Persephone. Head of trident
AR Obol.

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Horses head.

Dolphin and trident.


.7
Trident between two
dol- phins.
.8
Head of trident.
.45
Head of trident.
.45

Head of Poseidon.

Two dolphins.
Dolphin.

Rhithymna (Rethymnos), on the northern coast.


Head of Apollo.

Head of Athena.

Id.
Id.
Id.

Circ. B.C. 400-300.


Apollo holding stone and
bow.
AR Stater.
Trident between two
dolphins.
AR Dr.
Trident.
AR Dr.
(or ) Two dolphins.
.55
Trident.
.55-.4

ANS

Sybrita, an inland town, south of Eleutherna.


ANS

Circ. B.C. 400-300, or later.


Dionysos, bearded, seated,
Hermes standing,
holding kan- tharos and
holding phiale and caduceus
thyrsos.
[Svor., p. 314, No. 1].
AR Stater.
Similar.
Similar [Ib., No. 2]
AR Dr.
Head of Dionysos, bearded and Head of Hermes; in
wreathed with ivy; in front,
front, caduceus [N. C., 1890,
grapes.
p. 321, No. 20].
AR Stater.
Similar.
Similar type [N. C., 1 895, p.
97, No. 14].
AR Dr.
Young Dionysos holding thyrsos, Hermes, wearing
riding on galloping panther.
chlamys, stooping forward and
placing his foot on a rock,
while he ties his sandal; in

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front, caduceus.
Head of young Dionysos
wreathed with ivy; behind,
grapes.

AR Stater.
Hermes, standing
holding long caduceus [Hunter
Cat., II. p. 199, No. 31.
AR Stater.
478

Apollo (?) seated on rock


adjusting bow.
Head of young Dionysos.

Head of goat.

Top of caduceus.

Head of Hermes.
Id.
Head of Zeus.
Id.

Dolphin.

Head of Hermes; petasos


at neck [Svor., p. 315, No. 7].
AR Dr.
Goats head and
spear [Brit. Mus. = Eph.
Arch., 1889, p. 210, No. 60].
AR Dr.
Grapes [Similar types on
without inscr.; Eph. Arch.,
1889, p. 210. No 62].
AR Obol.
(in mon.) within incuse
square.
AR Obol.
Caduceus.
.7
Jawbone of animal
.5
Similar.
.8
Spear-head and branches
[Svor., p. 316, No. 15].
.35
Trident in wreath [Hunter Cat.,
II. p. 199, No. 5].
.5

Tanus, mentioned only by Steph. Byz. (Svor., p. 318).


Head of young Dionysos.

Young male head, r.

B.C. 400-300.
Globule between three
crescents.
AR Obol.
Head of Hermes.
AR Obol.

ANS

Tarra, on the south-west coast, not far from Elyrus, Lisus, and Hyrtacina.
Fourth century B.C.
Head of goat; beneath,
Bee [N. C., 1896, p. 19].

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Ancient coins of Crete

http://www.snible.org/coins/hn/crete.html

arrow- head.
Head of goat.

AR Drachm.
(= ) Bee [Svor., p. 321,
No. 2].
.4

The people of Tarra worshipped an Apollo (Steph. Byz., s.v., ), to whom the
goats head may refer (cf. under Elyrus and Hyrtacina, supra).
ANS

Tylisus ( and ), on the north coast between Rhaucus and the sea.
Circ. B.C. 400-300.
Head of Hera wearing stephanos and , someadorned with floral devices.
times retrograde. Apollo,
naked, standing holding goats
head and bow; in field, shrub,
or arrow-head [Variety with
; Svor., p. 330, No.
10].
AR Stater.
ANS

479

M'berg

Cista mystica with serpent;


ivy-wreath.


Between two serpents, Zeus
Kreta- genes standing holding
eagle and hurl- ing fulmen
[Svor., p. 334, No. 1]
AR Cistophorus.

Probably struck at Gortyna between B.C. 66 and the battle of Actium, B.C. 31.
ImperialCaligula to Antoninus Pius, chiefly , but there are AR of Caligula, Claudius, &c.;
weights, 160 grs. (Didr.), 120 grs. (1 Dr.), 45 grs. ( Dr.). There are also AR, reign of Nero,
probably of Crete, inscribed C (Assaria Italica 24?)=the drachm, circ. 84 grs., and C
(Assaria Italica 12?) = dr., circ. 37 grs. (Brit. Mus., Imhoof, G. M., p. 687 f.). Inscr.
Coins of the earlier emperors give no indication of the place of issue, but from the reign of
Domitian, or appear. Chief typesAugustus, radiate, seated in curule
chair or in car drawn by four elephants; around, seven stars (the Great Bear). The Korybantes
dancing. C C standing hurling fulmen; around, seven stars (Svor., p. 342, No.
45; R. N., 1898, p. 677 f.). Eagle. Altar. Nymph holding infant
Zeus (Svor., p. 346, No. 74). Infant Zeus seated on globe; near him, goat; around, seven stars.
Europa on bull. Artemis. Diktynna hunting (Svor., p. 343, No. 55).
seated and trophy. Emperor, Nike, and captive. Dacia captive. The
warrior C. Altar. Tripod, &c.

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Ancient coins of Crete

http://www.snible.org/coins/hn/crete.html

Uncertain Coins of Crete.


See Svor., pp. 331, 332, also p. 121 (Dictynna); p. 147 (Eltyna?); p. 150 (Heracleion ?); p. 272, cf.
Eph. Arch., 1889, p. 209, No. 52 (Poekilasos ?); p. 326, cf. Eph. Arch., 1889, Pl. XIII, No. 14
(Thenae?); Eph. Arch. 1889, p. 206 (Orion?); Svor., p. 319, No. 1 (Tanos or Cydonia:
uninscribed didrachm with obv. fine head of young Dionysos, rev. Tripod). Didrachm (of
Priansus ?), N. C., 1895, p. 96. Didrachm, obv. male figure seated in tree holding wreath; rev.
Apollo seated in laurel-tree holding lyre (Hunter Cat., II. Pl. XLIII. 7). See also Hunter Cat.,
Uncertain, II. p. 200 f. (No. 3, p. 200 is now recognized by Macdonald as a coin of Etruria; op.
cit., III. p. 748).

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