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Approach in Modelling Nonlinear Process

Imam Mujahidin Iqbal1, Norashid Aziz2

School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus

Universiti Sains Malaysia,Seri Ampangan

14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan

Penang, Malaysia.

2

1

el_sheiryu@yahoo.com, chnaziz@eng.usm.my

Abstract - An accurate and simple model is essential to

implement a model based controller. Wiener model is one of the

simplest nonlinear models that can represent any nonlinear

process. However, in Wiener Model development, there are

several identification approaches available and need to be

selected to produce the most accurate model. In this work, the

nonlinear linear approach, the linear nonlinear approach,

and the simultaneous approach are compared in identification

of the Wiener model for nonlinear pH neutralization process.

The parameters of linear block and the inverse of nonlinear

block were obtained from several sets of data that are

generated. These approaches are then compared in terms of

model accuracy, calculation time, data requirement, and their

flexibility.

Keywords - Wiener model identification, Least-square algorithm,

pH neutralization process, Laguerre filter model

I.

INTRODUCTION

are varies [1]. Some processes possess low level

nonlinearity, while other processes possess medium to high

level nonlinearity. This nonlinearity state is caused by

several factors such as large disturbance changes, saturation

condition and wide range operating condition. Process with

low level nonlinearity can be approximated with linear

model, but a moderate or highly nonlinear process can only

be approximated with nonlinear model.

There are many nonlinear models available for

modelling of nonlinear process. The selection of this model

is strongly depending on the purpose of the model is

developed. This work emphasizes on identification of a

model for control implementation, thus it should be simple

but accurate to represent the process.

Wiener model is one of the simplest models available to

represent various nonlinear processes. Several example of

Wiener model application can be found in the relevant

literatures [2-5].

Many approaches have been suggested for Wiener

model identification, such as: Blind approach [6], Frequency

domain approach [7], Support vector approach [8] and

Maximum-likelihood approach [9]. Several identification

methods for Wiener model that consist of specific model

also have been developed. Westwick and Verhaegen [10]

978-1-61284-212-7/11/$26.002011 IEEE

model, Lovera et al. [11] extended this method into recursive

form, Hu and Chen [12] have also developed another

recursive algorithm, Voros [13] and Kozek and Sinanovic

[14] developed identification method for Wiener model

which nonlinearity is approached using piecewise linear

model, while Gomez and Baeyens [15] developed

identification method for orthonormal bases Wiener model.

Tang et al. [16] proposed particle swarm optimization (PSO)

as the optimization algorithm to obtain the parameters of

wiener model. Relay bases identification method also

suggested in several works [17, 18].

Generally, the identification of Wiener model can be

grouped into three approaches [5, 19]:

1. N-L approach. This approach identifies the static

nonlinearity parameters from the steady state data,

and then the linear dynamic parameters are obtained

from dynamic data.

2. L-N approach. In this approach, the parameters of

linear dynamic block are identified, which is then

used to generate the intermediate signal, and then

the static nonlinearity is calculated.

3. Simultaneous approach. This is the approach where

the parameters for both blocks are obtained at the

same time.

In this work, a comparison study of those approaches is

performed. Calculation time, model accuracy, flexibility and

data requirement are used as the comparison basis. The

Wiener identification approaches are used to extract the

Wiener model parameters from pH neutralization process.

The advantages and disadvantages for each approach are also

discussed.

II.

IDENTIFICATION ALGORITHM

A. Problem formulation

The structure of Wiener model is given in Fig 1 where

the linear dynamic block is followed by nonlinear static

is

block. and is the input and output of wiener model.

the intermediate variable.

134

(4)

The algorithm for each approach will be explained in the

next section.

B. Simultaneous approach

adopted from Gomez and Baeyens [15]. With assumption

1 the parameters of both blocks ( , ) can be obtained

at the same time. The approach summary is outlined as

follows.

From the identification structure in Fig 2 the following

relationship is obtained

(5)

nonlinear block identification

In this work, the aim of the identification algorithm is to

find the linear block and the inverse of the nonlinear block

parameters (instead of the nonlinear block itself). In control

application the inverse of linear block is used to remove the

nonlinearity of the process and thus reduce the nonlinear

control problem into linear control problem. Considering the

following parameterization for the linear block model and

the inverse of nonlinear block model:

(6)

1 then Eq 6 can be rearranged

into

1) Linear block

(7)

(1)

,

Where

1

(2)

the

Here

number of Laguerre filter used in the model,

the

Laguerre filter parameter which value is between -1 and

1, and is the sampling time.

2) Inverse of nonlinear block

Polynomials model order

inverse of nonlinear block

,,

,,

,,

(8)

,

(9)

,,

Eq 7 can be written as

(10)

Now, by minimizing a quadratic criterion on the prediction

(i.e., the least square estimate), an

errors

estimates of can be calculated from pairs of data. The

well known solution for this estimation is given by

(3)

(11)

,,

(12)

where

and

are the parameters to be identified. In this

work, to simplify the identification problem, the Laguerre

model parameter

is assumed to be known instead of

finding it through optimization. The value of is obtained

from the following equation.

978-1-61284-212-7/11/$26.002011 IEEE

,,

(13)

(

1,2, , ) and

(

2,3, , ) can be calculated by partitioning the estimate

according to the definition of in (8).

135

equation

C. N-L approach

In this approach and the L-N approach, both blocks

parameters are identified separately. Therefore, before

explaining the N-L identification algorithm, the method to

identify both blocks parameters is explained.

and

data is available.

Considering a set of

According to Fig 2, its dynamic relationship can be written

as

(14)

or equivalent with

(15)

of

(27)

,,

(28)

with

identified first. By taking assumption that the gain of linear

block is unity, a set of steady-state data ( , ) is used as

identification data. The identified inverse of nonlinear block

is then used to convert a set of dynamic data ( , ) into

pairs of intermediate variable and output variable ( , ).

The resulting data is then used to identify the linear dynamic

block. The summary of the N-L identification approach is

given in Fig 3.

Defining

,

,,

Start

(16)

,

,,

(17)

Collect a set of steady state data (

Eq 15 can be written as

(18)

This is a linear regression problem. By least square

estimation, the estimate of linear block parameters can

be calculated from the following equation

(19)

,,

(20)

and

data

using Eq 26 from the set

Collect a set of dynamic data (

Where

,

,,

(21)

manner with the simultaneous identification and linear block

and

is available for

identification. Considering a set of

identification. Now, from Fig 2 its relationship is

Calculate

by converting

using the inverse of

nonlinear block

and

data

the set of

(22)

Substituting Eq22 in Eq 3

(23)

(24)

Where

,

,

,,

(25)

,,

(26)

978-1-61284-212-7/11/$26.002011 IEEE

End

D. L-N Approach

The identification algorithm for this approach is started

by identifying the linear block parameters from the inputoutput data. The linear block is then used to generate the

intermediate variable from the input data. Then the inverse

of nonlinear block is identified from pairs of intermediate

variable and output variable. Fig 4 summarized the

identification procedure for this approach.

136

1

Collect a set of dynamic data (

)

1

Set

,

10

and

data

the set of

Calculated

from

End

Fig 4. L-N approach identification algorithm.

III. SIMULATION RESULTS

[20, 21]

Fig 5 shows the schematic diagram of the neutralization

process under consideration. An adjustable base (NaOH)

stream is mixed with an unmeasured buffer (NaHCO3)

stream and a constant acid (HNO3) stream in a tank with

constant volume, . The process equations are given by

(29)

,

978-1-61284-212-7/11/$26.002011 IEEE

(33)

10

1 2

1 10

(34)

10

(35)

10

TABLE I

NOMINAL VALUES

nonlinear process. The considered nonlinear process is pH

neutralization process which commonly used in several

control and identification study [20, 21].

, and

respectively. Therefore the input-output of

Wiener model is the base flowrate and the pH of the effluent

solution ( ). The constant and nominal value for each

variable are given in table I.

Before the beginning of data generation stage, several

step tests are introduced into the process by changing the

base flowrate. The purpose of this test is to observe the

nonlinearity of the process and measure the settling and

process time constant. Fig 6 shows the step tests conducted.

From the figure, it is shows that the process reaches steady

state around 600 seconds, and the time constant is varies

from 80 to 122 seconds.

and

data

using Eq 26 from the set

(32)

Start

(30)

(31)

15.55

0.55

16.6

4.32 10

3.05 10

3 10

3 10

5.28 10

0

3 10

5 10

7

2900

6.35

10.25

range of 0 ml/s to 30 ml/s with interval 1 ml/s. Two sets of

dynamic data are generated for identification and validation

as shown in Fig 7. The dynamic data for identification is

generated by exciting the base flowrate using Generalized

Multiple Level (GMN) signal with 0 ml/s and 30 ml/s as the

minimum and maximum value respectively. The number of

level is 12. The signal value is changed every 50 seconds.

While the validation data is generated using random number

with changing time 30 seconds. Each set of dynamic data

consist of 600 data with sampling time 10 seconds. Then

each approach is used to identify the Wiener model from the

obtained data.

In this comparison study, several terms is used as the

performance indicator of the identification approach. They

are the model accuracy, the calculation time, the data

required, and the identification approach flexibility. The

calculated time is based on identification performed using

2.00 GHz processor with 3.00 GB of RAM. The model

accuracy is measured by Variance Accounted For (VAF)

criterion. The accuracy of the model is determined by the

number of parameters (N and P) used inside the model. Thus

137

too big then the model is over parameterized. On other hand,

the accuracy of the model is low when the number of

parameters is too small. To help selecting the value of N and

P, several simulations with different value of N and P is

performed for each approach.

9.5

9

u1+10%

u1-10%

u1+5%

u1-5%

8.5

7.5

7

6.5

6

200

400

600

800

TABLE II

N-L APPROACH SIMULATION RESULTS

R2

N

R2

0.930912

1

0.990227

0.978818

2

0.990232

0.983149

3

0.990253

0.999556

4

0.990314

0.999570

5

0.990346

0.999583

P

2

3

4

5

6

7

pH

of the process. Table II also contains several results for

identification of linear block Wiener model from the

converted dynamic data. The result shows that the value of N

greater than 1 only give slightly more accurate model, thus N

= 1 is chosen as the optimum value. The calculation time for

N-L approach is approximately 0.0038 s. The Laguerre filter

order parameters from N-L identification approach for

various value of N is given in Table III and The N-L

identification result at optimum value of P and N is

presented in Fig 8.

1000

TABLE III

LAGUERRE FILTER ORDER PARAMETERS FROM

N-L IDENTIFICATION APPROACH

t(s)

y deviation

u1 deviation

20

Order

N=1

N=2

N=3

N=4

N=5

1st

7.503

x10-2

7.504

x10-2

-1.832

x10-4

7.516

x10-2

-2.005

x10-4

4.006

x10-4

7.520

x10-2

7.347

x10-6

3.905

x10-4

6.794

x10-4

7.530

x10-2

5.240

x10-7

5.667

x10-4

6.743

x10-4

5.132

x10-4

-20

1000

2000

3000

t(s)

4000

5000

6000

3rd

4th

0

-5

2nd

1000

2000

3000

t(s)

4000

5000

6000

5th

(a)

10

-20

-10

1000

2000

3000

t(s)

4000

5000

Data

Model (R2 = 0.990227)

6000

-20

1000

2000

3000

t(s)

4000

15

6000

Data

Model (R2 = 0.984401)

10

5000

5

v

y deviation

u1 deviation

20

20

-5

1000

2000

3000

t(s)

4000

5000

6000

-5

-10

0

(b)

Fig 7. (a) Input (top) output (bottom) of

identification data, (b) input (top) output (bottom) of

validation data.

In nonlinear-linear approach, the steady-state data is

fitted with different value of P and the result is summarized

in table II. It can be seen that the accuracy of the model

starts to saturate at P = 5, thus it is selected as the optimum

978-1-61284-212-7/11/$26.002011 IEEE

1000

2000

3000

t(s)

4000

5000

6000

validation (Bottom) result for P = 5 and N = 1

P has the same effect in the L-N approach. The R2 value

rise as the P increase and its difference is relatively small for

P greater than 5. But the effect of N is totally different with

the N-L approach result. Increasing the order of linear block

in the linear block identification reduce the Wiener model

138

neutralization process has similar response with a first order

process and the order of Laguerre filter model can be

interpreted as the order of the process, thus the Laguerre

model with order more than 1 is over parameterized. Table

III showed that the excess parameters value is not significant

compared with the parameter of the first order Laguerre

filter. In the N-L approach the Laguerre filter model was

fitted using a linearized process data while in the L-N

approach the linear model was forced to fit the nonlinear

process. Therefore when the Laguerre model is over

parameterized the overall Wiener model accuracy is

decrease. The result for L-N approach is presented in Table

IV and Fig 9. The calculation of Wiener model parameters at

N = 1 and P = 5 are completed in approximately 0.0044 s.

the approach, the separate approaches (N-L and L-N

approaches) are more flexible than the simultaneous

approach since each block can be modified separately. The

summary of the result of identification study using various

approaches is tabulated in Table VI.

TABLE V

SIMULTANEOUS APPROACH SIMULATION RESULTS

P

N=1

N=2

N=3

4

5

6

TABLE IV

L-N APPROACH SIMULATION RESULTS

P

N=1

N=2

N=3

4

5

6

0.972231

0.995213

0.997605

0.971633

0.994002

0.996528

0.956722

0.994871

0.997506

0.956644

0.994877

0.997506

0.956739

0.994923

0.997532

Data

0.971615

0.993994

0.996522

-5

0

1000

2000

3000

t(s)

4000

5000

6000

Data

10

-5

0

-5

Data

Model (R2 = 0.995213)

-10

0

1000

2000

3000

t(s)

4000

10

5000

6000

1000

2000

3000

t(s)

4000

5000

6000

and validation (Bottom) result for P = 5 and N = 1

Data

Model (R2 = 0.990227)

15

5

v

Data

NL (R2 = 0.999506)

10

LN (R2 = 0.996273)

Simultaneous (R2 = 0.996087)

-5

1000

2000

3000

t(s)

4000

5000

6000

validation (Bottom) result for P = 5 and N = 1

The N value gives various effects in simultaneous

approach. At P = 4 and P = 6, the relationship between N and

R2 is a curve with R2 minimum at N = 2. While at P = 5, the

accuracy of the model is increase as N increase. The effect of

P is similar with previous approaches. The optimum values

of P and N in the simultaneous approach also 5 and 1

respectively (see Table V). The linear block and inverse of

nonlinear block parameters are obtained after 0.0045 s.

Among all approaches used, the L-N approach produces

the most accurate model, followed by the simultaneous

approach and N-L approach. The calculation time of each

approach is not varies significantly. In term of data

requirement, the N-L approach is less favoured since it

requires a set of steady-state data and a set of dynamic data

while the other approaches only required a set of dynamic

data to identify the linear block and the inverse of nonlinear

block of Wiener model. However, the model developed from

the N-L approach has the highest accuracy in describing the

978-1-61284-212-7/11/$26.002011 IEEE

u1 deviation

-5

-10

-15

-20

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0

y deviation

accuracy.

IV. CONCLUSION

identification approach was performed. The approaches were

compared in identification of nonlinear process i.e. a

neutralization process. From the result, the N-L approach

found to be the best choice for identification since it could

produce a model with the highest accuracy from a set of

dynamic data. However, when the model needs to represent

the steady-state relationships accurately, the N-L approach is

139

TABLE VI

SUMMARY OF THE COMPARISON STUDY

Calculation time (s)

Data requirement

Identification

approach

L-N

Model accuracy

0.995213

0.0044

Dynamic

Flexible

N-L

0.990227

0.0038

Flexible

Simultaneous

0.994871

0.0045

Dynamic

Not flexible

the simultaneous approach should be used to obtain the

parameters of linear block and inverse of nonlinear block in

one time.

[11].

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

through Research University (RU) fund and Graduate

Assistant to the first author are greatly acknowledged.

[12].

[13].

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978-1-61284-212-7/11/$26.002011 IEEE

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140

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