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Problem set 1 solutions

ec2204
February 15, 2013

Solution 2.

let us consider the branches of the rst transmission lines are innite length matched transmission lines.
so,
Zin = Z0

ZL + Z0 tan (d)
= Z0
Z0 + ZL tan (d)

if N transmission lines are conected in parallel, its eective Zin =


now,
=

Z0
N

= ZL for rst transmiision line.

ZL Z0
1N
=
ZL + Z0
1+N

Power reected back is given as P = 2 Pin and transmitted power in each branch isPtr =
for N=2 P = Pin /9 and Ptr = 4Pin /9
for N=3 P = Pin /4 and Ptr = Pin /4
for N=9 P = 0.64Pin and Ptr = 0.04Pin
Solution
q 4-

R+jL
G+jC

Z0 =

L/C ( For high frequency)

(a) Two wire with characteristic impedance-

Hence 300 =

Z0 = 300

p
1

1 d
( 2a )
 cosh

Maximum dimension is 8 mm, gives two constrains (i)2a 8mm (ii) 2a + d 8mm
From the gure we can easily conclude that the 2nd constrain is the eective one.
Substituting, d = 8mm 2a in the expression for characteristic impedance,
300 =

1 8mm2a
( 2a )
 cosh

Solving for a, we obtain a = 0.56 mm


d = 8mm a = 6.88 mm
(b) Planar Line with characteristic impedance

Hence 15 =

d
 w

(for small t and w >> d)

Constrain w=8 mm
1

Z0 = 15

(12 )Pin
N

Solving for d, we obtain d = 0.3185 mm


(c) Coaxial Line with characteristic impedance

Hence 72 =

1
b
 2 ln( a )

Z0 = 72

(b c)

Constrain 2b=8 mm
Solving for a, we obtain a = 1.2 mm
and b = 4mm.
Solution 6.

First converting the current source and 100 ohm resistor combination to its Thevenin equivalent. This is a 500 V
voltage source in series with the 100 resistor.
The next step is to determine the input impedance of the 2.6 length line, terminated by the 25 resistor
We use l = 2
2.6 = 16.33 rad.
Now


Z in = 50

25cos(16.33) + j50sin(16.33)
= 33.7 + j24.0
50cos(16.33) + j25sin(16.33)

The equivalent circuit now consists of the series combination of 50 V source, 100 resistor and Z in
The current in this circuit will be
I=

50
= 0.368 0.178
100 + 3.7 + j24

The power dissipated by the 25 resistor is the same as the power dissipated by the real part of Z in .since it is a loss less
transmission line.
or
P25 = P33.7 =

1 2
I R = 2.28W
2

and to nd the power dissipated by 100 resistor we need to return to the Norton conguration, with the original current
source in parallel with the 100 resistor, and in parallel with Z in . The voltage across the 100 resistor will be the same
as that across Z in or V=IZ in = (0.368 = 0.178)(33.7 + j 24.0) = 15.2 0.44. The power dissipated by the 100 ohm
resistor is now
2
P100 =

V
= 1.16W
2R

Solution-7

Zl =73 ohm. Z0 =300 ohm.

0
Now the 0quarter wave transformer needs to be matched with the characteristic impedance of the line So Z0 = Zl .Z0
where Z0 is the characteristic impedance of the line. The d=2cm and frequency =200Mhz and Z0 =300 ohm. Using
these 3 datas and the equations of the L, C, R and G for the 2 wire transmission line given in problem 4 we can nd the
value of a ie the radius and parameters too.
Solution-8

given,
load impedence ZL =60 + j80
characteristic impedence Z0 =50
lenght between the stubs d0 = /8
50
= 0.3 j0.4
normalized load admittance yL = YYL0 = 60+j80
length of short circuited stub at A-A' is lA , it's normalised input impedence zsA = j tan (lA )
j
then normalized admittance ysA = 1/zsA = tan(l
= jb1
A)
length of short circuited stub at B-B' is lB , it's normalised input impedence zsB = j tan (lB )
j
then normalized admittance ysB = 1/zsB = tan(l
= jb2
B)
then at point A-A' normalised admittance is yA = ysA + yL = 0.3 j (0.4 + b1 )
by using impednce trnsformation relation , transform admittance at A-A' yA to B-B' as yB
by using
ZB = Z0

ZA + jZ0 tan (d0 )


Z0 + jZA tan (d0 )

normalized inpedences at A-A' and B-B' are zA = ZA /Z0 , zB = ZB /Z0


normalized admittances yA = YA /Y0 , yB = YB /Y0 and

tan (d0 ) = tan 2


 8 = 1, expressing above equation, in terms of admittances,
2

yB =

at B-B' normalized admittance yi = yB + ysB =


values
1=

yA +j
1+jyA

yA + j
1 + jyA

jb2 here yi must be equal to 1[yi = Yi /Y0 , ] substituting all the

0.3 j (0.4 + b1 ) + j
jb2
1 + j(0.3 j (0.4 + b1 ))

solving for b1 , b2 ;
b1 = 0.686
tan (lA1 ) = 1.45
lA1 = 0.346
b1 = 2.114
tan (lA2 ) = 0.473
lA2 = 0.429
b2 = 1.38
tan (lB1 ) = 0.724
lB1 = 0.100
b2 = 3.38
tan (lB2 ) = 0.295
lB2 = 0.454

Answer for Question No.1


a)

Given that the characteristics impedance of line is Z0 = 60

And terminated on a load consisting of


Inductance = L = 1H
Capacitance = C = 100 pF
Resistance = R = 30
The frequency of the signal transmitted along it is = = 108
So the capacitive reactance of the capacitor is = X c

1
100 j
jC

And the inductive reactance is = Lc j L 100 j


Now the equivalent circuit of the two wire transmission line can be drawn as

L
C

Z0

So the load impedance will be,

Z L R X c X L 30 100 j 100 j
Z L 30
So the reflection coefficient at the load end will be
Z Z0 30 60
1 1
L L

( ) L
Z L Z0 30 60
3 3
And voltage standing wave ratio will be
1

3 2
1 L 1 1
3
1 L

Now the voltage at distance l from the load end can be written as

V (l ) V e j l 1 L e j ( 2 l )
It is clear from the above equation that the voltage will be minimum at a point where the
following condition will be satisfied

e j 2 l 1
( 2 l ) (2n 1)
( 2 l ) (2n 1)
n
l

Where

108
1

8
c 3 10
3
Substituting the value of and solving we get the distance of the first minimum(for n=1) from
the load is 9.423 m.
b & c.) The solution for the part b and c are same as that of part a. Only the solutions are
given below.
For part (b):ZL= 0.85 (42.274)
VSWR = 12.33
dmin = 3.89 m from load
for part (c):ZL= 0.537 (-97.14)
VSWR = 3.32
dmin = 9.08 m from load

Answer for Q. No.-3

a.) For f = 60 Hz

vp

2 f
1.9 106 rad
sec
2 3 108
3

So

l 1.9 106 80 1.5 104 1


Hence at this frequency the line will behaves a lumped circuit and all the lumped ckt theories can
be applied. So for this case the equivalent ckt for the above line can be
R1=12

R2=80

Vin

So using voltage dividing rule


80
80
Vs ,out
Vin
120
12 80
12 80
Vs ,out 104V

b.) For frequency 500 kHz


2 5 105

1.57 102
8
2 3 10
3
l 1.57 102 80 1.26 rad

So the transformed impedance at the input end will be

80 cos(1.26) j50sin(1.26)
Zin 50

50 cos(1.26) j80sin(1.26)
Zin 33.17 j9.57 34.5(0.28)
So the equivalent circuit will be
R1=12

Zin

120V

So,

Zin
33.17 j9.57
Vin
120
120
12 33.17 j9.57
12 Zin
Vin 89.5 j 6.46 89.7(0.071)
Now Vin can be written as

Vin V e j l V e j l
Vin V e j l L e j l

Where
L

Z L Z 0 80 50 3

Z L Z 0 80 50 13

Vin

so

Vin
L e j l

e j l
89.5 j 6.46

(42.7 j100) V
j1.26 3 j1.26
e
e

13

Now,
3

Vs ,out V (1 L ) (42.7 j100) 1


13
Vs ,out (52.6 j123) V
( Ans)