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# Problem set 1 solutions

ec2204
February 15, 2013

Solution 2.

let us consider the branches of the rst transmission lines are innite length matched transmission lines.
so,
Zin = Z0

ZL + Z0 tan (d)
= Z0
Z0 + ZL tan (d)

now,
=

Z0
N

## = ZL for rst transmiision line.

ZL Z0
1N
=
ZL + Z0
1+N

Power reected back is given as P = 2 Pin and transmitted power in each branch isPtr =
for N=2 P = Pin /9 and Ptr = 4Pin /9
for N=3 P = Pin /4 and Ptr = Pin /4
for N=9 P = 0.64Pin and Ptr = 0.04Pin
Solution
q 4-

R+jL
G+jC

Z0 =

## (a) Two wire with characteristic impedance-

Hence 300 =

Z0 = 300

p
1

1 d
( 2a )
 cosh

Maximum dimension is 8 mm, gives two constrains (i)2a 8mm (ii) 2a + d 8mm
From the gure we can easily conclude that the 2nd constrain is the eective one.
Substituting, d = 8mm 2a in the expression for characteristic impedance,
300 =

1 8mm2a
( 2a )
 cosh

## Solving for a, we obtain a = 0.56 mm

d = 8mm a = 6.88 mm
(b) Planar Line with characteristic impedance

Hence 15 =

d
 w

Constrain w=8 mm
1

Z0 = 15

(12 )Pin
N

## Solving for d, we obtain d = 0.3185 mm

(c) Coaxial Line with characteristic impedance

Hence 72 =

1
b
 2 ln( a )

Z0 = 72

(b c)

Constrain 2b=8 mm
Solving for a, we obtain a = 1.2 mm
and b = 4mm.
Solution 6.

First converting the current source and 100 ohm resistor combination to its Thevenin equivalent. This is a 500 V
voltage source in series with the 100 resistor.
The next step is to determine the input impedance of the 2.6 length line, terminated by the 25 resistor
We use l = 2
2.6 = 16.33 rad.
Now


Z in = 50

25cos(16.33) + j50sin(16.33)
= 33.7 + j24.0
50cos(16.33) + j25sin(16.33)

The equivalent circuit now consists of the series combination of 50 V source, 100 resistor and Z in
The current in this circuit will be
I=

50
= 0.368 0.178
100 + 3.7 + j24

The power dissipated by the 25 resistor is the same as the power dissipated by the real part of Z in .since it is a loss less
transmission line.
or
P25 = P33.7 =

1 2
I R = 2.28W
2

and to nd the power dissipated by 100 resistor we need to return to the Norton conguration, with the original current
source in parallel with the 100 resistor, and in parallel with Z in . The voltage across the 100 resistor will be the same
as that across Z in or V=IZ in = (0.368 = 0.178)(33.7 + j 24.0) = 15.2 0.44. The power dissipated by the 100 ohm
resistor is now
2
P100 =

V
= 1.16W
2R

Solution-7

## Zl =73 ohm. Z0 =300 ohm.

0
Now the 0quarter wave transformer needs to be matched with the characteristic impedance of the line So Z0 = Zl .Z0
where Z0 is the characteristic impedance of the line. The d=2cm and frequency =200Mhz and Z0 =300 ohm. Using
these 3 datas and the equations of the L, C, R and G for the 2 wire transmission line given in problem 4 we can nd the
value of a ie the radius and parameters too.
Solution-8

given,
load impedence ZL =60 + j80
characteristic impedence Z0 =50
lenght between the stubs d0 = /8
50
= 0.3 j0.4
normalized load admittance yL = YYL0 = 60+j80
length of short circuited stub at A-A' is lA , it's normalised input impedence zsA = j tan (lA )
j
then normalized admittance ysA = 1/zsA = tan(l
= jb1
A)
length of short circuited stub at B-B' is lB , it's normalised input impedence zsB = j tan (lB )
j
then normalized admittance ysB = 1/zsB = tan(l
= jb2
B)
then at point A-A' normalised admittance is yA = ysA + yL = 0.3 j (0.4 + b1 )
by using impednce trnsformation relation , transform admittance at A-A' yA to B-B' as yB
by using
ZB = Z0

## ZA + jZ0 tan (d0 )

Z0 + jZA tan (d0 )

## normalized inpedences at A-A' and B-B' are zA = ZA /Z0 , zB = ZB /Z0

normalized admittances yA = YA /Y0 , yB = YB /Y0 and

## tan (d0 ) = tan 2

 8 = 1, expressing above equation, in terms of admittances,
2

yB =

values
1=

yA +j
1+jyA

yA + j
1 + jyA

## jb2 here yi must be equal to 1[yi = Yi /Y0 , ] substituting all the

0.3 j (0.4 + b1 ) + j
jb2
1 + j(0.3 j (0.4 + b1 ))

solving for b1 , b2 ;
b1 = 0.686
tan (lA1 ) = 1.45
lA1 = 0.346
b1 = 2.114
tan (lA2 ) = 0.473
lA2 = 0.429
b2 = 1.38
tan (lB1 ) = 0.724
lB1 = 0.100
b2 = 3.38
tan (lB2 ) = 0.295
lB2 = 0.454

a)

## And terminated on a load consisting of

Inductance = L = 1H
Capacitance = C = 100 pF
Resistance = R = 30
The frequency of the signal transmitted along it is = = 108
So the capacitive reactance of the capacitor is = X c

1
100 j
jC

## And the inductive reactance is = Lc j L 100 j

Now the equivalent circuit of the two wire transmission line can be drawn as

L
C

Z0

## So the load impedance will be,

Z L R X c X L 30 100 j 100 j
Z L 30
So the reflection coefficient at the load end will be
Z Z0 30 60
1 1
L L

( ) L
Z L Z0 30 60
3 3
And voltage standing wave ratio will be
1

3 2
1 L 1 1
3
1 L

Now the voltage at distance l from the load end can be written as

V (l ) V e j l 1 L e j ( 2 l )
It is clear from the above equation that the voltage will be minimum at a point where the
following condition will be satisfied

e j 2 l 1
( 2 l ) (2n 1)
( 2 l ) (2n 1)
n
l

Where

108
1

8
c 3 10
3
Substituting the value of and solving we get the distance of the first minimum(for n=1) from
the load is 9.423 m.
b & c.) The solution for the part b and c are same as that of part a. Only the solutions are
given below.
For part (b):ZL= 0.85 (42.274)
VSWR = 12.33
dmin = 3.89 m from load
for part (c):ZL= 0.537 (-97.14)
VSWR = 3.32
dmin = 9.08 m from load

## Answer for Q. No.-3

a.) For f = 60 Hz

vp

2 f
sec
2 3 108
3

So

## l 1.9 106 80 1.5 104 1

Hence at this frequency the line will behaves a lumped circuit and all the lumped ckt theories can
be applied. So for this case the equivalent ckt for the above line can be
R1=12

R2=80

Vin

80
80
Vs ,out
Vin
120
12 80
12 80
Vs ,out 104V

## b.) For frequency 500 kHz

2 5 105

1.57 102
8
2 3 10
3
l 1.57 102 80 1.26 rad

## So the transformed impedance at the input end will be

80 cos(1.26) j50sin(1.26)
Zin 50

50 cos(1.26) j80sin(1.26)
Zin 33.17 j9.57 34.5(0.28)
So the equivalent circuit will be
R1=12

Zin

120V

So,

Zin
33.17 j9.57
Vin
120
120
12 33.17 j9.57
12 Zin
Vin 89.5 j 6.46 89.7(0.071)
Now Vin can be written as

Vin V e j l V e j l
Vin V e j l L e j l

Where
L

Z L Z 0 80 50 3

Z L Z 0 80 50 13

Vin

so

Vin
L e j l

e j l
89.5 j 6.46

(42.7 j100) V
j1.26 3 j1.26
e
e

13

Now,
3

## Vs ,out V (1 L ) (42.7 j100) 1

13
Vs ,out (52.6 j123) V
( Ans)