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1

REAKTOR

Tugas = Mereaksikan Toluene dengan udara dengan kecepatann umpan masuk sebesar
16749,61871 kg/jam
Tipe Alat : Reaktor Fix Bed Multitulbular
T = 500 oC

Kondisi operasi :

P = 5 atm

NERACA MASSA
1. Umpan Masuk : C7H8

= 13,238

kmol/ jam = 1217,918 kg/jam

= 0,142

kmol/jam = 11,085

kg/jam

C6H5CHO = 0,0115

kmol/jam = 1,2169

kg/jam

O2

= 113,01

kmol/jam = 3616,171 kg/jam

N2

= 425,12

kmol/jam = 11903,23 kg/jam +

Total

= 551,5125 kmol/jam = 16749,61871 kg/jam

C6H6

2
Reaksi : I. C7H8 + O2 ----------> C6H5CHO + H2O
II. C7H8 + 6 O2

S1 = 0,5

---------> C4H2O3 + 3H2O + 3 CO2

S2 = 0,5

III. C6H6 + 7,5 O2 ---------> 6 CO2 + 3 H2O

Katalis : molybdenum oxide dan uranium oxide


Konversi : 0,9 (90 %) terhadap C7H8
Reaksi bisa ditulis :
I.

A + B

------->

C +D

II. A + 6 B

------->

E +3D +3F

III. A + 7,5 B

------->

6F +3D

Maka pada saat konversi = X A


REAKSI 1 :
n A ( C7H8 )

= nAo (1 - XA)

nb (O2)

= nBo - nAo X

nC (C6H5CHO) = nCo + nAo X

n D (H2O)

* (S1 + 6 S2) - 7,5 nGo

= nDo + nAo X

S1
( S1 + 3 S2)

n E (C4H2O3) = nEo + nAo X

S2

n F (CO2)

3 S2

= nFo + nAo X

REAKSI 3 :

n F (CO2)

= nF + 6 nGo

n D (H2O)

= nD + 3 nGo

Maka pada korversi X A = 0,9


Maka diperoleh hasil reaksi :
C7H8

1,324

kmol/ jam = 121,792

kg/jam

C6H5CHO

5,969

kmol/jam

632,681

kg/jam

O2

70,239

kmol/jam =

2247,648

kg/jam

N2

425,115

kmol/jam

11903,228

kg/jam

H2O

24,255

kmol/jam

436,593

kg/jam

CO2

18,724

kmol/jam

823,871

kg/jam

C4H2O3

5,957

kmol/jam

583,806

kg/jam

Total

551,584 kmol/jam

16749,619

kg/jam

PENENTUAN KONSTANTA KECEPATAN REAKSI


Reaksi:

3
I. C7H8 + O2

----------> C6H5CHO + H2O

II. C7H8 + 6 O2

S1 = 0,5

---------> C4H2O3 + 3H2O + 3 CO2

S2 = 0,5

III. C6H6 + 7,5 O2 ---------> 6 CO2 + 3 H2O

Reaksi diatas dapat disederhanakan menjadi:


I. A + B

------->

C +D

II. A + 6 B

------->

E +3D +3F

III. G + 7,5 B

------->

F +3D

Persamaan kece patan reaksinya dapat ditulis sebagai berikut:


rA

1 dN A
k .C AC B
V dT

Kinetika Reaksi
Reaksi pembentukan Benzene berdasarkan reaksi :
C7H8

O2

H2O

1. Waktu reaksi

5 dtk

2. Suhu operasi

500oC

3. Perbandingan mol reaktan C7H8 : O2

= 1 : 9.473373

4. Konversi yang dapat dicapai

C6H5CHO

Dari Patent diperoleh data sebagai berikut :

0.2

Neraca massa
C7H8

O2

C6H5CHO

H2O

Mula-mula

100

947.3374

Reaksi

100 . A

100 . XA

Hasil

: 100 (1-XA) 947.3374 100 XA

Komposisi awal :
A

100

gmol

100 . XA

100 . XA

100 . XA

100 . XA

4
B

947.3374

gmol

1047.3374
Tekanan

atm

Suhu

500

Untuk reactor RAP :


xa

V
dXa
CAo
Fv
ra
0

dXA
CA CB

dXA
CAo(1 XA) CAo ( M XA)

CAo

CAo

CAo
k

dXA

dXA
CAo (1 XA) ( M XA)
2

1
CAo

(1 XA)

1
CAo

(1 XA)

1
CAo

Y dXA

dXA
( M XA)

1
dXA
( M XA)

0.02

XA

1/Y

0.000

0.20000

0.200

0.020

0.20490

0.820

0.040

0.21001

0.420

0.060

0.21535

0.861

0.080

0.22093

0.442

0.100

0.22676

0.907

0.120

0.23286

0.466

0.140

0.23926

0.957

0.160

0.24597

0.492

0.180

0.25301

1.012

0.200

0.26042

0.260
6.837

5
Hasil integrasi

0.045580391

Konsentrasi Awal A (S2)


Cao

=
=

nAo

Pt

nT

RT

100

1047.3374
=

(82.06 . 773)
gmol/cm3

7.52614E-06

Perbandingan reaktan :
M

nBo
nAo

9.473374

Konversi :
XA

=
k

0.9

1
7.52614E-06

0.045580391
5

1211.255209 cm3/gmol.dt

Setiap kenaikan suhu 10oC maka kecepatan reaksi menjadi 2 kali lipatnya :
T1

773 oK

k1 =

1211.255209 (cm3/gmol)/dt

T2

783 oK

k2 =

1514.1 (cm3/gmol)/dt

Persamaan empiris Arhenius :


k Ae ( E .RT )

Atau
ln k ln A

ln

B
T

1211.255209

ln A

B
773

ln

1211.255209

ln A

B
783

6
-0.223143551

-0.223143551

-13505.96427

ln A

B
ln

1211.255209

1.65219E-05

-13505.96427
773

7.099412463

ln A

ln A

24.57155253

46912618686

46912618686

-13505.96427

kR1

46912618686

exp (-13505.96427 /T)

-17.47214007

(cm3/gmol) / dt

PENYUSUNAN MODEL MATEMATIS PADA ELEMEN VOLUME


1. NERACA MASSA PADA ELEMEN VOLUME
FA

FA

z+z

Masuk keluar = akumulasi


FA Z [ FA Z + Z+(-rA) dv ] =Acc
dV = A.Z
dimana A =

.Di 2
4

Neraca massa elemen volume juga meninjau ruang kosong diantara tumpukan katalis sehingga
porositas () berpengaruh. Porositas () didapat dari Brown, fig.219 & 220.
Maka :
dV =

.Di 2

FA Z FA

4
Z+

.z
Di
Z=0
4
Di 2

= (-rA)
4

Z-(-rA)

FA Z FA Z + Z
Z
FA
rA Di 2

z
4
dimana FA = F A0(1-XA)
FA = -FA0. XA
X A
(rA ). .Di 2

z
4
X A
(r ) . .D i 2
A

z
4FA0

FA0

lim z 0
dX A
( rA ). .Di 2

dz
4FA0

(-rA) = kecepatan reaksi = k. CA. CB


dX A
(kC A C B ). .Di 2

dz
4FA0

CA

CB

n A Pt
n t RT

n A0 (1 X A )Pt
n 1 .RT
n B Pt
n t RT

n A0 (

n BO
X A )Pt
n Ao
n1.RT

Maka :
2

n AO Pt
n

.k(1 X A )( Bo X A ) .Di 2
.
n Ao
dX A n t RT

dz
4FA0

Dimana :
dX A
Perubahan konversi persatuan panjang
dz
Di = Diameter dalam

...(1)

= porositas tumpukan katalis

F AO = Kecepatan molar A mula-mula

2. NERACA PANAS PADA ELEMEN VOLUME


T
z
z

QR

Qp
z
T z+z
Masuk keluar = akumulasi
m.cp (Tz -To ) (

m.c (T
p

QR

HR.nAO. XA

QP

U.A. T

Z+

Z - To) + QR + QP ) = 0

= U. .DO. z.(Ts - T)

m.cp ( T z -T Z+Z ) - HR..nAO. XA - U. .DO..z. (Ts - T) = 0


m.cp ( T Z - TZ+Z ) = HR..nAO.. XA + U. .DO. z. (Ts - T)
HR nAO XA +U DO (TS- T )
T Z T Z+ Z =
m.Cp
T

Z T

Z Z

H R n A0

H R n A0

: z

X A
U.. 0 . (Ts T)
z
m.Cp

X A
U. .D 0 (TS T)
z
m.Cp

Lim z 0
.... 2
dimana :
dT/dZ

= perubahan suhu persatuan panjang katalis

HR

= panas reaksi

= over all heat transfer coefficient

Do

= diameter luar

9
T

= suhu gas

Ts

= suhu penelitian

m.Cp = kapasitas panas


3. NERACA PANAS UNTUK PENDINGIN PADA ELEMEN VOLUME
Tinjauan : elemen panas

Masuk keluar = akumulasi


mp.Cpp. ( Ts

Z+Z

- To ) + Qp mp.Cpp. (( Ts

- To ) = 0

Qp = U.A. T ; dimana : A = .Do.z. dan T = (T Ts)


Sehingga Qp = U.. Do.z. (T Ts)
mp. Cpp. (Ts

Z+Z

- Ts Z ) = - U.. Do.z. (T Ts)


: mp. Cpp. z

Ts

Z+Z

- Ts

U.. Do. (T Ts)


= -

m. Cpp

Ts
U. .Do.( T - Ts )

z
(m.Cp) p
lim z 0
dTs
U. .Do. ( T - Ts )

dz
( m.Cp ) p

..(3)

PENURUNAN TEKANAN ( PRESSURE DROP )


Penurunan tekanan dalam pipa yang berisi katalisator (fixed bed) menggunakan rumus 11.6
(Chapter 11, Rase) hal 492, Chemical Reactor Design for Process Plants.

10
gc.dP
(1 ) s
1 G
150
1,75
3
2
3
s.dz

Dp
Dp
2

Persamaan di atas dapat ditulis :


f k .G 2 1
dP

dz
D p . f .gc 3

.(4)

dimana :
1

f k 1,75 150
D .G/
p

dimana :
dP
perubahan tekanan per satuan panjang
dz

fk = faktor friksi
gc = konstanta gravitasi
G = kecepatan aliran massa gas dalam pipa, g/cm3
f = densitas gas, g/cm3
Dp = diameter partikel katalisator, cm

= porositas tumpukan katalisator

= viskositas gas, g/cm.jam


Sehingga diperoleh 4 persamaan differensial simultan sebagai berikut :
2

1)

2)

dX A

dz

dT

dz

n AO Pt
n

.k(1 X A )( Bo X A ) .Di 2
.
n Ao
n t RT

- H R .n A0

4FA0

X A
U.. 0 (TS T)
z
m.Cp

3)

dTs
U. .Do. ( T - Ts )

dz
( m.Cp ) p

4)

dP
f .G 2 1
k

dz D p . f .gc 3

Selanjutnya persamaan differensial simultan tersebut diatas diselesaikan dengan program


computer dengan Metode Numeris Runge Kutta.
OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER
1.

Koefisien transfer panas pipa (hio)


Dari pers. 6-2, Kern diperoleh :

11
hio =

Dp.Gt

0,8

0,027

Cp.

1/3

Di

.(5)

Persamaan diatas berlaku untuk organic liquid, larutan aqueous, dan gas pada Re > 10.000
dimana :
Dp

= diameter partikel katalis

Di

= diameter dalam pipa

= konduktivitas thermal

= viskositas gas

Cp

= panas jenis gas

Gt

= kecepatan massa per satuan luas

hi

= koefisien transfer panas pipa dalam

hio

= hi.

2.

ID
...................(Kern,1983)
OD

Koefisien transfer panas dinding pipa dalam shell ( ho)


Dari persamaan

, Kern :

De.Gp

ho = 0,36
p

0,55

Cp p . p

kp

0 , 33

kp

...........(Kern,1983, p137)
De

Persamaan diatas berlaku untuk Re antara 2000 1.000.000


dimana :
ho

= koefisien transfer panas

De

= diameter equivalent

Gp = kecepatan massa pendingin per satuan luas


p

= viskositas pendingin

kp

= konduktivitas thermal pendingin

Cpp = panas spesifik pendingin


3. Overall heat transfer coefisient
Ud = overall transfer coefisient pada saat kotor
Uc = overall transfer coefisient pada saat bersih
Rd = faktor tahanan panas pengotor
Uc

hio.ho
(hio ho)

Rd .Uc.Ud Uc Ud
Rd .Uc.Ud Ud Uc
( Rd .Uc 1).Ud Uc

Rd

Uc Ud
Uc.Ud

.(6)

12
Maka : Ud

Uc
( Rd .Uc 1)

LAY OUT PIPA DALAM REAKTOR ( Kern, 1983, P. 139 )


Pipa dalam reaktor disusun secara square pitch, dimana luas penampang 1 pipa
menempati luasan sebesar Pt2.
1 pipa menempati luasan = Pt2
maka luas total penampang reaktor ( over design 10%)
As = 1,1. Nt.Pt2
dimana :
As = Luas penampang shell
Nt = jumlah pipa
Pt = pitch
Alasan penyusunan pipa secara square pitch :
1. mudah pembersihannya.
2. pressure drop kecil.

FLOW AREA DALAM SHELL


B
As =

dimana :
B

= Jarak buffle, in

= Clearance, in

Pt

= Pitch, in

IDs = Diameter dalam shell, in


As

= Flow area shell, in2

DIAMETER EQUIVALEN (De)

IDs .B.C'
Pt

.(7)

13
Diameter equivalen dapat dipahami sebagai diameter dari area dalam shell, bila
dipandang sebagai pipa ( Kern, 1983) p.139

.OD2
4 Pt 2
4
De =
.OD

De =

4 x free area

= wetted perimeter

4Pt 2 .OD 2
4. .OD

.(8)

DIAMETER SHELL
Diameter shell yang dipakai untuk Nt pipa
Luas shell = As = 1,1.Nt.Pt2 =

.(IDs ) 2
4

Diameter shell :
IDs =

4. As

....(9)

KATALISATOR ( Rase, 1977 )


Katalisator yang digunakan berupa molybdenum oxide dan uranium oxide dengan :
-

Bentuk = pellet

Ukuran
D = 0,3175 cm
H = 0,3175 cm

Bulk density = 1106,13 kg/m3

Formula = PbO2 Mg
(SA, Miller Ernest, 1965)

DIAMETER PARTIKEL ( Dp )
Yaitu diameter partikel katalis yang ekuivalen dengan diameter bola dengan volume yang
sama dengan volume katalis ( Rase, 1977, p.493 )
V kat =
=

.D 2
4

.H

.0,31752
.0,3175
4

= 0,025125 cm3
V bola = V kat

14
.Dp

V Bola =

Maka :
Dp

=3
=

VB 6

0,025125.6

= 0,36345 cm
PEMILIHAN PIPA
Dalam pemilihan pipa harus diperhatikan faktor perpindahan panas. Pengaruh bahan isian
di dalam pipa terhadap koefisien transfer panas konveksi didelik oleh Colburn ( Smith,JM.,
p.571) dan diperoleh hubungan pengaruh rasio (Dp/Dt) atau perbandingan diameter katalis
dengan diameter pipa dengan koefisien transfer panas pipa berisi katalis disbanding transfer
panas konveksi pada pipa kosong.
Dp/Dt

0.05

0.01

0.15

0.12

0.25

Hio/h

5.5

7.5

7.0

Dimana :
(Dp/Dt)

= rasio diameter katalis per diameter pipa

(hio/h)

= rasio koefisien transfer panas pipa berisi katalis disbanding koefisien transfer
panas pada pipa kosong.

Dari data diatas diperoleh (hio/h)max terjadi pada 7,8 pada (Dp/Dt) = 0,15
Dp
0,15
Dt
Dp
Dt
0,15
0,36345
Dt
cm
0,15

= 2,42298 cm
Dipilih pipa dengan ukuran standar (Kern, table 11) :
NPs = 1 in
OD

= 1,32 in

ID

= 1,049 in

Sch

= 40

15
JUMLAH PIPA ( Brown, 1950 )
Jumlah pipa ditentukan berdasarkan turbulensi gas dalam pipa berkatalis. Dalam suatu
reaksi khusus terjadi tumbukan molekul yang optimum ( well mixed). Keadaan di atas terjadi
bila pada keadaan turbulen yaitu bilangan Reynold diatas 3100.
Spherecity ( )=

Luas area bola


luas area katalis

Luas area bola = . Dp2


= 3,14. 0,36345
= 0,4148 cm2
Luas area katalis

.DH

2. .D
4

= 0,4748 cm2
0,4148

maka = 0,4748 0,8736


Dari fig. 223 Brown diperoleh = 0,35

KECEPATAN MASSA MASUK REAKTOR


Komponen
O2
C7H8
N2

Kgmol/jam
13.1443
124.5205
468.4342

C6H5CHO
C6H6
Total

0.0123
0.1399
606.2511

Kg/jam
1209.2717
3984.6553
13116.157
2
1.2990
10.9158
18322.298
8

Kecepatan massa
= 18322.2988 Kg/j
= 5089.5278 g/dt
BM rata-rata
= 30.22
Suhu Umpan (T)
= 773 oK
Tekanan Umpan (P) = 2 atm
Densitas gas(rho)
= 0.000953 g/cm3
Viskositas gas = 0.000973 g/cm dt
Digunakan pipa Standard
ID pipa = 1.049 in = 2.664 cm
OD pipa = 1.320 in = 3.353 cm
BWG
= 16 in
A. Jumlah pipa maximum :

16
1. Menghitung Gt :

= 18866.13 Gt
Gt = 0.217321 g/cm2 dt

2. Menghitung Luas penampang pipa :

= 2.0063 cm2
3. Menghitung Luas penampang total :

= 23419.4434 cm2
Menghitung Jumlah pipa maximum :

= 11673.0938 pipa

B. Jumlah pipa minimum :


1. Menghitung Kecepatan maximum :

17
=

771.5457 cm/dt

2. Menghitung Kecepatan Volume Umpan :

= 5341104.5000 cm3/dt
3. Menghitung Luas penampang total :

= 6922.6025 cm2
Menghitung Jumlah pipa minimum :

= 3450.4744 pipa
C. Jumlah pipa :
1. Menghitung Gt :
diambil bilangan Reynold (Re) =

7000

= 18866.13 Gt
Gt
= 7000 / 18866.13 g/cm2 dt
= 0.371035 g/cm2 dt
2. Menghitung Luas penampang pipa :

= 2.0063 cm2

18
3. Menghitung Luas penampang total :

= 13717.1025 cm2
Menghitung Jumlah pipa :

= 6837 pipa
SIFAT FISIS
a) Spesifik Heat
Cp = A + BT + CT2 +DT 3
Komponen
A
6,713
7,440
4,728
7,701
-3,123
-5,817
-8,107
-2,9

O2
N2
CO2
H2O
C4H2O3
C7H8
C6H6
C6H5CHO

Cp ( joule/mol.K )
B
C
-6
0,879.10
4,170.10-6
-2
0,324.10
6.400.10-6
1,754.10-2
-1,338.10-5
4,595.10-4
2,521.10-6
-2
8,32.10
-5,22.10-5
1,22.10-1
-6,61.10-5
1,13.10-1
-7,21.10-5
1,19.10-1
-6,79.10-5

Cp = Cpi . yi
b) Viskositas
= A + BT + CT2
Komponen

( micropoise.K )

O2

Tc
154,6

Pc
49,8

N2

126,2

33,5

CO2

304,2

72,8

H2O

647,3

217,6

C4H2O3
C7H8
C6H6
C6H5CHO

591,7
562,1
695

406
483
46

D
-2,544.10-9
-2,790.10-9
4,097.10-9
-0,859.10-9
1,16.10-8
1,17.10-8
1,70.10-8
1,23.10-8

19
*Sumber: Robert C. Reid Sifat gas dan zat cair Gramedia Pustaka 1991

c) Konduktivitas Thermal

k = ((14,54 . T/Tc ) 5,14 )2/3 . Cp/i . 106


Komponen
O2

Tc
154,6

Pc
49,8

N2

126,2

33,5

CO2

304,2

72,8

H2O

647,3

217,6

C4H2O3
C7H8
C6H6
C6H5CHO

591,7
562,1
695

406
483
46

d) Sifat Pendingin
Cp = 0,509 Btu/lboK
= 0,40 micropoise.K
k = 0,68 Btu/jam.ft.oK
PANAS REAKSI
T
HT

To

H298

HT = H298 + Cp dT
Komponen
O2
N2
CO2
H2O
C4H2O3
C7H8
C6H6
C6H5CHO

Hf

0
0
-94,05
-68,315
-112,08
11,95
19,82
-8,79

20
*sumber:
Dimana :
H298 = Hfp HfR
= -205,02 -103,6
= -101,42 kjoule/mol
= -24239,38 kkal/kmol
Cp = + T + T2
= AP AR
= B P BR
= C P CR
Komponen
O2
N2
CO2
H2O
C4H2O3
C7H8
C6H6
C6H5CHO

A
6,713
7,440
4,728
7,701
-3,123
-5,817
-8,107
-2,9

Cp ( joule/mol.K )
B
C
0,879.10-6
4,170.10-6
0,324.10-2
6.400.10-6
-2
1,754.10
-1,338.10-5
4,595.10-4
2,521.10-6
-2
8,32.10
-5,22.10-5
1,22.10-1
-6,61.10-5
1,13.10-1
-7,21.10-5
1,19.10-1
-6,79.10-5

= 64,374 ( 11,591 + 45,780 )


= 7,003 joule/mol.K

= 6,4776.10-2 ( 3,2301.10-1 + 2,1034.10-2 )


= 2,2286.10-2 joule/mol.K

= 3,5143.10-4 (-1,3067.10-4 + 1,2484.10-4 )


= 3,5726.10-4 joule/mol.K
Sehingga :

=
=

D
-2,544.10-9
-2,790.10-9
4,097.10-9
-0,859.10-9
1,16.10-8
1,17.10-8
1,70.10-8
1,23.10-8

21
= -101,42 kjoule/mol + 7,003 ( 298 - 513 ) +

joule/mol

Penyelesaian persamaan defferensial secara numeris dengan metode Runge


Kutta :
CLS
N = 6837 'jml pipa
MS = 15
Ptek = 2
'massa pendingin
C = 500
'suhu operasi
TC1 = C
TcC = C
D = 490
'suhu keluar
td0 = D
DOU = 1.32 * 2.54
'diameter luar pipa
DI = 1.049 * 2.54
'diameter dalam pipa
Pt = 1.25 * DOU
'pitch
CL = Pt - DOU
'clearence
DE = (4 * (Pt ^ 2 - (3.14 * DOU ^ 2 / 4))) / (3.14 * DOU)
'diameter
aquivalen
Ass = N * Pt ^ 2 * 1.15
'luas penampang shell
ID = (4 * Ass / 3.14) ^ .5
'diameter dalam shell
BS = ID / 5
'jarak buffle
AT = 3.14 / 4 * DI ^ 2:
'luas penampang pipa
ASi = ID * CL * BS / Pt
'flow area dlm shell
PRINT
PRINT "
"
PRINT "
R E A K T O R
F I X E D
B E D
M U L
T I
T U B E "
PRINT "
"
PRINT
PRINT USING "
Jumlah pipa
= #### pipa"; N
PRINT USING "
Diameter luar pipa = #.### cm"; DOU
PRINT USING "
Diameter dalam pipa = #.### cm"; DI
PRINT USING "
Pitch
= #.### cm"; Pt
PRINT USING "
Diameter Shell
= #.### m"; ID / 100
PRINT USING "
Jumlah pendingin
= ######.### Kg/j"; MS * N * 3.6
PRINT 'MS * N * .373 * (536.6 - 504.8)
PRINT : PRINT : PRINT
Dp = .5723
BMB = 32
'O2
BMA = 92
'C7H8
BMC = 28
'N2
BMD = 18
'H20
BME = 106
'C6H5CHO
BMF = 78
'C6H6
BMG = 98
'C4H2O3
BMH = 44
'CO2

'KECEPATAN MASUK MASING-MASING GAS (KGMOL/JAM)


FAIO = 1209.2717# / BMA
'C7H8
FBIO = 3984.6553# / BMB
'O2
FCIO = 13116.1569# / BMC 'N2
FDIO = 0 / BMD
'H2O

22
FEIO
FFIO
FGIO
FHIO
FAo
FBo
FCo
FDo
FEo
FFo
FGo
FHo

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

1.299 / BME
10.9158 / BMF
0 / BMG
0 / BMH
FAIO
FBIO
FCIO
FDIO
FEIO
FFIO
FGIO
FHIO

/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/

'C6H5CHO
'C6H6
'C4H2O3
'CO2

3.6:
3.6:
3.6:
3.6:
3.6:
3.6:
3.6:
3.6:

FTO = FAo + FBo + FCo + FDo + FEo + FFo + FGo + FHo


bmrt = (FAo / FTO) * BMA + (FBo / FTO) * BMB + (FCo / FTO) * BMC +
(FDo / FTO) * BMD + (FEo / FTO) * BME + (FFo / FTO) * BMF + (FGo / FTO) * BMG
+ (FHo / FTO) * BMH
GT = FTO * bmrt / AT: GS = MS * N / ASi
PRINT "
KECEPATAN MASSA MASUK REAKTOR"
PRINT
PRINT "

PRINT "
Komponen Kgmol /jam
Kg / jam

PRINT "

PRINT USING "


O2
#####.#### ######.####
FBIO * BMB
PRINT USING "
C7H8
#####.#### ######.####
FAIO * BMA
PRINT USING "
N2
#####.#### ######.####
FCIO * BMC
PRINT USING "
H2O
#####.#### ######.####
FDIO * BMD
PRINT USING "
C6H5CHO #####.#### ######.####
FEIO * BME
PRINT USING "
C6H6
#####.#### ######.####
FFIO * BMF
PRINT USING "
C4H203 #####.#### ######.####
FGIO * BMG
PRINT USING "
CO2
#####.#### ######.####
FHIO * BMH
PRINT "

PRINT USING "


Total
#####.####
######.####
3.6; FTO * bmrt * 3.6
INPUT "", A$
PRINT
PRINT "
KECEPATAN MASSA GAS KELUAR REAKTOR"
PRINT

"
"
"
"; FBIO;
"; FAIO;
"; FCIO;
"; FDIO;
"; FEIO;
"; FFIO;
"; FGIO;
"; FHIO;
"
"; FTO *

XA = .9
XA1 = 1 / .9 * XA
S1 = .5
S2 = .5
FA
FB
FC
FD
FE
FF
FG
FH

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

FAo
FBo
FCo
FDo
FEo
FFo
FGo
FHo

* (1 - XA)
'C7H8
- FAo * XA * (S1 + 6 * S2) - 7.5 * FFo * XA1
'O2
'N2
+ FAo * XA * (S1 + 3 * S2) + 3 * FFo * XA1
'H2O
+ FAo * XA * S1
'C6H5CHO
- FFo * XA1
'C6H6
+ FAo * XA * S2
'C4H2O3
+ 3 * FAo * XA * S2 + 6 * FFo * XA1
'CO2

FT = FA + FB + FC + FD + FE + FF + FG + FH + FI
YA = FA / FT: YB = FB / FT: YC = FC / FT: YD = FD / FT: YE = FE / FT:
YF = FF / FT: YG = FG / FT: YH = FH / FT: YI = FI / FT

23
m = BMA * YA + BMB * YB + BMC * YC + BMD * YD + BME * YE + BMF * YF + BMG
* YG + BMH * YH + BMI * YI
PRINT
PRINT
PRINT
PRINT USING
FB * 3.6 * BMB
PRINT USING
FA * 3.6 * BMA
PRINT USING
FC * 3.6 * BMC
PRINT USING
FD * 3.6 * BMD
PRINT USING
FE * 3.6 * BME
PRINT USING
FF * 3.6 * BMF
PRINT USING
FG * 3.6 * BMG
PRINT USING
FH * 3.6 * BMH
PRINT
PRINT USING
FT * 3.6 * m
INPUT "", A$

"
"
"
"

Komponen Kgmol /jam


Kg / jam

O2
#####.#### ######.####

"

C7H8

#####.####

######.####

"; FA * 3.6;

"

N2

#####.####

######.####

"; FC * 3.6;

"

H2O

#####.####

######.####

"; FD * 3.6;

"

C6H5CHO #####.####

######.####

"; FE * 3.6;

"

C6H6

#####.####

######.####

"; FF * 3.6;

"

C4H2O3

#####.####

######.####

"; FG * 3.6;

"

CO2

#####.####

######.####

"; FH * 3.6;

"
"

"
Total
#######.####
######.####
"; FT * 3.6;

PRINT
PRINT "
m = bmrt
FA = FAo
FB = FBo
FC = FCo
FD = FDo
FE = FEo
FF = FFo
FG = FGo
FH = FHo

CO2 "

"
"
"
"; FB * 3.6;

Enthalpi Umpan Masuk Reaktor :"

GOSUB 7000
Qo1 = QTOT
INPUT "", P$
PRINT "
PRINT
PRINT "
PRINT
PRINT "

PRINT
PRINT "
PRINT
INPUT "", A$
PRINT : PRINT
A = 0: B = 0:
E1 = E
PRINT "
PRINT USING "
PRINT USING "
PRINT USING "
PRINT USING "
PRINT "
PRINT : INPUT "",

Reaksi yang terjadi :"


C7H8

+ O2

----------->

C6H5CHO

+ H2O"

C7H8

+ 6 O2

----------->

C4H2O3

+ 3 H2O + 3

C6H6

+ 7.5 O2

----------->

6 CO2

+ 3 H2O"

"
KONDISI AWAL"
E = Ptek: F = 1
"

Suhu gas masuk


= ###.# C ";

Suhu pendingin keluar


= ###.# C ";

Tekanan awal
= ##.# atm ";

Increment tebal katalis


= #.## cm ";
"
P$

' Perhitungan RUNGA KUTTA


PRINT "
"

C
D
E
F

24
PRINT "
PRINT "
PRINT USING "

L(cm)
Xa
T(c) Td (c) P(atm) "
"
#### #.#### ###.## ###.# ##.### "; A; B; C;

D; E
NO = 0
620 GA = A: GB = B: GC = C: GD = D: GE = E: GF = F: GG = G: GH = H
GOSUB 910

GB
GC
GD
GE

=
=
=
=

B
C
D
E

K1 = DX * F
L1 = T * F
EM1 = S * F
N1 = P * F
K1
L1
EM1
N1

+
+
+
+

GOSUB 910

GB
GC
GD
GE

=
=
=
=

B
C
D
E

K2 = DX * F
L2 = T * F
EM2 = S * F
N2 = P * F
(K2 / 2)
(L2 / 2)
(EM2 / 2)
(N2 / 2)

+
+
+
+

GOSUB 910

GB
GC
GD
GE

=
=
=
=

B
C
D
E

K3 = DX * F
L3 = T * F
EM3 = S * F
N3 = P * F
(K3 / 2)
(L3 / 2)
(EM3 / 2)
(N3 / 2)

+
+
+
+

GOSUB 910

GB2
GC2
GD2
GE2

=
=
=
=

B
C
D
E

+
+
+
+

K4 = DX * F
L4 = T * F
EM4 = S * F
N4 = P * F
1
1
1
1

/
/
/
/

6
6
6
6

*
*
*
*

(K1 + 2 * K2 +
(L1 + 2 * L2 +
(EM1 + 2 * EM2
(N1 + 2 * N2 +

2
2
+
2

*
*
2
*

K3 + K4)
L3 + L4)
* EM3 + EM4)
N3 + N4)

710 A = A + F
C = GC2
B = GB2
D = GD2
E = GE2
NO = NO + 1
Qre = Q1 * F * N + Qre
Ql = Q2 * F * N + Ql
790 IF B >= .9 THEN 870
IF NO = 10 THEN 800
GOTO 620
800 PRINT USING "
#### #.#### ###.## ###.# ##.### "; A; B; C;
D; E: NO = 0
860 GOTO 620
870 PRINT USING "
#### #.#### ###.## ###.# ##.### "; A; B; C;
D; E
PRINT "
"

25
PRINT
PRINT "
PRINT

KECEPATAN MASSA GAS KELUAR REAKTOR"

XA = .9
XA1 = 1 / .9 * XA
S1 = .5
S2 = .5
FA
FB
FC
FD
FE
FF
FG
FH

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

FAo
FBo
FCo
FDo
FEo
FFo
FGo
FHo

* (1 - XA)
'C7H8
- FAo * XA * (S1 + 6 * S2) - 7.5 * FFo * XA1
'O2
'N2
+ FAo * XA * (S1 + 3 * S2) + 3 * FFo * XA1
'H2O
+ FAo * XA * S1
'C6H5CHO
- FFo * XA1
'C6H6
+ FAo * XA * S2
'C4H2O3
+ 3 * FAo * XA * S2 + 6 * FFo * XA1
'CO2

FT = FA + FB + FC + FD + FE + FF + FG + FH
YA = FA / FT: YB = FB / FT: YC = FC / FT:
YF = FF / FT: YG = FG / FT: YH = FH / FT:
m = BMA * YA + BMB * YB + BMC * YC + BMD *
* YG + BMH * YH + BMI * YI
PRINT
PRINT
PRINT
PRINT USING
FB * 3.6 * BMB
PRINT USING
FA * 3.6 * BMA
PRINT USING
FC * 3.6 * BMC
PRINT USING
FD * 3.6 * BMD
PRINT USING
FE * 3.6 * BME
PRINT USING
FF * 3.6 * BMF
PRINT USING
FG * 3.6 * BMG
PRINT USING
FH * 3.6 * BMH
PRINT
PRINT USING
FT * 3.6 * m
INPUT "", A$

+ FI
YD = FD / FT: YE = FE / FT:
YI = FI / FT
YD + BME * YE + BMF * YF + BMG

"
"
"
"

Komponen Kgmol /jam


Kg / jam

O2
#####.#### ######.####

"

C7H8

#####.####

######.####

"; FA * 3.6;

"

N2

#####.####

######.####

"; FC * 3.6;

"

H2O

#####.####

######.####

"; FD * 3.6;

"

C6H5CHO #####.####

######.####

"; FE * 3.6;

"

C6H6

#####.####

######.####

"; FF * 3.6;

"

C4H2O3

#####.####

######.####

"; FG * 3.6;

"

CO2

#####.####

######.####

"; FH * 3.6;

"
"

"
Total
#######.####
######.####
"; FT * 3.6;

PRINT
PRINT "
Enthalpi Hasil reaksi :"
PRINT
GOSUB 7000
Qo2 = QTOT
INPUT "", A$
PRINT
PRINT
PRINT "
NERACA PANAS :"
PRINT
PRINT "
MASUK :
PRINT
PRINT "
1. Enthalpi Umpan Masuk Reaktor
reaksi:"
PRINT USING "
Qs1 = #########.#### Kcal/jam
#########.#### Kcal/jam"; Qo1; Qo2
Qll = Qo1 + (Qre * 3.6) - Qo2
Qp = MS * N * 3.6 * .373 * (td0 - D)
Qloss = Qll - Qp

"
"
"
"; FB * 3.6;

KELUAR : "
1. Enthalpi hasil
Qs2

26
PRINT "

2. Panas Reaksi

2. Panas dibawa

pendingin"
PRINT USING "
Qr = #########.#### Kcal/jam
Qp
=
#########.#### Kcal/jam"; Qre * 3.6; Qp
PRINT "
3. Panas Hilang"
PRINT USING "
Qloss =
#########.#### Kcal/jam"; Qloss
tpIN = td0 - (Ql - Qloss) / (MS * 3.6 * N * .373)
PRINT "
---------------------------------------------------------------- "
PRINT USING "
#########.#### Kcal/jam
#########.#### Kcal/jam"; Qo1 + Qre * 3.6; (Qo2 + Qp + Qloss)
PRINT
PRINT
INPUT "", A$
PRINT
PRINT
PRINT USING
PRINT USING
PRINT USING
PRINT USING
PRINT USING
HH = 40
PRINT USING
PRINT USING
PRINT
PRINT USING
PRINT
PRINT USING
3048; ID / 100 /
PRINT USING
/ 2
PRINT

"

Dari hasil perhitungan Reaktor diperoleh :"

"
"
"
"
"

Jumlah pipa
Diameter Shell
Jumlah pendingin
Panjang terhitung

=
=
=
=
=

"
"

Panjang Pipa

= ###.#
= ###.#

"

Tinggi Head reaktor = #.###

"
2
"

Tinggi reaktor

####
#.###
######
###.#
###.#

pipa"; N
m"; ID / 100
Kg/j"; MS * N * 3.6
m"; A / 100
ft"; A / 100 / .3048
m"; HH * .3048
ft"; HH
m"; ID / 100 / 2

= ##.### + 2 . #.### m"; HH * .


= ###.#

m"; HH * .3048 + ID / 100

CLOSE
900 END
910 'KOMPOSISI GAS (GMOL/JAM)
XA = GB
XA1 = 1 / .2 * XA
S1 = .5
S2 = .5
FA
FB
FC
FD
FE
FF
FG
FH

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

FAo
FBo
FCo
FDo
FEo
FFo
FGo
FHo

* (1 - XA)
'C7H8
- FAo * XA * (S1 + 6 * S2) - 7.5 * FFo * XA1
'O2
'N2
+ FAo * XA * (S1 + 3 * S2) + 3 * FFo * XA1
'H2O
+ FAo * XA * S1
'C6H5CHO
- FFo * XA1
'C6H6
+ FAo * XA * S2
'C4H2O3
+ 3 * FAo * XA * S2 + 6 * FFo * XA1
'CO2

FT = FA + FB + FC + FD + FE + FF + FG + FH
YA = FA / FT: YB = FB / FT: YC = FC / FT:
YF = FF / FT: YG = FG / FT: YH = FH / FT:
m = BMA * YA + BMB * YB + BMC * YC + BMD *
* YG + BMH * YH + BMI * YI

+ FI
YD = FD / FT: YE = FE / FT:
YI = FI / FT
YD + BME * YE + BMF * YF + BMG

'KAPASITAS PANAS GAS (CAL/GMOL.K)


(Reid,1979)
CPA = 6.713 + -8.79E-07 * (GC + 273) + 4.17E-06 * (GC + 273) ^ 2 +
-2.54E-09 * (GC + 273) ^ 3
CPB = -5.817 + .122 * (GC + 273) + -.0000661 * (GC + 273) ^ 2 + 1.17E-08
* (GC + 273) ^ 3

27
CPC = 7.44 + -.00324 * (GC + 273) + .0000064 * (GC + 273) ^ 2 + -2.79E09 * (GC + 273) ^ 3
CPD = 7.701 + .00046 * (GC + 273) + 2.52E-06 * (GC + 273) ^ 2 + -8.59E10 * (GC + 273) ^ 3
CPE = 2.9 + .119 * (GC + 273) + -.0000679 * (GC + 273) ^ 2 + 1.23E-08 *
(GC + 273) ^ 3
CPF = 8.107 + .113 * (GC + 273) + -.0000721 * (GC + 273) ^ 2 + 1.7E-08 *
(GC + 273) ^ 3
CPG = -3.123 + .0832 * (GC + 273) + -.0000522 * (GC + 273) ^ 2 + 1.16E08 * (GC + 273) ^ 3
CPH = 4.728 + .0175 * (GC + 273) + -.0000134 * (GC + 273) ^ 2 + 4.1E-09
* (GC + 273) ^ 3
CPM = (YA * CPA + YB * CPB + YC * CPC + YD * CPD + YE * CPE + YF * CPF +
YG * CPG + YH * CPH + YI * CPI) / m
'KAPASITAS pendingin (CAL/GMOL.K)
CPP = .373
'RAPAT MASSA CAMPURAN GAS
RM = E * m / (GC + 273) / 82.06
'VISKOSITAS GAS (gr/dt.cm)
TcA
TcB
TcC
TcD
TcE
TcF
TcG
TcH

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

154.6:
591.7:
126.2:
647.3:
695:
562.1:
500:
304.2:

PcA
PcB
PcC
PcD
PcE
PcF
PcG
PcH

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

49.8
40.6
33.5
217.6
46
483
20
72.8

VA = (.00036 * (4.61 * ((GC + 273) / TcA)


((GC + 273) / TcA)) + 1.94 * EXP(-4.058 * ((GC
(1 / 6) * BMA ^ (-.5) * PcA ^ (-2 / 3))) / 100
VB = (.00036 * (4.61 * ((GC + 273) / TcB)
((GC + 273) / TcB)) + 1.94 * EXP(-4.058 * ((GC
(1 / 6) * BMB ^ (-.5) * PcB ^ (-2 / 3))) / 100
VC = (.00036 * (4.61 * ((GC + 273) / TcC)
((GC + 273) / TcC)) + 1.94 * EXP(-4.058 * ((GC
(1 / 6) * BMC ^ (-.5) * PcC ^ (-2 / 3))) / 100
VD = (.00036 * (4.61 * ((GC + 273) / TcD)
((GC + 273) / TcD)) + 1.94 * EXP(-4.058 * ((GC
(1 / 6) * BMD ^ (-.5) * PcD ^ (-2 / 3))) / 100
VE = (.00036 * (4.61 * ((GC + 273) / TcE)
((GC + 273) / TcE)) + 1.94 * EXP(-4.058 * ((GC
(1 / 6) * BME ^ (-.5) * PcE ^ (-2 / 3))) / 100
VF = (.00036 * (4.61 * ((GC + 273) / TcF)
((GC + 273) / TcF)) + 1.94 * EXP(-4.058 * ((GC
(1 / 6) * BMF ^ (-.5) * PcF ^ (-2 / 3))) / 100
VG = (.00036 * (4.61 * ((GC + 273) / TcG)
((GC + 273) / TcG)) + 1.94 * EXP(-4.058 * ((GC
(1 / 6) * BMG ^ (-.5) * PcG ^ (-2 / 3))) / 100
VH = (.00036 * (4.61 * ((GC + 273) / TcG)
((GC + 273) / TcG)) + 1.94 * EXP(-4.058 * ((GC
(1 / 6) * BMG ^ (-.5) * PcG ^ (-2 / 3))) / 100

^ .618 - 2.04 * EXP(-.449 *


+ 273) / TcA)) + .1) / (TcA ^
^ .618 - 2.04 * EXP(-.449 *
+ 273) / TcB)) + .1) / (TcB ^
^ .618 - 2.04 * EXP(-.449 *
+ 273) / TcC)) + .1) / (TcC ^
^ .618 - 2.04 * EXP(-.449 *
+ 273) / TcD)) + .1) / (TcD ^
^ .618 - 2.04 * EXP(-.449 *
+ 273) / TcE)) + .1) / (TcE ^
^ .618 - 2.04 * EXP(-.449 *
+ 273) / TcF)) + .1) / (TcF ^
^ .618 - 2.04 * EXP(-.449 *
+ 273) / TcG)) + .1) / (TcG ^
^ .618 - 2.04 * EXP(-.449 *
+ 273) / TcG)) + .1) / (TcG ^

VM = YA * VA * SQR(BMA) + YB * VB * SQR(BMB) + YC * VC * SQR(BMC)


VM = VM + YD * VD * SQR(BMD) + YE * VE * SQR(BME) + YF * VF * SQR(BMF)
VM = VM + YG * VG * SQR(BMG) + YH * VH * SQR(BMH) + YI * VI * SQR(BMI)
VBAH = YA * SQR(BMA) + YB * SQR(BMB) + YC * SQR(BMC)
VBAH = VBAH + YD * SQR(BMD) + YE * SQR(BME) + YF * SQR(BMF)
VBAH = VBAH + YG * SQR(BMG) + YH * SQR(BMH) + YI * SQR(BMI)

28
VR = VM / VBAH
'VISKOSITAS pendingin (gr/dt.cm)
VP = (35.5898 - .04212 * D) * .01
'THERMAL KONDUKTIVITAS (Cal/dt.cm.K)
TIA = TcA ^ (1 / 6) * BMA ^ (1 / 2) /
TIB = TcB ^ (1 / 6) * BMB ^ (1 / 2) /
TIC = TcC ^ (1 / 6) * BMC ^ (1 / 2) /
TID = TcD ^ (1 / 6) * BMD ^ (1 / 2) /
TIE = TcE ^ (1 / 6) * BME ^ (1 / 2) /
TIF = TcF ^ (1 / 6) * BMF ^ (1 / 2) /
TIG = TcG ^ (1 / 6) * BMG ^ (1 / 2) /
TIH = TcG ^ (1 / 6) * BMG ^ (1 / 2) /
jp
KA
KB
KC
KD
KE
KF
KG
KH

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

.000001
((14.52
((14.52
((14.52
((14.52
((14.52
((14.52
((14.52
((14.52

KM = YA
^ .333)
KM = KM
(BME ^ .333)
KM = KM
(BMI ^ .333)
BAWAH =
BAWAH =
333)
BAWAH =
333)

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

(GC
(GC
(GC
(GC
(GC
(GC
(GC
(GC

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

273)
273)
273)
273)
273)
273)
273)
273)

/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/

TcA)
TcB)
TcC)
TcD)
TcE)
TcF)
TcG)
TcG)

PcA
PcB
PcC
PcD
PcE
PcF
PcG
PcG

5.14)
5.14)
5.14)
5.14)
5.14)
5.14)
5.14)
5.14)

^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^

(2
(2
(2
(2
(2
(2
(2
(2
(2
(2
(2
(2
(2
(2
(2
(2

/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/

3)
3)
3)
3)
3)
3)
3)
3)
3)
3)
3)
3)
3)
3)
3)
3)

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

(jp
(jp
(jp
(jp
(jp
(jp
(jp
(jp

/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/

TIA)
TIB)
TIC)
TID)
TIE)
TIF)
TIG)
TIG)

+ YF * KF * (BMF ^ .333) + YD * KD * (BMD ^ .333) + YE * KE *


+ YG * KG * (BMG ^ .333) + YH * KH * (BMH ^ .333) + YI * KI *
YA * (BMA ^ .333) + YB * (BMB ^ .333) + YC * (BMC ^ .333)
BAWAH + YD * (BMD ^ .333) + YE * (BME ^ .333) + YF * (BMF ^ .
BAWAH + YG * (BMG ^ .333) + YH * (BMH ^ .333) + YI * (BMI ^ .

'KONDUKTIVITAS pendingin (CAL/JAM.M.K)


KP = (.84333 - .0005807 * (GD + 273))
'PERHITUNGAN KOEFISIEN TRANSFER PANAS
RE = 50 * GT / N * Dp / VR
HI = (.27 * KM * (RE) ^ .8 * (CPM * VR / KM) ^ (1 / 3)) / DI
HI = 7.8 * HI
HIO = HI * DI / DOU
Rs = DE * GS / VP
PR = CPP * VP / KP
HO = .46 * KP / DE * Rs ^ .55 * PR ^ .333
UC = (HIO * HO) / (HIO + HO)
UD = UC / (11.06557 * UC + 1) / 100
'KECEPATAN REAKSI DAN PANAS REAKS
kx = 4691261868600# * EXP(-13505.96427# / (GC + 273))
'PANAS REAKSI
=
=
=
=

CPA
CPB
CPC
CPD
CPE
CPF
CPG
CPG

* KA * (BMA ^ .333) + YB * KB * (BMB ^ .333) + YC * KC * (BMC

KM = KM / BAWAH

HR1
HR1
HR1
HR1

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

-79310 +
HR1 + (1
HR1 + (1
HR1 + (1

3.905 * ((GC + 273) - 298)


/ 2) * (-.00344) * ((GC + 273) ^ 2 - 298 ^ 2)
/ 3) * (-3.539E-06) * ((GC + 273) ^ 3 - 298 ^ 3)
/ 4) * (2.295E-09) * ((GC + 273) ^ 4 - 298 ^ 4)

HR2 = -579550 + -.297 * ((GC + 273) - 298)

29
HR2 = HR2 + (1 / 2) * (.0148) * ((GC + 273) ^ 2 - 298 ^ 2)
HR2 = HR2 + (1 / 3) * (-4.372E-05) * ((GC + 273) ^ 3 - 298 ^ 3)
HR2 = HR2 + (1 / 4) * (2.481E-08) * ((GC + 273) ^ 4 - 298 ^ 4)
HR3
HR3
HR3
HR3

=
=
=
=

-757490 + 9.2305 * ((GC + 273) - 298)


HR3 + (1 / 2) * (-.00667) * ((GC + 273) ^ 2 - 298 ^ 2)
HR3 + (1 / 3) * (-3.193E-05) * ((GC + 273) ^ 3 - 298 ^ 3)
HR3 + (1 / 4) * (2.406E-08) * ((GC + 273) ^ 4 - 298 ^ 4)

HR = .75 * HR1 + .2 * HR2 + .05 * HR3


'PERSAMAAN DIFFERENSIAL
' (dx/dz)
RR = 82.06
TT = GC + 273
MM = FBo / FAo
CA0 = FAo / FTO * E1 / RR / TT
RC = kx * CA0 ^ 2 * (1 - GB) * (MM - GB)
DX = (3.14 * DI ^ 2 * RC * .36) / (4 * (FAo / N))
' (dT/dz)
Q1 = (-HR) * DX
cal/dt cm
Q2 = (UD * 3.14
cal/dt cm
MCPR = FA * CPA +
FG * CPG + FH * CPH
T = (Q1 - Q2) /

* FAo / N
* DOU * (GC - GD))

' (cal/gmol) (1/cm) (gmol/dt) =


' (cal/cm2 oC dt) (cm) (oC)

FB * CPB + FC * CPC + FD * CPD + FE * CPE + FF * CPF +


(MCPR / N)

' (dTs/dz)
S = -((UD * 3.14 * DOU * (GC - GD)) / (MS * CPP))

' (dP/dz)
fk = (150 * (1 - .36) / RE + 1.75) / 10000
P = (GT / N) ^ 2 * (1 - .36) * fk
P = -.00001 '((P / ((Dp) * (RM) * 981 * .36 ^ 3)))
RETURN

7000

FT = FA + FB + FC + FD + FE + FF + FG + FH
TC = C
GOSUB 8000
RETURN
8000

XX
YY
ZZ
WW

CPA
4 * WW
CPB
WW
CPC
WW
CPD
WW
CPE
CPF
CPG
WW
CPH
WW

=
=
=
=

(TC
(TC
(TC
(TC

+
+
+
+

273)
273)
273)
273)

^
^
^

298
2 - 298 ^ 2
3 - 298 ^ 3
4 - 298 ^ 4

= 6.713 * XX + -8.79E-07 / 2 * YY + 4.17E-06 / 3 * ZZ + -2.54E-09 /


= -5.817 * XX + .122 / 2 * YY + -.0000661 / 3 * ZZ + 1.17E-08 / 4 *
= 7.44 * XX + -.00324 / 2 * YY + .0000064 / 3 * ZZ + -2.79E-09 / 4 *
= 7.701 * XX + .00046 / 2 * YY + 2.52E-06 / 3 * ZZ + -8.59E-10 / 4 *
= 2.9 * XX + .119 / 2 * YY + -.0000679 / 3 * ZZ + 1.23E-08 / 4 * WW
= 8.107 * XX + .113 / 2 * YY + -.0000721 / 3 * ZZ + 1.7E-08 / 4 * WW
= -3.123 * XX + .0832 / 2 * YY + -.0000522 / 3 * ZZ + 1.16E-08 / 4 *
= 4.728 * XX + .0175 / 2 * YY + -.0000134 / 3 * ZZ + 4.1E-09 / 4 *

30
QS1
QS2
QS3
QS4
QS5
QS6
QS7
QS7

FA
FB
FC
FD
FE
FF
FG
FH
FT

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

FA
FB
FC
FD
FE
FF
FG
FH

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

CPA
CPB
CPC
CPD
CPE
CPF
CPG
CPG

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

3.6
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.6

QTOT = QS1 + QS2 + QS3 + QS4 + QS5 + QS6 + QS7 + QS8


PRINT
PRINT USING "
Suhu operasi
= ###.## C"; TC
PRINT "
Suhu refferensi = 25 C "
PRINT
PRINT "
"
PRINT "
Komponen Kgmol /jam
Cp dT Qs = m Cp dT "
PRINT "
"
PRINT USING "
O2
#####.#### #####.## ########.#### ";
* 3.6; CPA; QS1
PRINT USING "
C7H8
#####.#### #####.## ########.#### ";
* 3.6; CPB; QS2
PRINT USING "
N2
#####.#### #####.## ########.#### ";
* 3.6; CPC; QS3
PRINT USING "
H2O
#####.#### #####.## ########.#### ";
* 3.6; CPD; QS4
PRINT USING "
C6H5CHO #####.#### #####.## ########.#### ";
* 3.6; CPE; QS5
PRINT USING "
C6H6
#####.#### #####.## ########.#### ";
* 3.6; CPF; QS6
PRINT USING "
C4H2O3 #####.#### #####.## ########.#### ";
* 3.6; CPG; QS7
PRINT USING "
CO2
#####.#### #####.## ########.#### ";
* 3.6; CPH; QS8
PRINT "
"
PRINT USING "
Total
#######.####
########.#### ";
* 3.6; QTOT
RETURN

Hasil Running Program computer

REAKTOR FIXED BED MULTI TUBE

Jumlah pipa
= 6837 pipa
Diameter luar pipa = 3.353 cm
Diameter dalam pipa = 2.664 cm
Pitch
= 4.191 cm
Diameter Shell
= 4.194 m
Jumlah pendingin = 369198.000 Kg/j

KECEPATAN MASSA MASUK REAKTOR

Komponen Kgmol /jam Kg / jam

O2
124.5205 3984.6553
C7H8 13.1443 1209.2717
N2
468.4342 13116.1572
H2O

0.0000
0.0000

31
C6H5CHO
0.0123
1.2990
C6H6
0.1399
10.9158
C4H203
0.0000
0.0000
CO2

0.0000
0.0000

Total
606.2511
18322.2988
KECEPATAN MASSA GAS KELUAR REAKTOR

Komponen Kgmol /jam Kg / jam

O2
82.0665 2626.1272
C7H8
1.3144
120.9272
N2
468.4342 13116.1563
H2O
24.0795
433.4310
C6H5CHO
5.9272
628.2800
C6H6
0.0000
0.0000
C4H2O3
5.9149
579.6617
CO2
18.5844
817.7147

Total
606.3211
18322.2988
Enthalpi Umpan Masuk Reaktor :
Suhu operasi = 500.00 C
Suhu refferensi = 25 C

Komponen Kgmol /jam Cp dT Qs = m Cp dT

O2
13.1443 3571.98 46951.0313
C7H8 124.5205 19696.54 2452622.0000
N2
468.4342 3395.24 1590446.2500
H2O

0.0000 4065.76
0.0000
C6H5CHO
0.0123 22865.14
280.2058
C6H6
0.1399 23612.95
3304.5408
C4H2O3
0.0000 13115.67
0.0000
CO2

0.0000 5110.12
0.0000

Total
606.2511
4093604.0000
Reaksi yang terjadi :
C7H8 + O2
C7H8 + 6 O2

----------->
----------->

C6H6 + 7.5 O2 ----------->

C6H5CHO + H2O
C4H2O3 + 3 H2O + 3 CO2
6 CO2

+ 3 H2O

KONDISI AWAL

Suhu gas masuk


= 500.0 C
Suhu pendingin keluar
= 490.0 C
Tekanan awal
= 2.0 atm
Increment tebal katalis = 1.00 cm

L(cm) Xa T(c) Td (c) P(atm)

0 0.0000 500.00 490.0 2.000


10 0.0208 504.25 489.9 2.000
20 0.0428 508.35 489.8 2.000
30 0.0661 512.33 489.6 2.000

32

40 0.0905 516.15 489.4


50 0.1159 519.82 489.1
60 0.1422 523.32 488.9
70 0.1693 526.63 488.6
80 0.1971 529.73 488.2
90 0.2254 532.60 487.9
100 0.2540 535.20 487.5
110 0.2826 537.52 487.1
120 0.3111 539.52 486.6
130 0.3394 541.18 486.2
140 0.3671 542.49 485.7
150 0.3940 543.41 485.2
160 0.4201 543.95 484.7
170 0.4451 544.11 484.2
180 0.4690 543.89 483.7
190 0.4916 543.31 483.2
200 0.5130 542.39 482.7
210 0.5330 541.16 482.2
220 0.5517 539.65 481.8
230 0.5691 537.91 481.3
240 0.5852 535.97 480.8
250 0.6002 533.87 480.4
260 0.6141 531.65 479.9
270 0.6269 529.34 479.5
280 0.6388 526.98 479.1
290 0.6498 524.59 478.7
300 0.6599 522.21 478.4
310 0.6694 519.85 478.0
320 0.6782 517.53 477.7
330 0.6864 515.27 477.4
340 0.6940 513.07 477.1
350 0.7011 510.95 476.8
360 0.7078 508.92 476.5
370 0.7141 506.97 476.2
380 0.7201 505.12 476.0
390 0.7257 503.35 475.8
400 0.7310 501.68 475.5
410 0.7360 500.10 475.3
420 0.7408 498.60 475.1
430 0.7454 497.19 475.0
440 0.7498 495.87 474.8
450 0.7539 494.62 474.6
460 0.7579 493.45 474.5
470 0.7618 492.36 474.3
480 0.7655 491.33 474.2
490 0.7691 490.36 474.0
500 0.7725 489.46 473.9
510 0.7759 488.61 473.8
520 0.7791 487.82 473.7
530 0.7823 487.08 473.5
540 0.7853 486.39 473.4
550 0.7883 485.74 473.3
560 0.7912 485.13 473.2
570 0.7940 484.56 473.1
580 0.7967 484.02 473.0
590 0.7994 483.52 473.0
600 0.8020 483.04 472.9
610 0.8045 482.60 472.8
620 0.8070 482.18 472.7
630 0.8095 481.79 472.6
640 0.8119 481.42 472.6
650 0.8142 481.07 472.5
660 0.8165 480.74 472.4
670 0.8187 480.42 472.4
680 0.8209 480.13 472.3

2.000
1.999
1.999
1.999
1.999
1.999
1.999
1.999
1.999
1.999
1.999
1.998
1.998
1.998
1.998
1.998
1.998
1.998
1.998
1.998
1.998
1.997
1.997
1.997
1.997
1.997
1.997
1.997
1.997
1.997
1.997
1.996
1.996
1.996
1.996
1.996
1.996
1.996
1.996
1.996
1.996
1.995
1.995
1.995
1.995
1.995
1.995
1.995
1.995
1.995
1.995
1.994
1.994
1.994
1.994
1.994
1.994
1.994
1.994
1.994
1.994
1.993
1.993
1.993
1.993

33
690 0.8231 479.85 472.2 1.993
700 0.8252 479.58 472.2 1.993
710 0.8273 479.33 472.1 1.993
720 0.8294 479.09 472.1 1.993
730 0.8314 478.86 472.0 1.993
740 0.8334 478.64 472.0 1.993
750 0.8354 478.43 471.9 1.992
760 0.8373 478.23 471.9 1.992
770 0.8392 478.04 471.8 1.992
780 0.8410 477.85 471.8 1.992
790 0.8429 477.68 471.7 1.992
800 0.8447 477.51 471.7 1.992
810 0.8464 477.34 471.6 1.992
820 0.8482 477.18 471.6 1.992
830 0.8499 477.03 471.5 1.992
840 0.8516 476.89 471.5 1.992
850 0.8533 476.74 471.4 1.991
860 0.8549 476.61 471.4 1.991
870 0.8566 476.47 471.3 1.991
880 0.8582 476.34 471.3 1.991
890 0.8598 476.22 471.3 1.991
900 0.8613 476.10 471.2 1.991
910 0.8629 475.98 471.2 1.991
920 0.8644 475.86 471.2 1.991
930 0.8659 475.75 471.1 1.991
940 0.8673 475.64 471.1 1.991
950 0.8688 475.54 471.0 1.990
960 0.8702 475.43 471.0 1.990
970 0.8717 475.33 471.0 1.990
980 0.8731 475.23 470.9 1.990
990 0.8744 475.13 470.9 1.990
1000 0.8758 475.04 470.9 1.990
1010 0.8771 474.95 470.8 1.990
1020 0.8785 474.85 470.8 1.990
1030 0.8798 474.76 470.8 1.990
1040 0.8811 474.68 470.7 1.990
1050 0.8823 474.59 470.7 1.989
1060 0.8836 474.51 470.7 1.989
1070 0.8849 474.42 470.6 1.989
1080 0.8861 474.34 470.6 1.989
1090 0.8873 474.26 470.6 1.989
1100 0.8885 474.19 470.6 1.989
1110 0.8897 474.11 470.5 1.989
1120 0.8908 474.03 470.5 1.989
1130 0.8920 473.96 470.5 1.989
1140 0.8931 473.89 470.4 1.989
1150 0.8943 473.81 470.4 1.988
1160 0.8954 473.74 470.4 1.988
1170 0.8965 473.67 470.4 1.988
1180 0.8976 473.61 470.3 1.988
1190 0.8986 473.54 470.3 1.988
1200 0.8997 473.47 470.3 1.988
1203 0.9000 473.45 470.3 1.988

KECEPATAN MASSA GAS KELUAR REAKTOR

Komponen Kgmol /jam Kg / jam

O2
82.0665 2626.1272
C7H8
1.3144
120.9272
N2
468.4342 13116.1563
H2O
24.0795
433.4310
C6H5CHO
5.9272
628.2800

34
C6H6
0.0000
0.0000
C4H2O3
5.9149
579.6617
CO2
18.5844
817.7147

Total
606.3211
18322.2988
Enthalpi Hasil reaksi :
Suhu operasi = 473.45 C
Suhu refferensi = 25 C

Komponen Kgmol /jam Cp dT Qs = m Cp dT

O2

1.3144 3359.46
4415.7666
C7H8 82.0665 18267.09 1499115.5000
N2
468.4342 3197.49 1497813.5000
H2O
24.0795 3823.43 92066.2578
C6H5CHO
5.9272 21285.38 126162.1016
C6H6
0.0000 22025.61
0.0000
C4H2O3
5.9149 12185.40 226458.5938
CO2
18.5844 4789.26
0.0000

Total
606.3211
3446031.7500
NERACA PANAS :
MASUK :

KELUAR :

1. Enthalpi Umpan Masuk Reaktor


1. Enthalpi hasil reaksi:
Qs1 = 4093604.0000 Kcal/jam
Qs2 = 3446031.7500 Kcal/jam
2. Panas Reaksi
2. Panas dibawa pendingin
Qr = 2518927.2500 Kcal/jam
Qp = 2716473.5000 Kcal/jam
3. Panas Hilang
Qloss = 450026.0000 Kcal/jam
-------------------------------- --------------------------------6612531.5000 Kcal/jam
6612531.0000 Kcal/jam
Dari hasil perhitungan Reaktor diperoleh :
Jumlah pipa
= 6837 pipa
Diameter Shell
= 4.194 m
Jumlah pendingin = 369198 Kg/j
Panjang terhitung = 12.0 m
= 39.5 ft
Panjang Pipa
= 12.2 m
= 40.0 ft
Tinggi Head reaktor = 2.097 m
Tinggi reaktor
= 12.192 + 2 . 2.097 m
= 14.3 m

1. Menghitung tebal shell

Digunakan bahan Carbon steel SA 178 grade C


Tekanan design (p) = 17.64 psi

35
Allowable stress = 18750 psi
efisiensi sambungan = 0.85
faktor korosi
= 0.125 in
Jari-jari tangki = 82.56 in
Tebal Shell :
p .ri
t shell = + c
S . e - 0.4 . p
17.64 . 82.56
= + 0.125
18750.00 . 0.85 - 0.4 . 17.64
= 0.216 in
Dipakai tebal shell 1/4 in
2. Menghitung tebal head

Bentuk head : Elliptical Dished Head


Digunakan bahan Carbon steel SA 178 grade C
Tekanan design (p) = 32.24 psi
Allowable stress = 18750 psi
efisiensi sambungan = 0.85
faktor korosi
= 0.125 in
Jari-jari tangki = 82.56 in
Tebal Head :
0.885 . p .d
t head = + c
2 . S . e - 0.2 . p
0.885 . 32.24 . 165.12
= + 0.125
2 . 18750.00 . 0.85 - 0.2 . 32.24
= 0.273 in
Dipilih tebal head 1/4 in
3. Menghitung ukuran pipa

Diameter Optimum pipa berdasarkan Pers. 15 Peters, hal.525


a. Pipa pemasukan Umpan Reaktor :
Kecepatan Umpan
Densitas Umpan

= 40309.059 lb/j
=
0.1684 lb/ft^3

Di = 2.2 . ( G/1000 )^ 0.45 . den ^ (-0.31)


= 2.2 . ( 40309.059 / 1000 )^ 0.45 . 0.1684 ^ (-0.31)
= 20.171 in
Dipakai pipa dengan ukuran : 20.00 in
b. Pipa pengeluaran hasil Reaktor :

36
Kecepatan hasil = 40309.059 lb/j
Densitas hasil =
0.1673 lb/ft^3
Di = 2.2 . ( G/1000 )^ 0.45 . den ^ (-0.31)
= 2.2 . ( 40309.059 / 1000 )^ 0.45 . 0.1673 ^ (-0.31)
= 20.212 in
Dipakai pipa dengan ukuran : 20.00 in
c. Pipa pemasukan dan pengeluaran pemanas:
Kecepatan HITEC = 812235.6250 lb/j
Densitas HITEC = 54.6624 lb/ft^3
Di = 2.2 . ( L/1000 )^ 0.45 . den ^ (-0.31)
= 2.2 . ( 812235.625 / 1000 )^ 0.45 . 54.6624 ^ (-0.31)
= 12.975 in
Dipakai pipa dengan ukuran : 12.00 in
4. Menghitung tebal Isolasi
Diameter shell = 13.76 ft
Tinggi shell = 40.00 ft
Tebal shell = 0.018 ft
Luas permukaan head = 356.70 ft
Luas permukaan shell = 1728.24 ft
Total luas permukaan = 2084.94 ft
Suhu permukaan isolasi = 140.00 F = 600.00 R
Suhu dalam reaktor
= 956.39 F = 1416.39 R
Suhu udara lingkungan = 86.00 F = 546.00 R
Konduktifitas thermal diding shell = 28.0000 Btu ft/(j ft F)
Digunakan Isolasi Fine Diatomaceous earth powder
Konduktifitas thermal isolasi
= 0.1250 Btu ft/(j ft F)
Koeffisien transfer panas konveksi (hc) :

0.25
hc = 0.3 Tw - Tu

0.25
= 0.3 140.00 - 86.00

= 0.8132418 Btu/j ft F
Koeffisien transfer panas Radiasi (hr) :

4
4
k e (Tw/100) - (Tu/100)

hr = --------------------------------[ Tw - Tu ]

4
4
0.178 . 0.8 6.00 - 5.46

= ---------------------------------

37
[ 600.00 - 546.00 ]
= 5.8827672 Btu/j ft F
A . (T1 - Tu)
Q loss = ---------------------------- t1
t2
1

---- + ---- + ---------


k1
k2 (hr + hc)
2084.940 . (956.39 - 86.00)
= ------------------------------------------- 0.018
T is
1

------- + -------- + ------------------


28.00
0.125
0.8132 + 5.8828
0.018
T is
1
2084.940 (956.39 - 86.00)
------- + -------- + -------- = -------------------------- 28.00
0.125
6.6960
450026.000

0.018
T is
1

------- + -------- + -------- =


4.032
28.00
0.125
6.6960
T is

0.00064 + -------- + 0.1493 =


4.032
0.1250

T is
-------- =
0.1250

3.882

T isolasi =

0.485 ft

5.824 in

Kesimpulan :
1. Tugas
2. Type alat = Reaktor Fixed Bed Multitube, karena reaksinya sangat eksotermis
3. Kondisi operasi
4. Katalis
5. Pipa reactor
6. Ukuran reaktor
Jumlah pipa
Diameter Shell
Jumlah pendingin
Panjang terhitung
Panjang Pipa

= 6837
= 4.194
= 369198
= 12.0
= 39.5
= 12.2
= 40.0

Tinggi Head reaktor = 2.097


Tinggi reaktor

pipa
m
Kg/j
m
ft
m
ft
m

= 12.192 + 2 . 2.097 m
= 14.3 m

38
7.