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Boucher article
Defence and security relations intensified the two nations national security interests..showed a
direct relationship. 9/11 changed the nature of Canada us relations especially in terms of military
spending. Far from the escalating canadas bandwagoning with the US, however 9/11 seems to
have a reverse effect. A post 9/11 Caanda is much more willing to align its military spending to
its fiscal capacity to pay for security. (914)The US left Canada behind in terms of military
expenditures due to feelings of insecurity brought by the vents form 9/11.
North American Security Cooperation was intensified
The attacks intensified Canadas bandwagoning posture toward the US.
Intensified Canada-US defense security relationship
***led to a more emancipated Canadian security approach p. 896
Policies of opposition and accommodation of a stronger power (US) has structured our
discussion on foreign policy.
Continentalist authors argue that Canadas economic, security and status interests are all linked
to its relationship with the United States; thus Canadas interests are better served by
bandwagonining with Washington.
On matters related to defence and security issues, this soft-bandwagonining strategy corresponds
with an overall policy that would meet US security needs, while preserving Canadas sovereignty
as much as possible
The article emphasized that even though Canadas support for United States military, it is still
effective and strong enough to provide defense against the terrorists.
The relationship is also intensified in a way that Canada developed a more secured immigration
policy in order to avoid intruders like the terrorist who have plans in attacking the US or even
*******given Canadas strong relationship with the United States in economic, cultural and
security terms, its security and defense agenda should align with that of the ally (US) that had
declared war on terror. (p.900).
***Canadas security and prosperity are dependent on the security and prosperity of the US.
****Canada also adapted American security paradigms and aligned its security interests more
closely with the US.
INTRO;;;;;; the 9/11 attacks threatened the worlds security most especially with the US and

Nevertheless, both countries relative assessments of insecurity are fundamentally different.

***US defense budgets will influence more Canadian defense budgets in the period after 11
September 2001 than in the period preceding that. (904).
**** US defense expenditures are anticipated to correspond to Canadian attribution of federal
budget to military use.f
*****external pressures such as US security agenda were more important in determining
Canadian defense expenditures (910)
***It also showed a direct relationship between the military expenditures of Canada and the US.
***** the fact that Canada and the US share a military alliance in NATO suggests that the two
countries live in similar security environment imposing the same imperative on all allies. This
indicates that the US modifies in military budget before Canada adjusts its budget accordingly.
****Canadian defense spending between 1991 and 2001 was largely determined by Canadas
bandwagoning with the United States, as Ottawa matched changes in Canadas military budget
with those of the US.
*****911 fundamentally changes American perceptions of security through the increased
uncertainty of non-traditional security challenges such as terrorism. Canadians on the other hand
may never have internalized the psychological insecurity associated with 911 events.. (p. 912).


After 9/11- US experienced great recession while Canada has a better economy.
America attempted to enhance mainland security through (DHS-Dept of Homeland Security).,
they also tried to strengthen border security while preserving trade.
Canada-US partnership with border security was improved securing the border from external
*****Since 9/11 America has increased the number of agents at the Canadian border. Drone and
Blackhawk helicopter surveillance flights, radar towers, radiation detectors and remote motion
sensors have also been added, along with other various security measures. Cargo inspections
have also increased dramatically (p.883).
Both countries invested for the development of new infrastructure at key border corssings to
improve security, eliminate unnecessary inspections as well as reduce waiting times.

The 9/11 attacks also caused an enhanced regional security and cross-border economic
cooperation which was proved by the creation of Security and Prosperity Partnership of North
America involving Canada, the United States and Mexico.
The united states more than doubled its defense and intelligence budgets during the past decade
in response to 9/11
9/11 weakened the economic linkage between Canada and the US- Canada is now making efforts
to diversify its economic linkages, especially with the European nation. Post 9/11 US policies
have been damaging to Canadian economic interests (888)

Townsend Article: Impact on trade

Heightened security resulted an increased cost between the Canada-US bilateral trade. The
increasing security measures within the border caused extra costs in shipping goods.= reduced
trade flows
Authors find that exports to and imports from the United States decreased dramatically in the
months and years immediately after 9/11 (p. 142)= imports and exports between the two
countries fell as an effect of the newly implemented security measures.
The reduced trade flow caused changes in different industries such as automobiles and lumber.
***the border has permanently changed the nature of border and that this change is costly for
Canada. Border changes have disrupted trade flows.

Brunet-Jailly Article
Page 965
Economic integration in the Canada-US border regions has been impeded by post 9/11 border
policy.= huge impact on trade due to increased border security and surveillance
One of the security policies related to this is the Smart Border Declaration which secure flows of
people, goods, and infrastructure. Both countries signed and agreed about these security related
The heightened security also benefited the two countries as this The declaration focused
particularly on greater cooperation in four sub areas of customs, immigration and security.

Canada and the US have the highest level of economic integration between two large countries in
the world.
Statistic support the assumption that the Canadian and US economies are interdependent and
remain so through fluctuations in the global economy
In other words, post 9/11 border security policies became much more effective to the point of
reducing freight cost across the boundary line.
Canada-US agreements focus on tacking security matters from the narrower perspective of
potential terrorist threats

Threat perception of both countries are congruent.

The Security and Prosperity Partnership launched in 2005 by the three countries of north
America presents an important case study in north American cooperation in the decade after the
9/11 attacks.
The SPP presents an important casein Canadian-American political and economic cooperation.
The SPP was the first systematic follow up to the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement
Numerous new security measures have been put in place, resulting in a so-called thickening of
the border. These measures have put stress on Canadian manufacturing which depends heavily
on a just-in-time cross border trade in parts for final assembly.
In 2005, the governments of the United States, Canada, and Mexico launched a new tri-lateral
initiative to facilitate common border security measures in the wake of the 9/11attacks and to
deepen trade integration. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, had ledto various American
measures that tightened border security.
It is not difcult to see Canadas national interest in further trade integration and in lower-ing the
cost to cross-border trade. Despite a variety of attempts to diversify Canadian tradeaway from
the US market to other areas of the globe from the 1970s onward, Canadas tradewith the United
States has grown substantially while trade with the rest of the world onlymodestly
Americas tightening of the border and ongoing new security measures are limiting thegrowth
rate in CanadaUS trade (Globerman and Storer 2008, 100

The Canadian government clearly had no better option than to accept the SPP evenif the gain
would be marginal and even if it would prefer to negotiate bilaterally withthe United States
Canada and the United States agreed under the SPP umbrella on reciprocal recogni-tion of
security inspections for containers used for the transportation of dangerous goods
Other accomplishments include a CanadaUS framework for the movement of goodsand people
across the border during and following an emergency, and an agreementbetween the United
States Coast Guard and Transport Canada on the verication of shipsentering the St. Lawrence
Seaway. The prosperity side negotiated a harmonized standardfor energy performance for certain
household appliances and consumer products. Canadaand the United States agreed on a protocol
for compliance data sharing, staff exchanges,and joint training for cross-border pipelines and a
harmonization of air navigation stan-dards. The two countries agreed on a pilot project to share
information on refugee andasylum claimants based on a comparison of ngerprint records.
SPP created conditions for more cooperation and harmonization and other files.
The SP was an innovative approach to incremental deepening of North American ties.
The 2008 financial and economic crises in the United States depressed trade and dragged the
trade dependent Canadian economy down with it.
Counter terrorism policies
How-ever, while Canadians expressed immediate and profound solidarity with the U.S. inthe
aftermath of 9=11, Canada would not always follow the U.S. lead on counter-terrorism policy.
Concerns about sovereignty and economic gains also determine Canadianresponses to U.S.
counter-terrorism policies. Canada, like any other country, is con-cerned to preserve its
sovereignty. Canadians anticipated that the U.S. response to9=11 would have an impact on their
security and sovereignty. Canada had to reactboth to the terrorist attacks and to the U.S. reaction
to the attacks.11 This imperativefor Canadian decision-makers stems from what Canadians
sometimes call defenceagainst help.
In the contextof terrorism and homeland security, this implies that Canada must always
considerAmerican security imperatives while defending its sovereign right to develop its
ownpolicies against terrorism
By the end of 2002, relationswere already cooling with distance from the attacks and the
controversy over theIraq war, which Canada decided not to join
While the Canadian government most acutely felt the threat of terrorism after 9=11and other
attacks on Western interests, Canada also began to be perceived as asource of threat by its
southern neighbour. Immediately after the attacks, U.S. elitesturned to the question of securing

the countrys borders. While the border withMexico was already a cause for concern thanks to
illegal immigration, the longborder with Canada came into focus as a potential easy entry point
for terrorists.
U.S. policy has long made the assumption that Canadians posed a minimalsecurity threat
by virtue of being Canadian. The average Canadian today, however,is not necessarily the lowrisk individual pictured by U.S. heuristics. The U.S. isacutely aware of the widely varying
identities of those carrying a Canadian passport.According to the 2001 census, 18.4 percent of
Canadian residents are immigrants,and over 80 percent obtained Canadian citizenship.
Since Canadian policieson asylum, refugee rehabilitation, civil liberties, and multiculturalism are
viewed asmarkedly more liberal than those in the U.S., some perceived the physical proximityof
this difference on the North American continent as a threat
He declared that Canadian immigrants are threatening because theydemonstrate an
unsuccessful adoption of traditional Canadian values, or at least,a lack of assimilation ...
Post-9=11, U.S. security heuristics focused more intensely on ethnicity andreligion as markers of
danger. U.S. policy makers were soon confronted by themulti-ethnic nature of citizenshipa
possible disjuncture between citizenship andidentitysince citizens from Canada, Australasia,
and certain European countrieshad been previously assessed as low risk and exempted from the
visa requirementto enter the U.S. A growing population of radicalized Muslim youth in these
coun-tries led the U.S. government to become concerned about citizenship policies outsideits
In May 2007, there was speculation that the United States was consideringexcluding British
citizens of Pakistani descent from its Visa Waiver Program.3
Almost immediately after 9=11, the Canadian government acted proactively todesign a policy
which addressed Canadian and American security needs withoutthreatening Canadian identity in
the sense of its distinctiveness from the U.S.
Intensified the Canadian-American security relations
Canadians differentiated themselves from Americans in termsof valuesthe priority given to
human=individual rights over security being
U.S.-Canada Relations and Counter-terrorism Policy 163
highlighted as intrinsic to Canadian national identity. Citing multiculturalism inopposing the U.S.
was an effective shortcut in the national debate. They also pointedto Canadian sovereignty to
emphasize that the U.S. was not authorized to makedecisions affecting Canadian citizens.

Traditionally, Canadians and Americans have been ableto cross their common border with two
pieces of government-issued identification(such as a birth certificate and drivers licence), or
sometimes with only an oraldeclaration of their identity. These minimal requirements for proof
of identity at the border reflected the low risk that these allies considered each other to be, as
wellas the fact that crossing the border was a normal, everyday activity.
No fly listsssssss
US makes judgments about Canadians