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ACI Fall 2008 Convention

November 2- 6, St. Louis, MO


Practical Use of Finite Element Analysis
in the Design of Concrete Structures

The Design of Outer Concrete Containments of LNG-Tanks


for Operation and Hazard Scenarios
Josef Roetzer & Hamish Douglas
Dywidag International, Munich, Germany

Contents
1. Function and Layout of LNG-Tanks ...........

3-5

2. Normal and Emergency Load Cases .

6-9

3. Superposition of Single Load Cases ..

10

4. Modeling and Mesh Generation .

11 - 14

5. Linear Elastic and Non-linear Calculation .. 15 - 16


6. Typical Results ... 17 - 22
7. Checking and Verification of Numerical Results... 23 - 24
8. Summary . 25 27
9. References & Codes . 28 - 30

ACI Fall 2008 Convention, St. Louis


Practical Use of Finite Element Analysis in the Design of Concrete Structures
The Design of Outer Concrete Containments of LNG-Tanks

1. Function and Layout of LNG-Tanks

ACI Fall 2008 Convention, St. Louis


Practical Use of Finite Element Analysis in the Design of Concrete Structures
The Design of Outer Concrete Containments of LNG-Tanks

1. Function and Layout of LNG-Tanks

Trinidad Export Terminal


ACI Fall 2008 Convention, St. Louis
Practical Use of Finite Element Analysis in the Design of Concrete Structures
The Design of Outer Concrete Containments of LNG-Tanks

1. Function and Layout of LNG-Tanks


A Full Containment Tank consists of a
concrete outer tank and a steel inner tank.
The concrete tank consists of a bottom slab, a
prestressed wall shell and a reinforced
concrete roof.
The liquid gas is stored in the steel inner tank
made of cryogenic resistant 9%-nickel steel.
Between concrete outer and steel inner tank
an insulation layer of approximately one
meter thickness is placed.
The concrete outer tank protects the steel
inner tank against external hazards, such as
fire, impact, blast wave and earthquake and
the environment from possible internal
impacts such as liquid spill.
ACI Fall 2008 Convention, St. Louis
Practical Use of Finite Element Analysis in the Design of Concrete Structures
The Design of Outer Concrete Containments of LNG-Tanks

2. Normal and Emergency Load Cases


Operation and Test Load Cases:
 Dead load
 Product filling
 Prestressing including creep and shrinkage
 Internal pressure
 Ambient temperature
 Live load
 Wind
 Hydrotest and pneumatic test
 Operating Basis Earthquake OBE

ACI Fall 2008 Convention, St. Louis


Practical Use of Finite Element Analysis in the Design of Concrete Structures
The Design of Outer Concrete Containments of LNG-Tanks

2. Normal and Emergency Load Cases


Emergency Load Cases:
 Liquid spill inner tank
 Impact
 Blast wave
 Pressure relieve valve fire
 Adjacent tank fire
 Safe Shutdown Earthquake SSE
ACI Fall 2008 Convention, St. Louis
Practical Use of Finite Element Analysis in the Design of Concrete Structures
The Design of Outer Concrete Containments of LNG-Tanks

2. Normal and Emergency Load Cases


Examples:
Valve Fire:
Codes: Define only maximum allowable
radiation at concrete surface
Mechanical requirements
Layout of pressure relief valves
Civil & structural requirements
Calculation of isotherms in the concrete
roof section
Determination of temperature gradient and
temperature difference
Determination of material strength
reduction
ACI Fall 2008 Convention, St. Louis
Practical Use of Finite Element Analysis in the Design of Concrete Structures
The Design of Outer Concrete Containments of LNG-Tanks

2. Normal and Emergency Load Cases


Liquid Spill failure of the inner tank:
Hydrostatic pressure and temperature
acting on outer tank concrete wall
Calculation of isothermal curves in
discontinuity zones
Determination of temperature gradient
and temperature difference
 Temperature gradient T causes strains
greatly in excess of concrete tensile strength

ACI Fall 2008 Convention, St. Louis


Practical Use of Finite Element Analysis in the Design of Concrete Structures
The Design of Outer Concrete Containments of LNG-Tanks

3. Superposition of Single Load Cases

PL = permanent load, EL = emergency load, LL = live load

ACI Fall 2008 Convention, St. Louis


Practical Use of Finite Element Analysis in the Design of Concrete Structures
The Design of Outer Concrete Containments of LNG-Tanks

10

4. Modelling and Mesh Generation

11

Micro: Using separate elements for concrete, reinforcement and bond


Mesa: Using separate elements for concrete and reinforcement, simplified bond models
Macro: Using combined elements for reinforced concrete
ACI Fall 2008 Convention, St. Louis
Practical Use of Finite Element Analysis in the Design of Concrete Structures
The Design of Outer Concrete Containments of LNG-Tanks

12

4. Modelling and Mesh Generation

real structure

mechanical model

numerical model FEM


concrete outer tank
steel inner tank
roof steel platform

ACI Fall 2008 Convention, St. Louis


Practical Use of Finite Element Analysis in the Design of Concrete Structures
The Design of Outer Concrete Containments of LNG-Tanks

4. Modelling and Mesh Generation

13

The modeling of the spherical structure of the concrete outer tank is done with
layered shell elements. The structure is idealized only by its centre line.
The so-called 2-D model uses layered elements. A linear stress distribution
is assumed in each layer. The sum of the several layers represents the
thickness of the element.
Based on the Bernoulli-hypothesis of a linear strain distribution in the cross
section, this approach allows the use of non-linear constitutive equations for
calculation of stresses in each layer.
Internal forces are obtained by stress integration over the cross section.

ACI Fall 2008 Convention, St. Louis


Practical Use of Finite Element Analysis in the Design of Concrete Structures
The Design of Outer Concrete Containments of LNG-Tanks

4. Modelling and Mesh Generation

ACI Fall 2008 Convention, St. Louis


Practical Use of Finite Element Analysis in the Design of Concrete Structures
The Design of Outer Concrete Containments of LNG-Tanks

14

5. Linear Elastic and Non-linear Calculation

ACI Fall 2008 Convention, St. Louis


Practical Use of Finite Element Analysis in the Design of Concrete Structures
The Design of Outer Concrete Containments of LNG-Tanks

15

5. Linear Elastic and Non-linear Calculation

16

Nonlinear calculations investigate a superposition load case.


In a first step a linear elastic calculation is generated.
It is obviously that the tensile stress exceed the
concrete tensile strength.

In the nonlinear calculation


the concrete layers crack.

Thereby the stiffness is


reduced and the sectional
forces are redistributed.

The Eurocode allows for ULS the utilization of a


concrete tensile strength. Thereby a concrete
wedge in the interior element is generated.
ACI Fall 2008 Convention, St. Louis
Practical Use of Finite Element Analysis in the Design of Concrete Structures
The Design of Outer Concrete Containments of LNG-Tanks

17

6. Typical Results dead load


-1

-0.45

-1

-400 00.

0.00

-61

48

694

-1.29
-44

3
-26

-2 0000.

-200 00.

2.41

-42

0.16

0.

-10

-231

-769

-417

1575

2558

Y X
Z

-400 00.

-20 000.

-0.

200 00.

Sector of system Group 0...2 4...14 20...24


Bending moment m-nn in Nodes, Loadcase 10 total dead load, 1

mm

M 1 : 953

cm 3D = 8663. kNm/m (Min=-768.8) (Max=2558.)

Y X
Z

2000 0.

Sector of system
Nodal displacement in global X in Nodes
dead load, 1 cm 3D = 3.61 mm

40 000.

60000 .

mm

M 1 : 940
, Loadcase 10 total
(Min=-1.29) (Max=2.41)

-465

-466

-461

-3000 0.

2
-54

-45

-10 000.

-200 00.

-2
36

0.

0.39

-20000 .

-6000 0.

2.08
-0.23

0.
-2 0000.

-267

-267

-269

-270

-271

Y X

-40 000.

-0.

Sector of system Group 0...2 4...14 20...24


Normal forces n-nn in Nodes, Loadcase 10 total dead load, 1 cm
3D = 1804. kN/m (Min=-1205.) (Max=11.8)

0.

12

-600 00.

-1205

20000 .

mm

M 1 : 913

-10 000.

Y X
Z

0.

100 00.

20 000.

3000 0.

400 00.

50000 .

Sector of system
Deformed Structure from LC 10 total dead load Enlarged by 100.0

ACI Fall 2008 Convention, St. Louis


Practical Use of Finite Element Analysis in the Design of Concrete Structures
The Design of Outer Concrete Containments of LNG-Tanks

mm

M 1 : 773

18

6. Typical Results horizontal prestressing


0

-0.00

-4

3
68

73

-0.01

-4000 0.

-24
-4.46

-2000 0.

12

-200 00.

-4

-441

-14.10
0.

-65

-53

-125

592

Y X
Z

-0.57

-4 0000.

-20000 .

-0.

200 00.

Sector of system Group 0...2 4...14 20...24


Bending moment m-nn in Nodes, Loadcase 61 prestressing, t=0, 1

mm

M 1 : 988

cm 3D = 1303. kNm/m (Min=-441.2) (Max=675.7)

-20000 .

Y X
Z

0.

2000 0.

Sector of system
Nodal displacement in global X in Nodes

-0.59

512

676

-60 000.

4000 0.

6 0000 .

mm

M 1 : 917
, Loadcase 61

prestressing, t=0, 1 cm 3D = 12.8 mm

(Min=-14.1)

1
-40 000.

-22

-4
1

-3

27

-2000 0.

-30 000.

7
0.

66

-20000 .

-649

-651

Y X

-40 000.

-656

-660

-6000 0.

-100 00.

-20000 .

-3

-0.

Sector of system Group 0...2 4...14 20...24


Normal forces n-nn in Nodes, Loadcase 61 prestressing, t=0, 1
cm 3D = 832.1 kN/m (Min=-659.9) (Max=65.6)

20000 .

mm

M 1 : 1086

-100 00.

Y X
Z

0.

1 0000.

20 000.

300 00.

4000 0.

5000 0.

Sector of system
Deformed Structure from LC 61 prestressing, t=0 Enlarged by
100.0

ACI Fall 2008 Convention, St. Louis


Practical Use of Finite Element Analysis in the Design of Concrete Structures
The Design of Outer Concrete Containments of LNG-Tanks

6 0000 .

mm

M 1 : 812

19

0
0

0.00

-40000 .

0.00

0.00

6. Typical Results LNG filling

0.00

-200 00.

-2000 0.

-0.01

-3

0.15

72
-28

-2.64

-4000 0.

-20 000.

-0.

20000 .

Sector of system Group 0...2 4...14 20...24


Bending moment m-nn in Nodes, Loadcase 7 LNG-filling, 1 cm 3D

mm

M 1 : 918

= 6542. kNm/m (Min=-2261.) (Max=982.4)

-2 0000.

Y X
Z

0.

200 00.

Sector of system
Nodal displacement in global X in Nodes
LNG-filling, 1 cm 3D = 12.8 mm

0.38

400 00.

0.

-0.47

59

361

Y X
Z

982

398

-600 00.

0.

-2261

60 000.

mm

M 1 : 893
, Loadcase 7
(Min=-2.64) (Max=0.381)

0
-40000.

-2000 0.

-2000 0.

0.

0.

434

435

437

439

441
-19

-60 000.

Y X
Z

-400 00.

-20000 .

-0.

Sector of system Group 0...2 4...14 20...24


Normal forces n-nn in Nodes, Loadcase 7 LNG-filling, 1 cm 3D =
832.1 kN/m (Min=-19.3) (Max=440.7)

20 000.

mm

M 1 : 898

-2000 0.

Y X
Z

0.

2000 0.

40 000.

Sector of system
Deformed Structure from LC 7 LNG-filling Enlarged by 100.0

ACI Fall 2008 Convention, St. Louis


Practical Use of Finite Element Analysis in the Design of Concrete Structures
The Design of Outer Concrete Containments of LNG-Tanks

6000 0.

mm

M 1 : 872

20

6. Typical Results internal pressure


-0.00

0.35

-400 00.

0.61

-4 0000.

-1

2
20

-280

-0.95

28

-2000 0.

-0.13

0.58

-200 00.

-1

13

-476

0.03

-200 00.

-0.

200 00.

Sector of system Group 0...2 4...14 20...24


Bending moment m-nn in Nodes, Loadcase 91 max. operating

M 1 : 914

pressure, 1 cm 3D = 1303. kNm/m (Min=-476.0) (Max=149.4)

308

20 000.

40000 .

600 00.

Sector of system
Nodal displacement in global X in Nodes

, Loadcase 91 max.

operating pressure, 1 cm 3D = 1.74 mm

(Min=-0.953)

mm

M 1 : 1073

-2000 0.

-2 0000.

77

77

78

78

-4000 0.

78

-60 000.

Y X
Z

0.

-400 00.

4
151

156

-2 0000.

309

306

3 13

3 06
19
151

Y X

mm

-4 0000.

-400 00.

53

Y X
Z

149

54

-6000 0.

0.

0.

-0.20 0.07

-2 0000.

-0.

Sector of system Group 0...2 4...14 20...24


Normal forces n-nn in Nodes, Loadcase 91 max. operating
pressure, 1 cm 3D = 832.1 kN/m (Min=-3.42) (Max=313.1)

2000 0.

mm

M 1 : 994

0.

Y X
Z

2000 0.

40000 .

Sector of system
Deformed Structure from LC 91 max. operating pressure Enlarged
by 300.0

ACI Fall 2008 Convention, St. Louis


Practical Use of Finite Element Analysis in the Design of Concrete Structures
The Design of Outer Concrete Containments of LNG-Tanks

60 000.

mm

M 1 : 844

21

6. Typical Results operation temperature


-40000.

3.97

-9

-8
-12

9.49

-41

-3000 0.

9.32

-200 00.

-32

-20 000.

10.20
0.

-0.00

117

115

-20 000.

-0.

2 0000.

Sector of system Group 0...2 4...14 20...24


Bending moment m-nn in Nodes, Loadcase 202 temperature summer,

mm

M 1 : 880

1 cm 3D = 1303. kNm/m (Min=-1401.) (Max=770.1)

-10000 .

Y X
Z

-8.71

0.

100 00.

2 0000 .

Sector of system
Nodal displacement in global X in Nodes

30 000.

4000 0.

5 0000.

60 000.

mm

M 1 : 784
, Loadcase 202

temperature summer, 1 cm 3D = 22.5 mm

(Min=-8.90)

-6

-10000 .

-200 00.
-1 0000.

1393

1384
1385

-30000 .

1389

1312

267

Y X

-400 00.

1298

1173

-5 0000.

-20000.

-3000 0.

-5

-30 000.

-4

-4 0000.

-1

-4000 0.

111

162
-40000 .

-8.90

-55

-1130

Y X
Z

-1 0000.

-884

-1401
770

-6000 0.

9.26

-20 000.

-1000 0.

-0.

Sector of system Group 0...2 4...14 20...24


Normal forces n-nn in Nodes, Loadcase 202 temperature summer,
1 cm 3D = 832.1 kN/m (Min=-13.6) (Max=1393.)

10 000.

2000 0.

mm

M 1 : 799

-1000 0.

Y X
Z

0.

1 0000.

2 0000.

300 00.

4000 0.

50000 .

Sector of system
Deformed Structure from LC 202 temperature summer Enlarged by
100.0

ACI Fall 2008 Convention, St. Louis


Practical Use of Finite Element Analysis in the Design of Concrete Structures
The Design of Outer Concrete Containments of LNG-Tanks

6 0000.

mm

M 1 : 812

22

6. Typical Results superposition nonlinear


-27
3

-400 00.

-21

-8 3

0
-14

-97

-54

-8

-8

-2

-43

621

-3
97

-108

-319
-124

-0 .

0.
2 0000 .

Sector of system Group 0...2 4...14 20...24

mm

M 1 : 928

Bending moment m-nn in Nodes, Loadcase 4100 linear combination

-60000 .

Y X
Z

max M-nn, 1 cm 3D = 15000. kNm/m (Min=-640.2) (Max=3537.)

117

-2 0000.

-752

-1581
-40 000.

-200 00.

-0.

20 000.

Sector of system Group 0...2 4...14 20...24

mm

M 1 : 1048

Bending moment m-nn in Nodes, Loadcase 4200 linear


combination min M-nn, 1 cm 3D = 15000. kNm/m (Min=-2339.)

-23

-2 5

4
-1 2

-8 0

-93

-58

-4

-4

3
-41

586

-400 00.

-4 0000.

346

653

-91

3537

-2339

507

Y X

-308

-640

2349

0.

-525

-6 0000.

-2 0000.

-242

-2 0000.

-21

-3
49

-103

-286

-2 0000.

-296

-200 00.

-15

-366
-496

-64

-20 000.

-0.

Sector of system Group 0...2 4...14 20...24

mm

M 1 : 917

Bending moment m-nn in Nodes, nonlinear Loadcase 4101


non-linear combination max M-nn, 1 cm 3 D = 15000. kNm/m

-600 00.

Y X
Z

-4 0000 .

0.

0.
20 000.

-20 000.

-110

-94

-644

Y X

-40 000.

62

-1461

2596

-600 00.

152

-72

-323

-855

1478

-0.

Sector of system Group 0...2 4...14 20...24


Bending moment m-nn in Nodes, nonlinear Loa dcase 4201
non-linear combination min M-nn, 1 cm 3D = 15000. kNm/m

ACI Fall 2008 Convention, St. Louis


Practical Use of Finite Element Analysis in the Design of Concrete Structures
The Design of Outer Concrete Containments of LNG-Tanks

2 0000 .

mm

M 1 : 998

7. Checking and Verification of Results


The FEM-calculations provide correct results for the
uniform sections of roof, wall and bottom slab of the tank.
However this is not appropriate for zones of discontinuity.
In these discontinuity zones detailed investigations with
the help of strut-and-tie models are required.

ACI Fall 2008 Convention, St. Louis


Practical Use of Finite Element Analysis in the Design of Concrete Structures
The Design of Outer Concrete Containments of LNG-Tanks

23

7. Checking and Verification of Results


Liquid tightness of concrete sections liquid spill scenario:
The temperature gradient T generates
a restraint strain.
Increasing reinforcement quantity does
not influence the gradient of strain.
This is only achievable with a
modification of the normal force.
The effect of prestressing modification
on the states of strain and crack
generation can be demonstrated using
the approach presented in Ref. [3] .

ACI Fall 2008 Convention, St. Louis


Practical Use of Finite Element Analysis in the Design of Concrete Structures
The Design of Outer Concrete Containments of LNG-Tanks

24

8. Summary FE Method
The highly developed simplification of the input data, the handling of the
calculations, the representation of the results and the fact that the method
allows evaluation of the areas and even location of the reinforcement makes
the FEM a near perfect tool.
The implied accuracy of the results suggests to many users that this is an
exact calculation method, but obscures the fact that expert knowledge and
experience are required.
Controlling the idealization and results is an important element of the
calculation.
The frequently used displacement elements do not fulfill the most important
mechanical conditions, namely equilibrium, boundary and transition
conditions.

ACI Fall 2008 Convention, St. Louis


Practical Use of Finite Element Analysis in the Design of Concrete Structures
The Design of Outer Concrete Containments of LNG-Tanks

25

8. Summary Tank Design


The task of the civil engineer is not restricted to prepare a series of
sophisticated FEM calculations, but includes also the dimensioning
of the concrete tank.
The overall quality of the structure depends in our opinion - in addition to
the correct interpretation of the results of the FEM-calculation also to great
extent on the correct dimensioning of the concrete sections, the bottom slab
dimension, the sizing and arrangement of post-tensioning and the
arrangement and choice of diameters and layout of the reinforcement.
One calculation is no calculation. This means that a series of calculations
have to be performed because:
The large number of superpositioning possibilities requires the calculation
of the single load cases as a first step.
 In a second step these single load cases are superimposed. For these
elastic calculations the principle of superpositioning remains further valid.
ACI Fall 2008 Convention, St. Louis
Practical Use of Finite Element Analysis in the Design of Concrete Structures
The Design of Outer Concrete Containments of LNG-Tanks

26

8. Summary Tank Design


The required reinforcement will be determined for the governing
superpositioned sectional forces.
The reinforcement has to be adjusted considering buildability and site
requirements.
Based on that reinforcement and the post-tensioning the emergency load
cases are calculated as superposition load cases.
In cross sections of the tank where the specified requirements (such as
crack width, compressive zone, steel stress) are not fulfilled, reinforcement
or concrete cross section or post-tensioning has to be modified.
Only after a large number of calculations can the production of
reinforcement drawings be started, as for the calculations the entire
structural system has to be considered.
Not yet discussed in these simplified explanations are the far more
complex dynamic investigations of the combined outer and inner tank
system and the roof platforms.
ACI Fall 2008 Convention, St. Louis
Practical Use of Finite Element Analysis in the Design of Concrete Structures
The Design of Outer Concrete Containments of LNG-Tanks

27

28

9. References
[1] Kemmler, R.; Ramm, E.: Modellierung mit der Methode der Finiten
Elemente (Modeling with the Finite Element Method). BetonKalender 2001. Ernst & Sohn, Berlin. Page 143 208.
[2] Hofstetter, G.; Mang, H. A.: Computational Mechanics of Reinforced
Concrete Structures. Vieweg, Braunschweig, 1995.

[3] Roetzer, J.; Baumann, Th.: Outer concrete containments of LNG-Tanks Design against thermal shock. fib Symposium: Taylor Made Concrete
Structures, Amsterdam, 2008. Page 877 882.
[4] Roetzer, J.; Salvatore, D.: The Effect of a Valve Fire to the Dome structure
of a LNG-Tank. IABSE Symposium: Structures and Extreme Events,
Lisbon, 2006. Page 877 882.
[5] Roetzer, J.; Douglas, H.; Maurer, H.: Hazard and Safety Investigations for
LNG-Tanks. Part 1: Earthquake, Part 2: Blast Wave, Part 3: Liquid
Spill. LNG-Journal 2005 & 2006.
ACI Fall 2008 Convention, St. Louis
Practical Use of Finite Element Analysis in the Design of Concrete Structures
The Design of Outer Concrete Containments of LNG-Tanks