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Oxford Bibliographies Online - Roman Philosophy

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BY GRETCHEN REYDAMS-SCHILS

INTRODUCTION
In the ancient world, the term philosophy meant primarily Greek philosophy. Philosophy was invented and
developed in ancient Greece (including Athens, Ionia, and Sicily and Southern Italy), and arrived at Rome
relatively late, where it met some initial resistance. The story of Roman philosophy is of the gradual adoption
and adaptation of Greek philosophical doctrines by Roman authors. The following bibliography focuses on
Roman philosophy from the 1st century bce to the end of the 2nd century ce, the formative period before the
Latin tradition became infused with Christianity. The designation Roman philosophy does not include Greek
philosophy in the Roman era, not even those philosophers such as Panaetius and Posidonius who came in
relatively close contact with Roman culture. From this vantage point, it is a bit of a stretch to include Epictetus;
but his teacher, Musonius Rufus, belongs with the Roman tradition, and Epictetuss work is essential for a correct
understanding of Marcus Aurelius. Not all of the authors wrote or taught in Latin. Most of the Roman Stoics, in
fact, and including the emperor Marcus Aurelius, wrote or taught in Greek. Editions and translations have not
been included in the bibliographies for texts that are widely available and easily accessible. The exceptions have
been noted.

GENERAL OVERVIEWS
Morford 2002 gives the most compact general introduction (see also Maurach 2006). The two Philosophia

Togata volumes (Griffin and Barnes 19891997) contain seminal articles that have redefined research in AngloAmerican circles. Colish 1990 looks specifically at the tradition of Stoicism, Gersh 1986 at Platonism, and both
go beyond the time period of this bibliography. Gill 2006 and Long 2006 (a collection of previously published
essays by the author) illuminate the continuity between the Hellenistic and the Roman period. Grimal 1992 is a
foundational collection of essays on the creation of a philosophical vocabulary in the Latin tradition. Sorabji and
Sharples (see Republic) contains the papers of a conference on both Greek and Roman philosophy in this period.
Colish, M. 1990. The Stoic tradition from Antiquity to the early Middle Ages . Vol. 1, Stoicism in

classical Latin literature . Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.


This first volume of a two-volume work contains assessments of the presence of Stoicism in Cicero, the
satirists (Horace, Persius, and Juvenal), the epic poets (Virgil, Lucan, Statius, and Silius Italicus), historians,
Manilius, scholiasts, grammarians, the rhetorical tradition, Aulus Gellius, and Roman law.

Gersh, S. 1986. Middle Platonism and Neoplatonism: The Latin tradition . 2 vols. Notre Dame, IN:
Univ. of Notre Dame Press.

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The first volume assesses the Platonism in Cicero and Senecas works, as well as the so-called Middle
Platonist authors Aulus Gellius and Apuleius.

Gill, C. 2006. The structured self in Hellenistic and Roman thought . Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.
[DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198152682.001.0001]
A study of the notion of self in Epicureanism and Stoicism, positing psychophysical holism and
naturalism, combined with key Socratic tenets, against the background of Plato and the Platonist
tradition. Its final chapter deals also with Virgils Aeneid , Senecan tragedy, and Plutarchs Lives.

Griffin, M., and J. Barnes, eds. 19891997. Philosophia togata 2 vols. New York: Oxford Univ.
Press.
The first volume (1989) contains papers on Posidonius, Antiochus of Ascalon, Cicero, and the issue of
philosophical allegiance, as well as more historical and literary contributions. The second volume (1997)
contains papers on Andronicus of Rhodes as alleged editor of Aristotles works, Cicero, the anonymous
commentary on Platos Theaetetus, Varro, Plutarch, Favorinus, Porphyry, and Celsus.

Grimal, P., ed. 1992. La langue latine, langue de la philosophie . Rome: cole Franaise de Rome.
This collection of essays presents foundational work on how Latin was construed to express and transmit
philosophical notions, also in literature and works of rhetoric.

Long, A. A. 2006. From Epicurus to Epictetus: Studies in Hellenistic and Roman philosophy .
Oxford: Clarendon.
[DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279128.001.0001]
This collection contains papers on Lucretius, Cicero, Seneca, and Epictetus. For the latter, see also Long
2002 (cited under Epictetus).

Maurach, G. 2006. Geschichte der rmischen Philosophie . 3d ed. Darmstadt, Germany:


Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
This general introduction also covers the period before the 1st century ce, and includes Horace, Augustine,
and Boethius.

Morford, M. 2002. The Roman philosophers from the time of Cato the Censor to the death of

Marcus Aurelius . London and New York: Routledge.


Provides a good starting point for the study of Roman philosophy.

REPUBLIC

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The last century of the Roman Republic marked the first serious engagement of the Romans with Greek
philosophy. This topic is traced in the following works. Temporini 1973 is a research instrument, with articles
on specific topics as well as bibliographies. The same applies to the tradition of Platonism with the multivolume
work Der Platonismus in der Antike (Baltes and Drrie 19872008. Rawson 1985 provides the broader
intellectual background of this period. Sorabji and Sharples 2007 gives up-to-date research perspectives.
Baltes, M., and H. Drrie, eds. 1987. Der Platonismus in der Antike: Grundlagen, System,

Entwicklung . Stuttgart: Fromann-Holzboog.


This systematic and thematic approach to the Platonist tradition allows for a comparison between different
authors, Greek and Roman, on any given issue, and provides excellent bibliographies.

Rawson, E. 1985. Intellectual life in the late Roman Republic . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ.
Press.
This work provides an introduction to the sociocultural context of Roman philosophy in the 1st century
bce.

Sorabji, R., and R. W. Sharples, eds. 2007. Greek and Roman philosophy 100 BC200 AD . 2 vols.
London: Institute of Classical Studies.
The first volume has a chapter on Lucretius, the second volume material on Cicero.

Temporini, H. Philosophie und Wissenschaften, Knste . Aufstieg und Niedergang der rmischen
Welt 1.4. 1973. Berlin and New York: de Gruyter.
Though the volume is dated now, its articles still give an excellent overview, and the bibliographies are a
useful starting point.

Early Roman Encounters with Philosophy


The Romans first came into contact with Greek philosophy in the 4th to 2nd centuries bce. Garbarino 1973
provides a detailed overview of the first encounters with Greek philosophy and an excellent selection of the
relevant ancient texts. Gruen 1996 traces the changing attitudes of Romans toward Greek philosophy. Morford
2002 provides a concise and selective overview of early Roman contact with philosophy.
Garbarino, G. 1973. Roma e la filosofia greca dalle origini alla fine del II secolo A. C.: Raccolta

di testi con introduzione e commento . Historica Politica Philosophica. Turin, Italy: G.B. Paravia.
This work provides a selection of relevant texts with a detailed commentary.

Gruen, E. S. 1996. Philosophy, rhetoric, and Roman anxieties. In Studies in Greek culture and

Roman policy . By E. S. Gruen, 158192. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.


The article provides a sociocultural analysis of the encounter between Rome and Greek philosophy.

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Morford, M. 2002. The Roman philosophers from the time of Cato the Censor to the death of

Marcus Aurelius . London and New York: Routledge.


Presents a succinct overview of the early period embedded in a general introduction to Roman philosophy
(pp. 1433).

Lucretius
Erler 1994 provides a detailed and systematic analysis. Up-to-date overviews of aspects of Lucretiuss work and
bibliography are available in Hardie and Gillespie 2007 as well as Gale 2007. Algra, et al. 1997 and Sedley
1998 dwell on the connections between Lucretius and Epicurus, and other aspects of his intellectual
background. Gigandet 1998 and Gale 1994 treat Lucretiuss poetics and his use of myth. Schrijvers 1999, a
collection of previously published essays by the author, provides thematic treatments.
Algra, K. A., M. H. Koenen, and P. H. Schrijvers, eds. 1997. Lucretius and his intellectual

background . Amsterdam and New York: North Holland.


The first nine papers in this volume systematically explore the connections between Lucretius and specific
other authors and schools, whereas the other nine focus on the background of specific passages or motifs.

Erler, M. 1994. Lukrez. In Grundriss der Geschichte der Philosophie [1],4,1 Die Philosophie der

Antike; 4: Die hellenistische Philosophie; Halbbd. 1 . Edited by H. Flashar, et al., 381490. Basel,
Switzerland: Schwabe.
Presents a systematic overview of the main philosophical aspects of Lucretiuss work.

Gale, M. R. 1994. Myth and poetry in Lucretius . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.
This monograph focuses specifically on Lucretiuss poetics, his assessment, and his own use of myth.

Gale, M. R., ed. 2007. Oxford readings in Lucretius . Oxford and New York: Oxford Univ. Press.
This is a collection of seminal articles of the last sixty to seventy years, three of which have been translated
into English for the first time (among which is also the essay on analogy included in the collection
Schrijvers 1999).

Gigandet, A. 1998. Fama deum: Lucrce et les raisons du mythe . Paris: Vrin.
Analyzes Lucretiuss critique of traditional mythology as the vehicle for misguided views of the divine and
his reappropriation of this discourse.

Hardie, P., and S. Gillespie, eds. 2007. The Cambridge companion to Lucretius . Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge Univ. Press.
Standard handbook introduction, with up-to-date bibliography.

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Schrijvers, P. H. 1999. Lucrce et les sciences de la vie . Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.
This is a collection of previously published essays that focuses on theories of human development and
applied psychology, including the themes of sleep, dreams, and sensory illusions, as well as Lucretiuss
use of analogy.

Sedley, D. 1998. Lucretius and the transformation of Greek wisdom . Cambridge, UK, and New
York: Cambridge Univ. Press.
[DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511482380]
Defends the thesis that Epicuruss On Nature is the primary source of Lucretius, which the latter follows as
a fundamentalist follower of Epicurus, to the exclusion of other possible influences.

Cicero
The following entries focus on the philosophical works. Philippson 1939, McKendrik 1989, and Douglas 1964
provide introductions. Gawlick and Grler 1994 presents a systematic overview. Powell 1995 is a pivotal
collection of essays that have set the tone for recent renewed research into the philosophical aspects of Ciceros
oeuvre. Colish 1990, Gersh 1986, and Fortenbaugh and Steinmetz 1989, respectively, treat the Stoic, Platonist,
and Peripatetic strands in Ciceros philosophical works. See also the other works listed under General Overviews.
Colish, M. 1990. The Stoic tradition from Antiquity to the early Middle Ages . Vol. 1, Stoicism in

classical Latin literature . Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.


This treatment focuses on the strand of Stoicism in Ciceros works (pp. 61158).

Douglas, A. E. 1964. Cicero the philosopher. In Cicero . Edited by T. A. Dorey, 135170. London:
Routledge & K. Paul.
A succinct and very helpful overview.

Fortenbaugh, W. W., and P. Steinmetz. 1989. Ciceros knowledge of the Peripatos . New
Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
This treatment focuses on the Peripatetic strand in Ciceros works.

Gawlick, G., and Grler, W. 1994. Cicero. In Grundriss der Geschichte der Philosophie [1],4,2 Die

Philosophie der Antike; 4: Die hellenistische Philosophie; Halbbd. 2 . Edited by H. Flashar, et al.,
9911168. Basel, Switzerland: Schwabe.
A systematic overview of the key aspects of Ciceros philosophical writings.

Gersh, S. 1986. Middle Platonism and Neoplatonism: The Latin tradition . 2 vols. Notre Dame, IN:
Univ. of Notre Dame Press.
This treatment (in Volume 1, pp. 53154) focuses on the Platonist strand in Ciceros writings.

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McKendrick, P. 1989. The philosophical books of Cicero . London: Routledge.


Detailed introduction with outlines of individual works, as well as a chapter on the reception history and an
appendix on Cicero in America.

Philippson, R. 1939. M. Tullius Cicero: Die Philosophischen Schriften. In Paulys Realencyclopdie

der classischen Altertumswissenschaft 2,7,1 = 13. Halbband. Tributum bis M. Tullius Cicero.
Edited by August Friedrich von Pauly Georg Wissowa, and Wilhelm Kroll, 11041192. Stuttgart:
Druckenmller.
Overview of the philosophical works, with information on how a work fits into Ciceros overall corpus and
on his sources.

Powell, J. G. F., ed. 1995. Cicero the philosopher . Oxford: Clarendon.


This is a foundational collection of essays that provided fresh impetus for research in Anglo-American
scholarship; it contains analyses of the linguistic aspects, Ciceros rapport with the philosophical tradition,
his Academic affiliation, and specific works and themes.

Specific Aspects and Themes


Ciceros philosophical works were wide-ranging and have been studied from a wide variety of perspectives. De
Graff 1940 focuses on the presence of Plato in Ciceros work; Poncelet 1957 treats Ciceros rendering of Plato
and Platonic notions in Latin. Glucker 1988 and Lvy 1992 deal with how Cicero represented his own affiliation
with the Academy. Schmidt 1979 examines how Cicero positions himself vis--vis the Greek tradition in the
prefaces to his philosophical works. Michel 1960 and Connolly 2007 analyze the connections between rhetoric
and philosophy. Graver 2007 includes Ciceros handling of the Stoic theory of emotions.
Connolly, Joy. 2007. The state of speech: Rhetoric and political thought in ancient Rome .
Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.
This work places Ciceros views on rhetoric and performative ethics in a broader framework of political
thought, both from Antiquity and subsequent periods, including a contemporary perspective.

de Graff, T. 1940. Plato in Cicero. Classical Philology 35:143153.


[DOI: 10.1086/362352]
Provides a succinct overview of Ciceros citations of Plato.

Glucker, J. 1988. Ciceros philosophical affiliations. In The question of eclecticism . Edited by J.


Dillon and A. A. Long, 70101. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.
This is a foundational paper on Ciceros relation to the Academy.

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Graver, M. 2007. Stoicism and emotion . Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.


Also contains extensive treatments of Ciceros handling of the Stoic theory of emotions.

Lvy, C. 1992. Cicero Academicus: Recherches sur les Acadmiques et sur la philosophie

cicronienne . Rome: Ecole Franaise de Rome.


A thorough assessment of Ciceros Academic affiliation, with a focus on the Academica as well as a
detailed study of related strands of thought in Ciceros other philosophical works.

Michel, A. 1960. Rhtorique et philosophie chez Cicron: Essai sur les fondements

philosophiques de lart de persuader . Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.


An extensive analysis of the role of philosophy in Ciceros entire oeuvre, including his speeches.

Poncelet, R. 1957. Cicron, traducteur de Platon: Lexpression de la pense complexe en Latin

classique . Paris: De Boccard.


This is still a standard work on the linguistic aspects of Ciceros rendering of Plato and his coinage of a
philosophical language in Latin.

Schmidt, P. L. 1979. Ciceros place in Roman philosophy: A study of his prefaces. Classical

Journal 74:115127.
This paper provides a succinct overview of how Cicero positions himself as a Roman philosopher vis--vis
the Greek philosophical tradition in the prefaces to his works.

Studies of Individual Works


Some of Ciceros philosophical works have attracted more scholarly attention than others. Graver 2002 and
Gildenhard 2007 focus on the Tusculan Disputations, Inwood and Mansfeld 1997 presents a collection of essays
on the Academica, Lvy 2002 is an article on Ciceros translation of Platos Timaeus, and Sharples 1991
presents a treatment of the De Fato.
Gildenhard, I. 2007. Paideia romana: Ciceros Tusculan disputations . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge
Philological Society.
This work interprets the Tusculanae Disputationes as Ciceros protest against the collapse of the Roman
Republic by proposing a new pedagogy based on Greek philosophy, one of private virtue in the face of all
contingencies, including tyranny.

Graver, M. 2002. Cicero on the emotions: Tusculan disputations 3 and 4 . Chicago: Univ. of
Chicago Press.
This is an in-depth analysis of Ciceros treatment of the Stoic theory of emotions in his Tusculan

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Disputations.

Inwood, B., and J. Mansfeld, eds. 1997. Assent and argument: Studies in Ciceros Academic

books . Philosophia Antiqua 76. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.


A pivotal collection of essays on the epistemological issues raised by Ciceros Academica, his own
philosophical affiliations, and the history of the Academy.

Lvy, C. 2002. Cicero and the Timaeus . In Platos Timaeus as cultural icon . Edited by G.
Reydams-Schils, 95110. Notre Dame, IN: Univ. of Notre Dame Press.
This paper deals specifically with Ciceros translation of the Timaeus, its place among his philosophical
works, and the Stoic influence on his rendering of key terms.

Sharples, R. W. 1991. On fate (De fato), Cicero & The consolation of philosophy (Philosophiae

consolatio): 4.57, 5, Boethius . Warminster, UK: Aris & Phillips.


This commentary also provides a detailed introduction to the philosophical issues at stake in Ciceros
debate with the Stoics on fate, and provides a comparison with Boethiuss treatment of the same topic.

Commentaries
Madvig 1876 on the De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum , Reid 1885 on the Academica, and Pease 1955 on the De

Natura Deorum are still standard works. Dyck 1996 on De Officiis and Dyck 2004 on De Legibus are in-depth
scholarly commentaries. Dyck 2004 focuses on Book 1 of the De Natura Deorum and is a complement to Pease
1955. Powell 1988 on Cato Maior De Senectute and Wardle 2006 on Book 1 of De Divinatione are mid-length
commentaries. Zetzel 1995 presents both an edition of and a commentary on selections from De Re Publica.
Dyck, A. R. 1996. A commentary on Cicero , De officiis. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press.
A very thorough, detailed, and up-to-date commentary.

Dyck, A. R. 2004. A commentary on Cicero, De legibus . Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press.
A very thorough, detailed, and up-to-date commentary.

Madvig, J. N. M. 1876. Tullii Ciceronis De finibus bonorum et malorum libri quinque . 3d ed.
Copenhagen: Gyldendal.
Reprinted by Olms in 1963. Reprint forthcoming from Cambridge University Press. Foundational
commentary in Latin, with detailed notes also on the state of the text and philological remarks.

Pease, A. S. 1955. M. Tulli Ciceronis De natura deorum . Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.
This is still the standard commentary on the De Natura Deorum ; its main strength lies in its detailed

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references.

Powell, J. G. F. 1988. Cicero: Cato maior de senectute . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Standard, mid-length commentary.

Reid, J. S. 1885. M. Tulli Ciceronis Academica . London: Macmillan.


This is still the standard commentary on Academica.

Wardle, D. 2006. Cicero on divination: De divinatione, Book 1 . Oxford: Clarendon.


The introduction to this commentary also locates On Divination in the context of the practice in Republican
Rome, and includes Ciceros treatments of the same topic in his other works.

Zetzel, J. 1995. Cicero, De re publica : Selections . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Latin edition of and English commentary on Books 1, 2, and 6.

Nigidius Figulus (Pythagorean)


The Roman Nigidius Figulus provides a window into 1st-century bce Pythagoreanism. The fragments and
testimonia have been collected by Liuzzi 1983. Petit 1988 and the Paulys Realencyclopdie ( RE) entry, Kroll
1936, provide in-depth analysis.
Kroll, W. 1936. Nigidius Figulus. In Paulys Realencyclopdie der classischen

Altertumswissenschaft 1,17. 33. Halbband. Nereiden bis Numantia . Edited by August Friedrich
von Pauly Georg Wissowa, and Wilhelm Kroll, 200212. Stuttgart: Druckenmller.
Provides a good overview of the basic issues.

Liuzzi, D. 1983. Nigidio Figulo, astrologo e mago: Testimonianze e frammenti . Lecce, Italy:
Cella.
This is a collection of the fragments and testimonies.

Petit, A. 1988. Le Pythagorisme Rome la fin de la Rpublique et au dbut de lEmpire.

Annales Latini Montium Arvernorum 15:2332.


Situates Nigidius Figulus in the broader context of the Late Republic.

Varro
The grammarian Varro was a very prolific writer. The fragments of the works that are no longer extant are being
collected by Salvadore 1999; Cardauns 1976 has collected the fragments of the Antiquitates Rerum Divinarum
on religious practices. Lehmann 1997 provides insight into the religious and philosophical aspects of his work.

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Gersh 1986 focuses on the Platonist strand. Rawson 1985 locates Varro in his intellectual context. Cardauns
2001 provides a general introduction.
Cardauns, B. 1976. M. Terentius Varro, Antiquitates Rerum Divinarum . 2 vols. Wiesbaden,
Germany: Steiner.
The first volume is a collection of the fragments; the second volume provides a detailed commentary.

Cardauns, B. 2001. Marcus Terentius Varro: Einfhrung in sein Werk . Heidelberg, Germany:
Winter.
A succinct introduction, with extensive quotations of text, and attention to the reception history.

Gersh, S. 1986. Middle Platonism and Neoplatonism: The Latin tradition . 2 vols. Notre Dame, IN:
Univ. of Notre Dame Press.
This treatment (in Volume 1, 809840) focuses on the Platonist strand in Varros writings.

Lehmann, Y. 1997. Varron thologien et philosophe romain . Brussels: Latomus.


Provides insight into Varros views of religion (which also influenced Augustine).

Rawson, E.. 1985. Intellectual life in the late Roman Republic . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ.
Press.
Varro is a key figure throughout this exposition.

Salvadore, M. 1999. Fragmenta omnia quae extant . Hildesheim, Germany, and New York: Olms.
This is an ongoing project of the publication of the fragments.

IMPERIAL ERA
The Aufstieg und Niedergang der rmischen Welt ( ANRW) volumes are excellent research instruments, with
articles on specific topics as well as bibliographies. Donini 1982, and Sorabji and Sharples 2007 provide an
overview of the different philosophical schools in this period, and Trapp 2007 gives a more systematic overview
of key themes. Foucault 1988 and Foucault 2001 have brought this period to the attention of a broader
audience of scholars, social historians, and philosophers.

Aufstieg und Niedergang der rmischen Welt II.36.17. 19871994. Berlin and New York: de
Gruyter.
Still contains many useful articles that also provide overviews and bibliographies.

Donini, P. 1982. Le scuole, lanima, limpero: La filosofia antica da Antioco a Plotino . Turin,

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Italy: Rosenberg & Sellier.


This is a standard work on the different philosophical schools in this era.

Foucault, M. 1988. The history of sexuality . Vol. 3, The care of the self . Translated by R. Hurley.
New York: Vintage.
A very influential work on the therapeutic aspects of ethics of the period.

Foucault, M. 2001. Lhermneutique du sujet: Cours au Collge de France; 19811982 . Edited by


F. Gros. Paris: Gallimard/Le Seuil.
These lectures contain detailed textual analyses and complement the more general statements of the
previously listed work.

Sorabji, R., and W. Sharples, eds. 2007. Greek and Roman philosophy 100 BC200 AD . 2 vols.
London: Institute of Classical Studies.
Provides state-of-the art articles that also help to locate Roman philosophy vis--vis its Greek
counterparts.

Trapp, M. 2007. Philosophy in the Roman Empire: Ethics, politics and society . Ashgate, UK:
Aldershot.
This work gives a systematic overview of philosophical themes, not limited to Roman philosophy.

Sextius
Quintus Sextius (perhaps together with his son, who may have been Sextius Niger) forms an important link in
the Roman philosophical tradition about which we have only indirect evidence, mostly from Seneca. Lana 1992
gives an overview of the evidence, and Hadot 2007 a new interpretation of his views.
Hadot, I. 2007. Versuch einer doktrinalen Neueinordnung der Schule der Sextier. Rheinisches

Museum 150.2: 179210.


This is the most up-to-date assessment of Sextiuss views.

Lana, I. 1992. La scuola dei Sestii. In La langue latine, langue de la philosophie . Edited by P.
Grimal, 109124. Paris: de Boccard.
Gives an overview of the evidence, accompanied by an interpretation.

Stoicism
Of all the Greek philosophical schools, Stoicism was the most influential movement during the late republic and
early empire. Gill 2003 provides a general introduction. Brunt 1975 throws light on the historical context of the

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principate. Ramelli 2008 is an excellent research instrument with running commentaries and detailed
bibliographies for the minor figures (excluding Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius). Bnatoul 2009 gives a
general overview of Musonius, Rufus, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius.
Bnatoul, T. 2009. Les Stociens . Vol. 3, Musonius, pictte, Marc Aurle . Paris: Les Belles
Lettres.
A detailed assessment that also pays attention to the form of the writings, as well as the school dynamic (in
the case of Musonius Rufus and Epictetus).

Brunt, P. A. 1975. Stoicism and the principate. Proceedings of the British School at Rome
43:735.
A foundational article on the sociopolitical context of Stoicism in this era.

Gill, C. 2003. The school in the Roman imperial period. In The Cambridge companion to the

Stoics . Edited by B. Inwood, 3358. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.


[DOI: 10.1017/CCOL052177005X]
A succinct overview of the different strands of Stoicism.

Ramelli, I. 2008. Stoici romani minori . Milan: Bompiani.


The most thorough research instrument to date, with translations, detailed introductions, commentaries,
and extensive bibliographies. Includes Manilius, Musonius Rufus, Cornutus, Chaeremon, Persius, Thrasea
Paetus, Lucan, Juvenal, and Mara Bar Serapion. Also contains a summary of and references to the authors
own groundbreaking research in this field.

Specific Aspects and Themes


Barnes 1997 focuses on logic; Reydams-Schils 2005 on social ethics; Roskam 2005 on the notion of moral
progress; Sedley 2005 on metaphysics; Sellars 2009 on the role of philosophy; and Sorabji 2000 and Graver
2007 on the theory of the emotions and the passions.
Barnes, J. 1997. Logic and the imperial stoa . Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.
Against a widespread view, this work makes the case that logic was still of vital interest to Stoics of this
era. The analysis focuses on Epictetus.

Graver, M. 2007. Stoicism and emotion . Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.


Also includes extensive treatments of Senecas and Epictetuss views on emotion, and contains responses
to Sorabji 2000.

Reydams-Schils, G. 2005. The Roman Stoics: Self, responsibility, and affection . Chicago and

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London: Univ. of Chicago Press.


Focuses on social ethics, including an analysis of the notion of self this perspective presupposes. It treats
together political involvement with family ties, in parenthood and marriage, and emphasizes the role of
positive emotions.

Roskam, G. 2005. On the path to virtue: The Stoic doctrine of moral progress and its reception

in (middle-)Platonism . Leuven, Belgium: Leuven Univ. Press.


Analyzes the notion of moral progress in Stoic authors of this era in a broader context, which also includes
the original Stoic view; Aristos distinctive position; Panaetiuss, Hecatos, and Posidoniuss views; a
treatment of Philo of Alexandria; a detailed assessment of Plutarchs De Profectibus in Virtute; and
Alcinouss and Apuleiuss handbooks.

Sedley, D. N. 2005. Stoic metaphysics at Rome. In Metaphysics, soul, and ethics in ancient

thought . Edited by R. Salles, 117142. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.


This paper focuses on Senecas Letter 58, and its philosophical background.

Sellars, J. 2009. The art of living: The Stoics on the nature and function of philosophy . 2d ed.
London: Duckworth.
Examines the connection between philosophy and biography from the perspective of a notion of
philosophy that sees it as a combination of rational discourse ( logos) and training ( asksis). Starting with
the Socratic legacy of this notion, the work focuses on Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius.

Sorabji, R. 2000. Emotion and peace of mind: From Stoic agitation to Christian temptation .
Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.
Starting from the assumption that the Stoic approach to bad emotions can be fruitfully compared to the
contemporary notion of cognitive therapy, this work devotes considerable attention to Senecas point of
view, especially in his De Ira.

Manilius
Manilius is the author of a didactic poem, Astronomica, that shows the influence of Stoic physics. Volk 2009
provides the best introduction to Manilius.
Volk, K. 2009. Manilius and his intellectual background . Oxford and New York: Oxford Univ.
Press.
[DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199265220.001.0001]
State-of-the-art analyses and an extensive bibliography.

Cornutus

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Lucius Annaeus Cornutus worked on literature and philosophy, and taught the poets Persius and Lucan. Hays
1983 provides a translation of the one extant work, Compendium of Greek Theology, in English. Nock 1931 and
Most 1989 are authoritative assessments; whereas Boys-Stones 2001 treats Cornutuss role in the tradition of
allegory. Ramelli 2003 is the most detailed treatment to date, and Nesselrath 2009 provides state-of-the-art
analyses.
Boys-Stones, G. R. 2001. Post-Hellenistic philosophy: A study of its development from the Stoics

to Origen . Oxford and New York: Oxford Univ. Press.


This work focuses specifically on the allegorical tradition, with a close analysis of Cornutus, and on how the
authority of Plato came to be established in Platonism, and of Christian truth vis--vis non-Christian
systems of thought.

Hays, R. S. 1983. Lucius Annaeus Cornutus Epidrome (Introduction to the traditions of Greek
theology): Introduction, translation, and notes. PhD diss., Univ.of Texas.
This work provides a good starting point in English.

Most, G. 1989. Cornutus and Stoic allegoresis. In Aufstieg und Niedergang der rmischen Welt
II.36.3. Edited by Wolfgang Haase, 20142065. Berlin and New York: de Gruyter.
An authoritative analysis of Cornutus in the context of Stoic views of human language and their approach
to allegory.

Nesselrath, H.-G., ed. 2009. Cornutus, Die griechischen Gtter: Ein berblick ber Namen,

Bilder und Deutungen . Tbingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck.


Introduction and translation by Berdozzo, essays contributed by Boys-Stones, Zadorojnyi, Klauck, and
Ramelli.

Nock, A. D. 1931. Kornutos. In Paulys Realencyclopdie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft

Suppl. 5: AgamemnonStatilius . Edited by August Friedrich von Pauly Georg Wissowa, and
Wilhelm Kroll, 9951005. Stuttgart: Druckenmller.
An authoritative scholarly overview.

Ramelli, I. 2003. Anneo Cornuto, compendio di teologia greca . Milan: Bompiani.


Provides a text, a detailed introduction, translation, commentary, and extensive bibliography.

Seneca
Griffin 1976, Grimal 1991, Maurach 1996, and Veyne 2003 provide authoritative information about Senecas life
and works with close attention to his philosophical views. Lana and Malaspina 2005 offers a bibliography, and
Vottero 1998 collects the fragments of Senecas works, which can be difficult to track down.

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Griffin, M. 1976. Seneca: A philosopher in politics . Oxford: Clarendon.


An authoritative overview of the historical context of Senecas work.

Grimal, P. 1991. Snque ou la conscience de lempire . Paris: Fayard.


An authoritative overview of Senecas life and work.

Lana, I., and E. Malaspina. 2005. Bibliografia senecana del XX secolo . Bologna, Italy: Ptron
Editore.
This bibliography is an excellent work instrument for research on Seneca.

Maurach, G. 1996. Seneca, Leben und Werk . Darmstadt, Germany: Wissenschaftliche


Buchgesellschaft.
This work, in addition to a biography, also provides summaries of Senecas works.

Veyne, P. 2003. Seneca: The life of a Stoic . Translated by D. Sullivan. New York and London:
Routledge.
This assessment posits a fundamental gap between Senecas Stoic philosophical ideal and everyday
morality.

Vottero, D. 1998, Lucio Anneo Seneca: I frammenti, Universit degli Studi di Torino.

Pubblicazioni del Dipartimento di Filologia, Linguistica e Tradizione Classica 10 . Bologna, Italy:


Ptron Editore.
The works of Seneca are easily accessible, except for the fragments, which are collected and analyzed here.

Specific Aspects and Themes


Setaioli 1988 is the standard work on source analysis for the philosophical works. Gersh 1986 treats the
presence of Platonism in Seneca. Wildberger 2006 assesses Seneca against the background of Stoicism in
general (i.e., including the Hellenistic period). Fillion-Lahille 1984 focuses specifically on Senecas analysis of
the emotions, Hadot 1969 on psychagogy and the tradition of literary consolations, and Ker 2009 on the theme
of death. Edwards 1997 is a foundational article on the notion of self in Seneca. Inwood 2005 provides
translations and philosophical interpretations of key aspects of Senecas works.
Edwards, C. 1997. Self-scrutiny and self-transformation in Senecas Letters . Greece & Rome
44:2338.
[DOI: 10.1093/gr/44.1.23]
A foundational article pursuing a literary approach to the question of the self in Senecas Letters.

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Fillion-Lahille, J. 1984. Le De ira de Snque et la philosophie stocienne des passions . Paris:


Klincksieck.
Analyzes the extent to which Seneca has made concessions to Platonist psychology, via the influence of
Posidonius.

Gersh, S. 1986. Middle Platonism and Neoplatonism: The Latin tradition . 2 vols. Notre Dame, IN:
Univ. of Notre Dame Press.
Provides an overview (in Volume 1, pp. 155195) of Platonist borrowings and themes in Senecas
philosophical works.

Hadot, I. 1969. Seneca und die griechisch-rmische Tradition der Seelenleitung . Vol. 13,

Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte der Philosophie . Berlin: de Gruyter.


This work focuses specifically on the theme of psychagogy in Seneca, also by locating it in the
philosophical tradition.

Inwood, B. 2005. Reading Seneca: Stoic philosophy at Rome . Oxford: Clarendon.


An authoritative collection of essays, dealing with (1) Senecas philosophical milieu; (2) psychological
dualism; (3) the social dimension of the De Beneficiis; (4) rules and reasoning; (5) the will; (6) God and
human knowledge in the Naturales Quaestiones; (7) moral judgment; (8) natural law; (9) reason,
rationalization, and happiness; (10) getting to goodness; (11) freedom and autonomy; and (12)
self-assertion.

Ker, J. 2009. The deaths of Seneca . Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.


[DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195387032.001.0001]
Provides a comprehensive treatment both of the theme of death in Senecas writings and of the cultural
significance of the renderings of his own death scene in Antiquity, as well as its reception history.

Setaioli, A. 1988. Seneca e i Greci: Citazione e traduzione nelle opere filosofiche . Bologna, Italy:
Ptron Editore.
This is the most thorough analysis to date of Senecas use of his sources in his philosophical works.

Wildberger, J. 2006. Seneca und die Stoa: Der Platz des Menschen in der Welt . 2 vols.
Untersuchungen zur Antiken Literatur und Geschichte 84.12. Berlin and New York: de Gruyter.
This is the most detailed study to date of the connections between Senecas positions and the system of
Stoicism.

Commentaries
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Braund 2009 on the De Clementia, Hine 1984 on the second book of the Naturales Quaestiones, Kuen 1994 on
the De Vita Beata, and Lanzarone 2008 on the De Providentia are extensive commentaries, with attention to
cultural context and philological issues. Grimal 1953 on the De Constantia Sapientis and Williams 2003 on the

De Otio and the De Brevitate Vitae are mid-length commentaries, with good introductions. Inwood 2007 focuses
on philosophical issues in a selection of Senecas Letters.
Braund, S. 2009. Seneca: De clementia. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.
State-of-the-art commentary with an extensive introduction that also places this work in the context of
ancient views on kingship.

Grimal, P. 1953. Snque, De constantia sapientis . Paris: Les Belles Lettres.


Mid-length commentary.

Hine, H. M. 1984. Seneca: Naturales quaestiones, Liber 2 . Salem, NH: Ayer.


Based on the dissertation of the author, who also provided a Teubner edition of the Naturales Quaestiones
(1996).

Inwood, B. 2007. Seneca: Selected philosophical letters . Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.
A translation of and commentary on a selection of Senecas letters (58, 6566, 71, 76, 85, 87, 106, 113,
117124).

Kuen, G. 1994. Die Philosophie als dux vitae: Die Verknpfung von Gehalt, Intention und

Darstellungsweise im philosophischen Werk Senecas am Beispiel des Dialogs De vita beata


Einleitung, Wortkommentar und systematische Darstellung . Heidelberg, Germany: Winter.
Extensive commentary on the De Vita Beata, with much attention also devoted to its philological aspects.

Lanzarone, N. L. 2008. Annaei Senecae dialogorum liber I De providentia . Florence, Italy: Le


Monnier.
Extensive commentary, with a rich bibliography that also includes an overview of commentaries on other
works.

Williams, G. D. 2003. Seneca : De otio, De brevitate vitae. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Standard, mid-length commentary, with informative introduction.

Musonius Rufus
Musonius Rufus was Epictetuss teacher. His recorded work is not easily accessible. Texts (based on Hense
1905) and translations are given by Lutz 1947. Geytenbeek 1963 to date remains an authoritative overall
analysis now complemented by Ramelli 2008 See also Bnatoul 2009 under Stoicism

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Geytenbeek, A. C. van 1963. Musonius Rufus and Greek diatribe . Assen, The Netherlands: Van
Gorcum.
An in-depth assessment of how Musonius Rufuss views fit into the tradition.

Hense, O. C., ed. 1905. Musonius Rufus, Reliquiae, bibliotheca scriptorum Graecorum et

Romanorum . Leipzig: Teubner.


This is an edition with an introduction in Latin.

Lutz, C. 1947. Musonius Rufus: The Roman Socrates . New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.
Good basic introduction, Greek text, and translations.

Ramelli, I. 2008. Stoici Romani minori . Milan: Bompiani.


Provides a detailed introduction and bibliography, as well as a text, translation, and notes; also includes
the authors own previous research on this topic. See especially pp. 691944.

Epictetus
Bonhffer 1890, and Stevens and Bonhffer 1996 are still foundational. Dobbin 1998 provides a commentary
on the first book of the Discourses. Hijmans 1959 and Hadot 1993 give insights into key aspects, and Long
2002 is the most in-depth philosophical analysis to date. Kamtekar 1998 focuses on the theme of
shame/reverence, and Mason and Scaltsas 2007 presents a collection of essays. See also Bnatoul 2009 under
Stoicism.
Bonhffer, A. 1890. Epictet und die Stoa . Stuttgart: Enke.
Foundational detailed analysis.

Stephens, W., and A. Bonhffer. 1996. The ethics of the Stoic Epictetus: An English translation .
New York: Peter Lang.
Originally published as Die Ethik des Stoikers Epictet (Stuttgart: Enke, 1894). Companion volume to
Bonhffer 1890, with a focus on ethics.

Dobbin, R. F. 1998. Epictetus: Discourses, Book I: Translation, introduction, commentary .


Clarendon Later Ancient Philosophers. Oxford: Clarendon.
Detailed treatment of Book 1 of the Discourses.

Hadot, P. 1993. Une cl des Penses de Marc Aurle: Les trois topoi philosophiques selon
pictte. In Exercises spirituels et philosophie antique . By P. Haddot, 135172. Paris: tudes
Augustiniennes.

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An influential analysis of the three main exercises recommended by Epictetus, having to do with (1) assent,
(2) desire, and (3) impulse.

Hijmans, B. L. 1959. Askesis: Notes on Epictetus educational system . Assen, The Netherlands:
Van Gorcum.
Focuses on Epictetuss pedagogical approach.

Kamtekar, R. 1998. in Epictetus. Classical Philology 93:136160.


An influential treatment of this theme in Epictetus.

Long, A. A. 2002. Epictetus: A Stoic and Socratic guide to life . Oxford: Clarendon.
The most extensive philosophical analysis to date, with an emphasis on Socratess influence.

Mason, A., and T. Scalstas, eds. 2007. The philosophy of Epictetus . Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.
A wide-ranging collection of essays.

Marcus Aurelius
Rutherford 1989 and Hadot 1998 are the standard accounts, of which Hadot 1998 also brings out the
connections between Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius. Asmis 1989 examines Marcus Aureliuss specific brand of
Stoicism, Annas 2002 and Annas 2004 focus on ethics, and Giavatto 2008 on dialectic. See also Bnatoul 2009
under Stoicism.
Annas, J. 2002. My station and its duties: Ideals and the social embeddedness of virtue.

Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 102.2: 109123.


[DOI: 10.1111/1467-9264.00110]
Focuses on the social dimension of Marcus Aureliuss ethics.

Annas, J. 2004. Marcus Aurelius: Ethics and its background. Rhizai: A Journal for Ancient

Philosophy and Science 1.2:103119.


An analysis of Marcus Aureliuss ethics from the perspective of the relation between physics and ethics.

Asmis, E. 1989. The Stoicism of Marcus Aurelius. In Aufstieg und Niedergang der rmischen Welt
II.36.3. Edited by Wolfgang Haase, 22282252. Berlin and New York: de Gruyter.
An in-depth analysis of distinct features that are representative of Marcus Aureliuss philosophical outlook.

Giavatto, A. 2008. Interlocutore di se stesso: La dialettica di Marco Aurelio . Hildesheim,


Germany, and New York: Olms.

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An in-depth study of the role of logic and dialectic, as well as the structure of the arguments in Marcus
Aureliuss writings.

Hadot, P. 1998. The inner citadel: The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius . Translated by M. Chase.
Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard Univ. Press.
A foundational study that interprets Marcus Aurelius from the perspective of the pedagogical program of
Epictetus.

Rutherford, R. B. 1989. The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius: A study . Oxford: Clarendon.


An in-depth sociocultural study.

Platonism
The multivolume work Der Platonismus in der Antike (Baltes and Drrie 1987) is a good research instrument
for placing the Roman imperial tradition in its broader philosophical context. Whittaker 1987 focuses on key
figures and aspects.
Baltes, M., and H. Drrie, eds. 1987. Der Platonismus in der Antike: Grundlagen, System,

Entwicklung . Stuttgart: Fromann-Holzboog.


This systematic and thematic approach to the Platonist tradition allows for a comparison between different
authors, Greek and Roman, on any given issue, and provides excellent bibliographies.

Whittaker, J. 1987. Platonic philosophy in the early centuries of the Empire. In Aufstieg und

Niedergang der rmischen Welt II.36.1. Edited by Wolfgang Haase, 81123. Berlin and New York:
de Gruyter.
Contains sections on Alcinous, Albinus, Apuleius, the Aristotelian component of Middle Platonism, the
Stoic component, the Neopythagoreans, and the Gnostics.

Apuleius
Dillon 1977 provides a succinct overview and Gersh 1986 a more in-depth assessment of the philosophical
issues. Sandy 1997 and Harrison 2000 focus on Apuleiuss role in the movement of the Second Sophistic.
Mortley 1972 focuses on theology and de Filippo 1990 on psychology.
de Filippo, J. 1990. Curiositas and the Platonism of Apuleius Golden Ass . American Journal of

Philology 111:471492.
[DOI: 10.2307/295242]
Examines the importance of Platonic psychology for the Golden Ass.

Dillon, J. 1977. The middle Platonists 80 BC to AD 220 . Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

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Provides a succinct overview.

Gersh, S. 1986. Middle Platonism and Neoplatonism: The Latin tradition . 2 vols. Notre Dame, IN:
Univ. of Notre Dame Press.
Provides a detailed and in-depth analysis (in Volume 1, pp. 215328) of the main philosophical themes.

Harrison, S. J. 2000. Apuleius: A Latin Sophist . Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.


Provides many detailed analyses, and brings out also Apuleiuss debt to the Roman tradition.

Mortley, R. 1972. Apuleius and Platonic theology. American Journal of Philology 93:584590.
[DOI: 10.2307/294349]
Explores Apuleiuss treatment of the ineffability of the divine.

Sandy, G. N. 1997. The Greek world of Apuleius: Apuleius and the Second Sophistic . Mnemosyne
suppl. 174. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.
Takes the 2nd-century ce Greek cultural paradigm as its main vantage point.

LAST MODIFIED: 06/29/2011


DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780195389661-0042
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