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Integrated Coastal Planning of Jakarta Waterfront

(Assignment week 4)


: Pratama Rizqi Ariawan

Student ID

: 20012611419010


: Ir. Ari Siswanto, MCRP, PhD


: Integrated Aspect of River, Lowand, and Coastal Management


: Double Master Degree of Integrated River, Lowland, and Coastal

Development and Management Planning

Due Date

: 25 August 2014

Pratama Rizqi Ariawan Sriwijaya University

Background - Coastal Condition


capital city of Indonesia, has suffered by flooding for many years. Land

subsidence due to groundwater extraction is a major cause of the flooding problems. But
subsidence is not the only cause for Jakartas water problems. No fewer than thirteen
rivers that flow from the hinterland into Jakarta Bay have worsened inundated areas all
over Jakarta city, especially in its waterfront, the north Jakarta.
A recent study concluded that land
subsidence in Jakarta accelerated at
an alarming pace in the past four





measures were taken, the northern

part of the city could sink below sea
level in the next decade. It is
predicted that several areas in the
northern coastal region of Jakarta
will subside by 60 centimeter by
Figure 1 Land Subsidence in Jakarta in Period 1974-20101
Moreover, global sea levels have risen at a rate of about 1 to 2 millimeters per year on
average, and this rate is expected to increase to 5 millimeters per year by 2050. A study
by ITB showed that the sea level in the Jakarta northern coastal region rose at a rate of
5.7 millimeters per year.

Spatial Planning The Giant Seawall


coastal planning is the best solution to protect Jakarta from flooding for the

next hundreds years. Therefore, the Government of Jakarta city has proposed to build
giant seawall or polder, a low-lying tract of land enclosed by embankments (barriers)
known as dikes that forms an artificial hydrological entity, meaning it has no connection
with outside water other than through manually operated devices2.
Based on Presidential Decree number 54 year 2008 about Spatial Planning of Jakarta,
Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, Bekasi, Puncak, Cianjur, and also Medium Development Plan
2013-2017 by Local Legislative, it is mentioned that the government has approved the plan
to build the project.

Source: Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia, 9 Nov 2012

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Pratama Rizqi Ariawan Sriwijaya University

Figure 2 First Stage of The Giant Seawall Construction

It is expected that the flood protections can also be used for fresh water reservoirs,
wastewater treatment plants, extended port developments, luxury resorts, and also
railway and roadway connections within east sector (Bekasi) to west sector (Tangerang)
with approximately 30 kilometres long.
In planning this future project, the Government of Jakarta city has proposed three
different schemes to construct the giant seawall; however, only the best one will be
constructed which meets economic value and more functions, as can be seen as follows:
1. First scheme involves integrated seawall with reclamation of north Jakarta bay;
2. Second scheme involves integrated seawall forward to the deeper sea (-16 m);
3. Third scheme involves integrated seawall connecting the thousand islands.

Figure 3 Proposed Schemes of Integrated Giant Seawall

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Pratama Rizqi Ariawan Sriwijaya University

Figure 4 The New Perspective of The Capital City of Indonesia

Problems of Actual Conditions

Flooding has

always been a problem of Jakarta coastal bay. To reduce or to prevent the

flood, some flood protections have been built in the past, however, those protections
cannot be last longer. A number of dikes constructed by the city, including in Muara
Angke, Muara Karang, Pluit, Cilincing and Marunda, are no longer capable of holding back
the water. Jakarta needs to build bigger retention ponds to hold excessive water from
both the river and the sea. However, there is no available area to build the ponds in the
increasingly expensive land, so taking further the waterfront is the only option. However,
in constructing the project, there may be some other problems related to the finance, and

Some Critics Related to Spatial Planning


mega project seems to be an ideal solution to solve flood problems in Jakarta and

subsequently gives other benefits in improving spatial planning as well. However, there
are some other questions related to the construction of this project, as follows:

Investment cost is always being the biggest problem in every development. To build an
approximately 30 kilometers long and more than 16 meters deep of giant dikes will cost
more than 200 trillion rupiah. Although the government of Jakarta city has the fund, but
cost sharing with or fully granted by private sectors will be a better option.
Operating, repairing and maintenance cost can be the other challenges, to maintain the
water level in low-lying areas there is no other option other than using pump. Instead of
using electric pump, wind powered pump can be used to reduce the cost.
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Pratama Rizqi Ariawan Sriwijaya University

To build this mega project, undeniably will take long time. It is predicted that the
construction will be finish in about 10 years. Not to mention for the development of fully









management plants, roadway connections, railway tracks, deep seaports, luxury resorts or
even luxury yacht harbors will take couple of years.

The giant seawall is designed to be a fully enclosed to make it easier to control the water.
This however will reduce quality of water and will lead to marine ecosystem degradation.

Alternative Solution
Instead of building the giant seawall for either preventing or reducing the flood, it may be
better to conserve the upland areas so that the runoff water can be minimized, dredging
the silts and elevating the river embankment to maximize the capacity, using the river
easement wisely, cleaning the river of rubbish to prevent clogging of the waterways, and
building the dikes alongside the coastline may be cheaper, faster and last longer rather
than constructing this ambitious project.

Flooding has laways been a problem of Jakarta city, moreover mixing of 13 rivers and high
tide of sea water level have worsened the flood. Recent development of Jakarta coastal
defence cannot be last any longer. Integrated coastal planning of Jakarta waterfront is
one of the sustainable way and also give other uses in spatial planing. However, the cost
of the project, the time to construct and the impact to the environment have made this
project even harder to be realized.

1. Eko Priliawito, et al. 2011. Contoh Belanda, DKI Bangun Tanggul Raksasa. Accessed on 20 July
2. Erna.





Dipercepat. Accessed on 20 July 2014.

3. The










2025. Accessed on 20 July 2014.

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