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Advances in Dry Cooling

Deployed at South African


Power Stations

Steve Lennon
Divisional Executive
Eskom
2011 Summer Seminar
August 1, 2011

Eskoms Move to Dry-Cooling


Eskom historically utilized wet-cooled power stations
In 1966 it was decided to extend Grootvlei Power Station
3 factors had to be considered:
Growing demand for electrical power
Opportunity to exploit coal fields
Obligation to optimize the utilization of water

Eskom strategy:
Add generation capacity without increase in water
consumption
Gain experience in dry-cooling

2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Eskoms Pioneer: Grootvlei PS


Grootvlei Unit 5 and 6 added dry-cooled

Unit 5: Indirect system with spray condenser and dry cooling tower
Unit 6: Indirect system with surface condenser and dry cooling tower

Largest dry-cooling units


in the world at the time
2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Matimba Power Station (6 x 665 MW)


Design: Known turbine characteristics,
energy output was maximized over given
ambient temperature range
Average back pressure: 18.6 kPa
LP turbine protection: 65 kPa
Average steam velocity 80 m/s at 18.6 kPa
Station orientated with prevailing wind
direction towards boiler
2 x 5 m exhaust ducts
ACC details per unit
48 fans, 10 m diameter
8 streets with 6 fans per street
Street length 70.8 m
12 MW auxiliary power consumption
Total platform footprint 35 700 m2
2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Matimba Power Station Finned-Tubes


Oval tube and
rectangular fin design
2.5 and 4mm fin pitch in
2-row staggered
bundles
Carbon steel tubes with
carbon steel punched
fins, then hot dip
galvanized

2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Kendal Power Station (6 x 686 MW)


Surface condenser with SS tubes
Circulating water flow: 16.8 m3/s
Galvanised heat exchanger tubes
11 sectors which can be individually
isolated
Total of 1 980 km of finned tube/tower
Horizontal, radial arrangement
Tower dimensions
Diameter at tower base 144 m
Total height 165 m
Thermal design
Known turbine characteristics, energy
output was maximized over given
ambient temperature range
3.4 MW auxiliary power consumption/unit
2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Majuba Power Station (3 x 657 MW)


Average back pressure: 16.6 kPa

LP turbine protection: 70 kP
Station orientated with prevailing
wind direction towards boiler

2 x 5.5 m exhaust ducts


ACC details per unit
48 fans, 10 m diameter
8 streets with 6 fans per street
45 m air inlet opening
8.2 MW auxiliary power consumption
Total platform footprint 20995 m2
Finned-tube design similar to Matimba
2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Eskom Specific Water Consumption


Trend
Coal-fired power stations
2010 specific water consumption value = 1.38 l/kWh generated
12000

2.5

10000
2

8000
1.5

Specific water consumption, l/kWh

l/kWh

MW

Total installed dry cooled capacity


6000

4000

0.5

2000

0
1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

Year
2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

1995

2000

2005

2010

Design Efficiency of Eskom Power


Stations
42%
40%
38%
36%
34%
32%
30%

Dry Cooled

2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Wet Cooled

10

Dry and Wet Cooled

Specific Water Consumption at


Power Stations
2500

litres/MWh

2000

1500

1000

500

Dry Cooled

2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Wet Cooled

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Dry and Wet Cooled

Cost of Dry vs. Wet Cooling


Cooling system choice to be based on life cycle costing
including capital, O&M, plant output and cost of water
Relative costs for wet and dry indirect cooling systems in
1996:
Capital cost of dry system was approximately 170% of
wet system cost (surface condenser)
More than 1% reduction in average unit output for dry
system
Footprint of dry natural draft cooling towers is typically
300% of that of a wet cooling tower of comparable size

Challenge for retrofitting dry cooling systems is capital


costs
2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

12

Medupi Power Station (6 x 794 MW)

Average back pressure: 14.1 kPa (at 9m/s wind)


LP turbine protection: 75 kPa (a)
Average steam velocity approximately 78 m/s at 14.1 kPa (a)
Station orientated with prevailing wind direction towards boiler
2 x 6.2 m exhaust ducts
ACC details per unit
64 fans, 11m diameter
8 streets with 8 fans per street
Street length 108 m
Approximately 52 m air inlet
opening
12.4 MW auxiliary power
consumption
Total platform footprint 72252 m2
2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

13

Medupi Progress Boiler 6 and Boiler 5

2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

14

Medupi Air-Cooled Condensers


Under Construction

2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

15

Kusile Power Station (6 x 800 MW)

Average back pressure 11.55 kPa (at 9 m/s wind)


LP turbine protection: 75 kPa
Average steam velocity approximately 83 m/s at 11.55 kPa
Station orientated with prevailing wind direction towards boiler
2 x 6 m exhaust ducts
ACC details per unit
64 fans, 11 m diameter
8 streets with 8 fans per street
Street length 100.1 m
Approximately 58 m air inlet
opening
12.4 MW auxiliary power
consumption
Total platform footprint 66052 m2
2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

16

Operational Experience: Majuba Unit 1


Trip During Unsteady Wind Period
Boiler
3

Boiler
2

Boiler
1

Majuba Unit 1 vacuum trip


13 November 2004

Turbine
Air Cooled Condenser
100

Wind
direction
during trip

250

90
200

70
60

150
Generator Output, %

50

ACC Pressure, kPa (abs)

40

Steam temperature, C

30

Air Inlet Temperature, C

20

Amp

Temperature, Pressure, %

80

100

Fan motor current, Amp

50

10
0
2004/11/13
14:49

0
2004/11/13
14:57

2004/11/13
15:04

2004/11/13
15:11

2004/11/13
15:18
Time

2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

17

2004/11/13
15:25

2004/11/13
15:33

2004/11/13
15:40

Future Role of Dry Cooling


Key technology in South Africas climate change impact
adaptation strategy
All future coal plants will be dry cooled
Application to other technologies being evaluated
especially solar thermal

2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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TogetherShaping the Future of Electricity

Thank You

2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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