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# LIBRARY OF CONGRESS.

## CliapXJ.l&.^^opy right No.

Shelf..:.a33
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

FORMULAS
IN

GEARING
I'

33
WITH PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS.

Ui,

>?n1'^''
PROVIDENCE,

R.

I.

1896.

"x

CO.,

## In the Office of the Librarian of Congress at "Washington.

Registered at Stationers' Hall, London, Eng.

.v1

Ofo

-3f Ss"?

PREFACE
It is

much

which

in the

## as possible the solution of all problems in gearing

may

ordinary practice

gearing.

The

expression,

it

has,

whenever

available,

being

the symbolical

been resorted

no

difficulty to

to.

The

will present

## the elements of Trigonometry.

'
.

CONTENTS,
FORMULAS

GEARING.

IN

CHAPTER

I.

Page

Systems of Gearing

CHAPTER

## Spur Gearing Formulas

of Gear Teeth

Table

of

n.

Tooth Parts

Comparative Sizes
4.

CHAPTER

HI.

## Formulas Bevel Gears, Axes at

any Angle Formulas Undercut in Bevel Gears Diameter Increment Tables for Angles of Edge and Angles of Face Tables of

Natural Lines

11

CHAPTER

IV.

## and Worm Wheel, Formulas Undercut

Table for gashing' Worm Wheels

Worm

CHAPTER

in

Worm Wheels

## Screw Gearing Axes Parallel Axes at Right Angles

any Angle General Formulas Table of Prime Numbers and Factors

Spiral or

Axes

at

CHAPTER
Internal Gearing

CHAPTER

6^

for Bevel

VIII.

Gear Cutters

CHAPTER

CHAPTER
of

Cutting

a Multiple Screw

69

X.

CHAPTER

66

IX.

Gearing

cy

VII.

CHAPTER

The Gearing

39

VI.

Gear Patterns

The Indexing

34

V.

72

XI.

## Simple Gearing Compound

76

FORMULAS

IN GEARING.

Ch:afte;r

I.

SYSTEMS OF GEARING.
(Figs.

There are

in

common

I,

2.)

viz.:

the

## system the-outlines of the working parts

may be traced by a point
flexible, inextensible cord being unwound from a circular
the circumference of which is called the base circle^ the
being concentric with the pitch circle of the gear.

In

the involute

of a
in a

disk
disk

Fl(j, 1.

## In Fig. I the two base circles are represented as tangent to

P P. This line (P P) is variously called " the line of
pressure," " the line of contact," or '' the line of action."
the line

BROWN

## is drawn so as to make with a normal

(O O') 14%, or with the center line 75}^.
The rack of this system has teeth with straight sides, the two
sides of a tooth making, together, an angle of 29 (twice

14)^).

## This applies to gears having 30 teeth or more. For gears

having less than 30 teeth special rules are followed, which are
explained in our " Practical Treatise on Gearing."

Fig, 2,

## In epicycloidal^ or double-curve teeth, the formation of the

curve changes at the pitch circle. The outline of the faces of
epicycloidal teeth may be traced by a point in a circle rolling
on the outside of pitch circle of a gear, and the flanks by a point
in a circle rolling on the inside of the pitch circle.
The faces
of one gear must be traced by the same circle that traces the
flanks of the

engaging gear.

## In our practice the diameter of the rolling or describing

circle is equal to the radius of a 15-tooth gear of the pitch

required
circle

this

is

all

The

on

is,

An

line.

## that in action gears having involute teeth

may be

separated a
little from their normal positions without interfering with the
angular velocity, which is not possible in any other kind of
tooth.

The

obliquity of action

is

mated.
The
gears

may be

of this has

II.

BROWN

## & SHARPE MFG. CO.

CHAPTKR

II.

SPUR GEARING.
(Figs. 3, 4.)

Two spur gears in action are comparable to two corresponding plain rollers whose surfaces are in contact, these surfaces
representing the pitch circles of the gears.

Pitch of Gears.

For convenience
stated as follows
Circular pitch

may be

is

Diametral pitch
pitch diameter.

is

the

That

is,

number

## of teeth in a gear per inch of

a gear that has, say, six teeth for each
six diameiial pitch, or, as the expres-

inch

in

pitch diameter

sion

is

universally abbreviated,

far

is

## the most convenient

way

it

of

This is by
six pitch."
expressing the relation of

is "

## diameter to number of teeth.

Chordal pitch is a term but little employed. It is the distance from center to center of two adjacent teeth measured in
a straight

line.

PROVIDENCE,

R.

I.

FORMULAS.

N = number of teeth.
t = thickness of tooth

on pitch

line.

D"

= working

depth of tooth.

## D" + / = whole depth

of tocch.

d= pitch diameter.
d' = outside diameter.
P' = circular pitch.
P^ = chord pitch.
P = diametral pitch,
C = center distance.

p_ N
p

z= -ZL

p'

=5

P'

f=^ = .3x83P'
__d ^
N
N

-f

lO
s

D"
P^
P'

= 2S
^sin

i8o

= dTt

d
360

d'

= d -h

.^

NP'

2 s

where

sin

= P"
d

## BROWN & SHARPE MFG.

CO.

GEAR WHEELS.
CIRCULAR PITCH IN FIRST COLUMN.

or

of

inch

on

h
r

Line.

per
Linear.

11

Thickness

Tooth

Pitch
Teeth

Space

of
Line.

End.

of

OH

below

Pitch

Width

at

Depth

p'

1^

1.6755

If

1.7952

If

1.9333

li

2.0944

.7500 .4775

h\

2.1855

.7187 .4576

.9151 .5294

t\ 2.2848

.6875 .4377

.8754 .5064

lA

ii 2.3936

.6562 .4178

.8356 .4834

.6250 .3979

.7958 .4604

D"

s+f

P'x.31 P'x.335

li

2.5133

ItV

2.6456

.5937 .3780

.7560 .4374

14

2.7925

.5625 .3581

.7162 .4143

.7724 .3488

lA

2.9568

.5312 .3382

.6764 .3913

3.1416

.5000 .3183

.6366 .3683

lA

3.3510

.4687 .2984

.5968 .3453

3.5904

.4375 .2785

.5570 .3223

1^

3.8666

.4062 .2586

.5173 .2993

1*

4.1888

.3750 .2387

.4775 .2762

lA

4.5696

.3437 .2189

.4377 .2532

li

4.7124

.3333 .2122

.4244 .2455

3769

PROVIDENCE,

R.

## TABLE OF TOOTH TARTS. Continued.

CIRCULAR PITCH IN FIRST COLUMN.

of

inch

a
55

on
Line.

per

-k
id

Diametral

Linear.

of

of

Depth

Top.

Line.
Tooth.

of

Tooth.

at

End.

beloAV

Pitch.

Thickness

Pitch

1"

Width

Width

Tooth
Pitch

<

Teeth

p'

Space

Depth

or

Working

of

Whole

of

at

Depth

11
P

^
t

^^/

1}

5.0265

5.5851

6.2832

iV

2*

7.1808

2i

7.8540

2|

8.3776

9.4248

iV

10.0531

3}

10.9956

12.5664

4i

14.1372

15.7080

GJ

16.7552

J,

18.8496

21.9911

25.1327

28.2743

10

31.4159

IG

50.2655

A
i

.2

i
2
y

I'o
1

BROWN

## & SHARPE MFG. CO.

GEAR WHEELS.
TABLE OF TOOTH PAKTS

Space

on

Depth
Line.

Line.

Tooth.
Diametral
Thickness

Pitch.

II

Tooth

of
below

Pitch

Pitch

of

Whole

of

Depth

P'

D"

s+f.

D"+/.

6.2832

3.1416

2.0000

4.0000

2.3142

4.3142

4.1888

2.0944

1.3333

2.6666

1.5428

2.8761

3.1416

1.5708

1.0000

2.0000

1.1571

2.1571

li

2.5133

1.2566

.8000

1.6000

.9257

1.7257

li

2.0944

1.0472

.6666

1.3333

.7714

1.4381

If

1.7952

.8976

.5714

1.1429

.6612

1.2326

1.5708

.7854

.5000

1.0000

.5785

1.0785

2i

1.3963

.6981

.4444

.8888

.5143

.9587

2i

1.2566

.6283

.4000

.8000

.4628

.8628

2J

1.1424

.5712

.3636

.7273

.4208

.7844

1.0472

.5236

.3333

.6666

.3857

.7190

3i

.8976

.4488

.2857

.5714

.3306

.6163

.7854

.3927

.2500

.5000

.2893

.5393

.6283

.3142

.2000

.4000

.2314

.4314

.5236

.2618

.1666

.3333

.1928

.3595

.4488

.2244

.1429

.2857

.1653

.3081

.3927

.1963

.1250

.2500

.1446

.2696

.3491

.1745

.1111

.2222

.1286

.2397

10

.3142

.1571

.1000

.2000

.1157

.2157

11

.2856

.1428

.0909

.1818

.1052

.1961

12

.2618

.1309

.0833

.1666

.0964

.1798

13

.2417

.1208

.0769

.1538

.0890

.1659

14

.2244

.1122

.0714

.1429

.0826

.1541

PROVIDENCE,

R.

I.

## TABLE OF TOOTH TA'RTS Continued.

DIAMETRAL PITCH IN FIRST COLUMN.

Space

Deptli

on
Line.

Line.
Tooth.

II

below

Tooth

5^

p.

P'.

15

of

Thickness

Pitch

IS

Working

.2094

t.

Pitch

of

of

Depth

s.

D"-^/.

D".

.1047

.0666

.1333

.0771

.0625

.1250

.0723

.1348

.1438

16

.1963

.0982

17

.1848

.0924

.0588

.1176

.0681

.1269

18

.1745

.0873

.0555

.1111

.0643

.1198

19

.0609

.1135

.1653

.0827

.0526

.1053

20

.1571

.0785

.0500

.1000

.0579

.1079

22

.1428

.0714

.0455

.0909

.0526

.0980

.0417

.0833

.0482

.0898
.0829

.0770

24

.1309

.0654

26

.1208

.0604

.0385

.0769

.0445

28

.1122

.0561

.0357

.0714

.0413

30

.1047

.0524

.0333

.0666

.0386

.0719

32

.0982

.0491

.0312

.0625

.0362

.0674

34

.0924

.0462

.0294

.0588

.0340

.0634

36

.0873

.0436

.0278

.0555

.0321

.0599

38

.0827

.0413

.0263

.0526

.0304

.0568

40

.0785

.0393

.0250

.0500

.0289

.0539

42

.0748

.0374

.0238

.0476

.0275

.0514

44

.0714

.0357

.0227

.0455

.0263

.0490

46

.0683

.0341

.0217

.0435

.0252

.0469

48

.0654

.0327

.0208

.0417

.0241

.0449

50

.0628

.0314

.0200

.0400

.0231

.0431

56

.0561

.0280

.0178

.0357

.0207

.0385

60

.0524

.0262

.0166

.0333

.0193

.0360

lO

BROWN

## & SHARPE MFG. CO.

of
Involute.

Comparative Sizes

8 p
Fiij* 4,

Gear Teeth.

PROVIDENCE,

CHAPTER

R.

I.

III.

(Fig. 5.)

I I

BROWN

12

FORMULAS.

## ^ I Number of teeth ^^^r*

=
pinion
P = diametral pitch.
P' = circular pitch.
a^ =
center angle = angle of edge j
5^

N5

a^j

=z

or pitch angle

= angle of top.
= angle of bottom.
^ = I angle of face \

gear.
pinion.

/3

/?'

gb=
j"'~

^^^^'

pmion.

K ^. .'
&
= cutting& angle
pmion.
=
apex
distance
from
pitch circle.
A
A' = apex distance from large bottom
d = pitch diameter.
^' = outside diameter.
/ = thickness of tooth at pitch line.
/ = clearance at bottom of tooth.
D" = working depth of tooth.
/lb

!-

## D" + /= whole depth

of tooth.

= diameter increment.
= distance from top of tooth
F = Vi^idth of face.

of tooth.

/^

PROVIDENCE,

N-
=

tan a

2 sin a

tan

t^^fy

cxj

z?

4.

or

tan

i"

tan //

[See Note,

ff

+ Td ^^-3^4sina

^'^no^(^

= a

13

I.

N,

tan

R.

= /
A

'

pages 2.)

'^'A'^'^m
N

A=

A'=

sin

_^

A'

COS p'

i^

A=

N
=
P

a =^

=N

or

2 s

cos

ais.na

F= i +
P

-\-

(Seepage

a for pinion

P'=

= 1 z=z^=
+/=

....
=a

P'

i'^f'-g^a.>-

= -

i^

P
^

+/= A

P'
.3183
^

3685 P'

=f
=

20.)

for pinion
for gear

Atan/?
^

TT

tan

/5'

^-

## or=: 2P' to3P'

Note. Formulas
apply equally to either
letters are

/:^'

Tt

P'

j-

cos

/^)

A sin a

sin

p=
V
a

cos

sin {a

and b
one or the other, the respective

g:(ar or pinion.

simply attached.

If

wanted

for

BROWN

vt

bHAKPE MFG.

CO.

Fifi. a.

PROVIDENCE,

R.

1.

15

FORMULAS.

## = angle formed by axes of gears.

~ ! number of teeth ^.
N5 =
pinion.
P = diametral pitch,
C

'

t^t"

-]

P'

circular" pitch.

## Z f angle of edge = pitch

fd = angle of top.
= angle of bottom.
"

angle

^9^^-j

fi'

I
]

/'
/lb

~
=

>-

angle of face
^
cutting: ansfle

A apex

&

&

^?^}''
-I

<
(

pinio
^.
pinic
ion.
.

## = apex distance from large bottom of tooth.

= pitch diameter.
d' = outside diameter.
2a = diameter increment.
d = distance from top of tooth to plane of pitch
A'

Note.
cases.

## The formulas for tooth parts as given on page

circle.

5 apply equally to

thee

BROWN

l6

tan

a^

sin

or cot a^

= NftA_^ + cot ^
C

or cot a^

1^^-hcosC

= ^^

tan a^

^'"^

^
;

+
,

2:

cos

^'^^^

.,

S^

"^^
^^
Nft^ 3in

+
^
C

less

cot

than 90.

tan

p=

sm
-a
N
2

ga=9o" h =a p

or ^tan

K+

JD

/?

_
A

g^=

/?)

90

('5

i-N

A'

P sin or
A

cos/5'
^/

N
"

a =^

or

NF

d' =zd

2 s

cos a
a for gear
a for pinion

Note.

-\-

7t

13.

z=z

b for pinion.
b for gear.

/?)

If

PROVIDENCE,

R.

I.

17

BROWN

l8

## The formulas given for a^^ and a^ (when C, N^ and N^ are

known) undergo some modifications for values of C greater
than

90.

## For bevel gears at any angle but 90 we may distinguish

four cases C, N^, N^ being given.
;

/.

Case.

//. Case.

tan

-C)

sin (180

16.

is

^^^
tan

o'j,

^\r^

(Xa

90

=C

^'^

-C

"-cos(i8o-C;

^-cos(i8o-C)
-'

N,
///. Case.

(iZo

90

IV. Case.
tan

(Xa

sin

^
tan

COS

_"

-''

to

Case

sin

cos

III.,

To

sin

(C

- 90) = N,

or case IV.,
Is

N.

## For an example to apply

must be fulfilled

tion

a^,

N " sin

we
(C
^

are guided

00)

\
(

l<^i"ger

than

Nft,

we have case IV.

II.

PROVIDENCE,

UNDERCUT
By undercut

R.

I9

I.

BEVEL GEARS.

IN

## is understood a special formation of

explained by saying that the elements
of the tooth below the pitch line are nearer the center line of
the tooth than those on the pitch line. Such a tooth outline is
In a pair of bevel
to be found only in gears with few teeth.

in

gears

may be

## is low-numbered and the ratio high, we

undercut.
have
For a pair of running gears this
are apt to
condition presents no objection. Should, however, these gears
be intended as patterns to cast from, they would be found useless, from the fact that tliey would not draw out of the sand.
We have stated on page 2 (see Fig. i) that the base of our
involute system is the 14^ pressure angle. If a pair of bevel
gears with teeth constructed on this basis have undercut, we
can nearly eliminate the undercut and for the practical work-

## gears where the pinion

quite sufficient by taking as a basis for the construction of the tooth outline a pressure angle of 20.

ing this

is

## The question now

have undercut

is

When do

Let there be

N = number
n

= number

we, and

when do we

not

of teeth in gear.
of teeth in pinion.

nV^ N' +

^'

N
where we have undercut for/
It

less

than

30.

## This formula is strictly correct for epicycloidal gears only.

is, however, used as a safe and efficient approximation for

## the involute system.

BROWN

20

&

SHARPE MFG.

CO.

DIAMETER INCREMENT.
Rule.

GEARS.

RATTH

1 00

1:1

Large

Small

1.41

1.41
42
1.43
1.44
1.46
1.46
1.47
1.49
1.50
1.51
1.52
1.53
1.53
1.54
1.55
1.56
1.57
1.58
1.59
1.60
1.61
1.61
1.62
1.63
1.65
1.66
1.67
1.67
1.68
1.68

1.05
1.37
1.07
1.36
1.10
1.35
1.11 10:9 1.34
1.12
1.33
1.18
9:8 1.33
1.14
8:7 1.32
1.15
1.31
1.16
1.30
1.17
7:6 1.30
1.18
1.29
1.19
1.28
1.20
6:5 1.28
1.23
1.27
1 25
5:4 1.25
1.27
1.25
1.29
9:7 1.24
1.30
1.22
1.33
4:3 1.20
1.35
1.18
1 37
1.17
1.40
7:5 1.16
1.43 10:7 1.15
1.45
1.13
1.50
3:2 1.11
1.53
1.10
1.55
1.09
1.58
1.08
1.60
8:5 1.07

Note.

GEARS.

GEARS.
RATIO.

RATJ'^

1.65
1.67
5:3
1.70'
1.75
7:4
1.80
9:5
1.85
1.90
1.95
2.00
2:1
2.10
2.20
2.25
9:4
2.30
2.33
7:3
2.40
2.50
5:2
2.60
2.67
8:3
2.70
2.80
2.90
3.00
3:1
3.20
3.33
3.40
3.50
7:2
3.60
3.80
4.00
4:1
4.20

Large

Small

1.05
1.03
1.01

1.70
1.72
1.73
1.74
1.75
1.76
1 77
1.78
1.79
1.80
1.81
1.82
1.83
1.84
1.85
1.86
1.86
1.87
1.87
1.88
1.89
1.91
1.92
1.92
1 92
1.93
1.93
1.94
1.94
1.94

.99
.97
.95
.93
.91
.89
.87
.84
.82
.80
.78
.76
.75
.73
.71
.69
.67
.65
.63
.60
.58
.56
.54
.52
.50
.49

.47

4.40
4.50
9:2
4.60
4.80
5.00
5:1
5.20
5.40
5.60
5.80
6.00
6:1
6.20
6.40
6.60
6.80
7.00
7:1
7.20
7.40
7.60
7.80
8.00
8:1
8.20
8.40
8.60
8.80
9.00
9:1
9.20
9.40
9.60
9.80
10.00 10:1

Large

SmalJ

.45
.44
.42
.41
.39
.38
.37
.36
.34
.33
.32
.31
.30
.29
.28
.27
.27
.26
.26
.25
.24
.24
.23
.23
.22
.22
.21
.21
.20
.20

1.94
1.95
1 95

1.96
1.96
1.96
1.96
1.97
1.97
1.97
1.97
1.97
1 97
1.98
1.98
1.98
1 98
1.98
1.98
1.98
1.98
1.98
1.98
1.98
1.99
1.99
1.99
2.00
2.00
2.00

PROVIDENCE,

R.

21

I.

## TABLES FOR ANGLES OF EDGE AND ANGLES

OF FACE.
The following four

computed

for

the

right angle.
at

They

do not hold

good

To

number of

teeth in gear

and pinion

must be known.

on the

num-

left-hand side,

by

## we follow the two columns

to the square

formed

their intersections.

same square
The tables are

in the

is

so arranged that

BROWN

22

## & SHARPE MFG. CO.

TABLE

Angle of Edge.
GEAR.

41

40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32

7341 73*18 72*54 72*26 72*2 7I-3V 71*5' 70*34 70* r 69*26

12

13

17V

17*32

71*7

i6;i9

14

16

69V
eoV
68V

18

19

70W

2e*3i'

69V

65*e

68'

67V
ezV

69*5

esv

4's3

64V

64*M. 64*2

63

26*84' 27*11

e2*
274i

63'W

60*W
29'

30
57V

## 3V*M 32*4^ 334.'

56*46 55*51- S4'5

58*8

57V

## 56*43 55*53' 55*'o- 54*5'

53*7 52*8

28V

28*56 29*3s' SO*.s' 30*58' 31*42 32*26 33*17 34*7' 35*0' 35*5S 36*53

60*34

59^*

59*.5'

57*48'

## 30*n 31*6 32*12

27*56 28*3<J 29*12 29*5^ 30*42 81*30 32*er S3*<4 34*9' 35*8'

58*34

57*5.'

57V

37a-

## 56*19 55*29 54*38- 53*45 52*49' 51*50- 50'43'

29*% 30*4
31*26 32*3'
22
53*26
60V 60*6
4^34
57m'
55)5 55%'
36*34 37*29
39*24 40*86
31*82
23 e9'
53*7
57*44
5447
50>3 43*24 48*2^
36*2
24
3745
3957 40*36 41*36
32}6'
48*.4
5720
58V
Si"?
ssV 54*28
37*9'
34*3
40*46
41*46 44*48
25 3lV
38*S'
56*
46*5
5737'
53*24 5296 5.*4^ 5054 50*,- 49*5 48*7
39*6
43*55
35*6
40*55 41*53
26
36*M 37Vv
46'2
S4V 53*53
51^3 50V
ssW
4-5*
41*3 42*0
27 33* 34* r
35*M 36*7
55*0 S4*
52*8 5'>
494r
46>6 46*0 45*
37*7' 37*52 38*40
42*5 43 2 44*0
28
46V 45^ 45*
54W
43*6- 44*2'
41*19
29 35*6
39*39
37*er 38-S
47*43
45-56
49*24
45*
43*9 44*430
37*34 38*8 38*t 39*46 40*36
32*si 33*41- 34*31' 35*22' 36*15' 37*11' 38*10 39*1 r

30*4S

54*'

56*41'

## 32*3s 33*13' 34*s' 34*53 35*42

57''e'

56*9' 55*33

38*2S

52*15 51*20

53*58

38*40-

36*53
30*er ao's* 31*37
32*se' 33*41' 34*27 35*13
58*0'
53*40' 52*51' 52*g56*40 55*57

SI

62y

1<^

2543;

63*26'

6S'4

28*13 28*43

24;S4;-

30V

65*13' 64*43'

23*2

61*47

'4.

23)8

## 20>s 21*30 22*7' 22*45 23*86 24*9;

67*i? 67'o' 66*23 65*42 64* 64*H'

23*33 24*6' 844.' 25*17' 25*54 26*34 27*is 27*59 28*45 29*32

## 64-0- 63*26 62*5.- 62*14 61*37

620

30 29 28 27

^7*.o 66*37 6e'2' 65*26' 64*48 64*8' 63*26 62*42 61*56' 61*7 60*15 59'er
22*50 23*23' 23*58 24*34: 25*12 25*58 26*34 27*' 28*4 28*53 29*45

27*7"

31

## 23*0' 23*87 24*.6;

25*4 26*34 27*84
J9*I7' I3%s eo*M.' 2044 21*5 2(*4 22*23
68*2^ 68'se 68*28 67's6 67*n 66*48 66-12 65*33' 64y 64',o' 63*26' 62^9 61 '4 60*5^
20*34
21*32 22*4 22*37 2312 23*48 24*27 25*7- 25*50 26*34- 27*21
29*

234e 24*M

20 26*0
21

70*9'

21*3 81*48

67

17

71

l5

16*42'

39*48-

47*7'

56*S8

32*23'

56*38

S5*i8-

39*59

38*14

35*sd

4e*ra

## 49"5. 48"57 48''o' 47*3'

42*57 43*56
36*53 37*39' 38*27 33*17 40*9'

53*7- 52^21

34*42

50*32

53*37 52*53

SS4*;

47*12

50*12 49*K.

38*0'

48*46' 47''55

## 53*22 S2'^3S 51*55 51*9' 50*21 49*32' 48-4.' 47*49

sa'si'
35*S7 36*38S3*4i 53*7- 52*26 5.*42' 50*56 50*ie
36*' 36*53

31

37V

50*2

48*.6'

40*28

42*11

48*3S

46*5.

41*25 42*17

42*21 43*3

## 52*2' 51*20 50*38 49*54 49*9 48*22 47*34 46*44 45*53

44*7'
40*6
32 37*
50*2^
47*2
45'
40*4
33
41*44
43-.0 44*9
50*20 49*3
45^0
45*
40* 41*5'
34
48*^ 46*s 47*
45*48
45'
41*55 42*39 43*25
35
4547
48 48^0
45*
42*0
44*
36
45!U
4S*
37
38*40 39*22

51*10

45*

45*

49''46

38*50 39*31

44*6

46''4.' 45*5.

48*16

40*58

42*21

39*40
43*3.

46*35

40*29 41*18

44*tt

47''a 46*33

41*17

42*43 43*27

4^10 46'2

3a

39

43*31 44*17

4542 45'

40 44*,B
41

4^4S

## 42*S9 43*3e 44*15

46*2. 45*43

45-

45-

45'

iW

PROVIDENCE,

R.

23

I.

TABLE \ (Continued)
Angle of Edge.
GEAR.

26 25 24 23 22 21 2U 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12
65-.. 64'2Z 63*ZG 62*27 6i'e3 60*15 59-2 57*44

12

13

14

15

37m

56V

16 31

56V

32*57' 33**

5lV

33*ir 34*13

35l^

.8

36*28 37*42'

5.V

5043

49
33*0- 40
49W 48'

34%e

5246
37*rt'

4lV 43*16

48*n' 46*38

4143 43*22
46*33

42*0 43*27

4-S*

38k

52'es

sro-

53-5,

19

18

## 39*28 4ri2' 43'e'

28*iB 29*15 30*15 31 '20 32*28 33*41' 35"o 36*2i
60*.- 59S8"o
50"i2 48i5' 46*51
5543 54-28 53*7'

## 58*21 57'e3 5fc*l9 55*11' 53-sB 52*42' 51

17

56 '19

26a4 2733 28*37 29*45 30*58 32*16 33*4i' 35*13 36*53 38*40 40*36 42*43
47*7
63*26 62*31 61 '33 eoSr 59'2S 5e*4 56-58 55'37 54*10 52*36 50*54 49'
45*
26V 27*29 2827 2^*29 30*35 31*46 33*2 34*23 35*50 37*24 ^9*6 4055 42*53'
6l'4E 604S 594S 5840 57*32 56*19 55*0 53*37 52*6 50*32 48*48' 46 58
452538

20

21

38'56' 40*2'
41

^v

45-

45-

42'm; 4340

11 40*14
43V1;
48*3 47W 4a
^s'
23
43%7
45'
24 42*43
46*725
26 4.5'

4-5

4I2(' 42*31'

42*37'

46*10

43*50'

4.5*

43's3

tan a

N.

tan.,=

N,

45*

45*

45'

45*

BROWN

24

## & SHARPE MFG. CO.

TABLE

2.

Angle of Edge.
GEAR.
1

72 71 70 69 68 67 B6 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 SB 57
12

9'tT

13

86*8

80'M

eo

9V

9*44 9*52

79V

79*2 79*20

10*23

I0*3l"

79*S6 79*6t 79*42 79*32 73;ri 79*.3 79*3 78*52 78>,- 78*36 78*19 78*7
loV 10*9 10*18 ioae 10*37 10*47 10*57 iie 11*19 11*36 1*4.' 11*53
1

79*..'

79;.

14

11*9

11*26

77V

12*6'

12*16

15

11*56

II*

76*43

12V
7^K

17 13V I3W
75^58

754S

.'

11*59

11*29

IE*i6

12*37 12*48

76*10 75*58

75V

r3*o'

13*K>'

I4*ti 14*27

14m' 14*62

14 t

15*2

15*15 15*29

15*43

73V 73V

73*28

19

7S^
4%7

74-

74'.6

20

4'59

I4*2S

15*1

I437 14*50

I5*W IS

57

16*10

16*23

16*4;;

77*58

77V 77V

11*51

12*2

76V

77*22 77*9

76*11'

13*2.'

75*59 75*4^

13'3i 13*48

7^36

7i*,5

75V

7S*3i

75* 75%'

74V 74V

74-,9

18

14 KV

7^9

76*2.'

11

77-26 77-S

16

M*3i 11*49

11*19

16*51

15*6

15*20 15*35

15*49

16*4 16*20 16 36

## 74*3 73*49 73*33 73*.8 73*2 7245 72*29

I5*5i 16*..'

73V

16 18 16*32 16*47

72V

72*39

72V

17*6

17*21

17*37

16*27

## 72*5S 72*42 72*20 72*9 71*52 7l'3

17*2' 17*18 17*34
I75l'

72*7

71*5.'

17'53 18*9'

71V

18*8

18*26

## 18*26 18*44 19* r

19*20

69V

21

73-45 73*32 73*.8 73*4 72*50 72*36 72*2. 72V' 71*^50 71-34 71*17 71*0' 7043 70*24 70*616*42 16*56 17*10 17*14 17*39 17*5f l8*.o 18*26 18*43 l9*o' 19*17 19*36 19*54 20*24

73-

22
23

72t,7

72-

72*,,'

70V

68*

## 17*4.' 17*56 18*11 18*26

I7''l3' 17*27
!e*42 I8*5R .9*15 19*3i 19*50 20*8 20*27 20*47 21*6
72*^' 723 71*40 71*34 7I'' 7J*3 70*47 70*30 70*.i 69*57'
68*42 68*22 68*2
69>9 69-20
21*18 21*38 21*58
7%3 17 \$7 18*11' 18*26 18*41' 18*5^ i9*a I9*3i 19*46 20*3 20*21 20*4<i

16*59

69V

20V

68V

71-3. 71* 7l*s' 7<f43' 70*34 70*17 70*.' 69*4i 69*26 69*9
68*.i 67*52 67*3.' 67-,o
16* tt I84t' 18*55' 19*..' 19*26 19*43 19*59 20*16 20*34 20*51 21*10 21*29 21*48 22*8 22*29 22*50

24
25
70*9
o 26

70*5' 69;49' 69*32 69"\5 68*57- 68*40 68*2.- 68*3- 67*43 67*23 67*2' 66*4.' 66*19
9*24 19*39 19*55 20ii' 20*2 20*45 21*3'
21*39 21*57 22*17 22*37 22*58 23*19 23*41

J9*9'

ziV

67V

## 68*46 68-30 68*12

67V 67;.5 66*55 66*34 66*13 65*si
t3*5l 20*7 20* 20*39 2056 21*12 21*30 21*4* 22*6 22*26 22*45 23*5 23*26 23*47 24*9

5?;

6SV

## 68>4 68*38 66*2^ 68*3 67*45

7V

67*8

66V

21*40 21*57
22*3i 22*52 23*12
27 20*SJ 20*50 2I*6
67'.9 67*,'
66*22 66*
67*55
68%i b8'
28 21*
2(*4e 22*5 22*a
22 23*18 23*38 23*5i
21*22'

15

21*31

68V

67^47

22*15

67*37-

6S-12

66*42

2;

22*41

67*12

66V

66*36 66*.7

6^57

Og'37 65*,6

65V

65V
24*31'

65*2 64*39

## 23*32 23*si 24*14 24*35 24*58 25*.'

6S*4i 6tf2i 4*59 64*37 64* w 63-S6

## 64V 64V 64V 63V

6^26 63*2

26*3* 26*58
29 2l'56 22*13 22*^ 22*48 23*6 23*24 23*43 24*3 a4-a 24*4^ 25*5 25*26 25*4i
63*26 63-3*
62*14
64*32
66*30 6^,i 6^52 65* 6S*h;
6r6
26*34
27*4
23*90 2348 24*8 24*27 24*46 25*7 25*28 25*50
30 22*37 22*54
26*.o'

64*.o' 63*4,-

62*3,'

26*11'

26*57' 27*21

23*12

31

66V

66'2S

66V

## 63'2 63V 62*40 62*.ri 6IV 6i:28

65*46 65*2^ 65*10 64*S 64*30 64*9
23*8 23*3i 23*si 24*12 24*3. 24*s 25*10 2S''30 25*5. 26*; 26*3i 26*57 27*20 Zf\i 28*7 28*3*

32 23'h
6523 65V
33
644J
34 Z5*.7 2535

63V

66V

25V

W*8 61^V

63-2. 63-^

w;4^

35

64*.'

6326

62*45

62V

62V

63*26

61*45

6)V

61*7' 6(^4.

28>8
60>7
29*3

28-53

28*ti

## 62*.' 61*38 61*15

60V

60>8

29*

60-2,'

59*56

29*39

30V

60*28 60*3

59V

58V
3lV

59*.r
28*45 29*8 29*32 29*57 30*23 30*49

60V

29*3 39*27

60*.5

59*27 59*2

62*27

6rn

28V

27*4,'

27* 28*4

61*,'

62*,9 61*56

63*2fc

62V

## 64*45 64*2i 64*7' 63*47 63*26

62*43
24*37 24*56 25*.S 2S*S^ 25*53 26*13 26*34 26*55 27*17

59*51'

58V

58*27
31*39

58*10 57*43

6<<
27*33 27 54 28*45 28*37 28*59 29 2i 294i 30*9'
30*58 31*23 31*50 32*17
36 26'>i 2653
62-2S 62^8 6l*4i 6*27 6*b' 6OV
S9*si 59V 59*10 58*4; 58V 57*54 67*2 57*
28*33 28*55 29*16 29*3i 30*2 302i 30*50 3I*|A 31*46 32*6 32*31 32*5
37 27-.2 27 27*52
6l9' eo*4a 60*2i 60*^
56'4 5^
S8V 58*^6
57V
28*,'
29*1
32*47 33*14 ,3V
38 2749
29 S4 29*56 30*.9 30*4i 31*6 31*30 31*55
61*33 61*13
60*31 60*10 59*48 59-25 59V' 58V 58*^ 57*56
56*58 56*3i 5^6 55*,7
29*7 29*29 29*50 S0* 30*35 30*58 31*21 31*4^ 32>6 32*36 33*2
39 2B*27
33'9 34*23
27*13

30*33

60*t,'

28*12'

&l*5.' fel*3<i

57*.3'

58*S'

2e*s<^ 28*5.'

32*2l'

60*53

57*2^

28*47'

41

## 59*32 59*10 5tf47 58* 58*0- 57*35 S7*.6 56*44

55*52 55*24 54*5760's7 60^56 60^5
29*4.- 2945' 30*7 30*28 30*50 31*13 31*3i 32*0'
32*2fi 32*50 33*16 33*4..' 34*8 34*35 35*3
60*26 60-0- 59*3, 59:.7; 58*55 58*3i 58*9
56;6' 55*39 55*.i 54*V 54*6
57*z.- 56*57
29*40 30*0' 30*21 30 43 31*5 31*28 31*51 32*5 32*39 33*3 33*?* 33*54 34*2 34*48 35*16 35*44

4^

S9-4i 59*
30.S 30*3^

56V

40 z4i

57V

59V 58V
30*57 3l*ao

58^,8 57*SS

57V

57*8 56*43

56V

33*4i'

PROVIDENCE,

TABLE

R.

25

1.

2. {Continued.)

Angle of Edge.
GEAR.

m

77

12 6

12*32

77

1?

7642
I3'

13

IS'm

*7'

75^
74

## 72V4 72' 35 72" si 71*55 7134 7 1" 12

73'

737 7249

72*31 72-13

17

16*53 17'

17 29 17*47 18" 6

18

71*53

17*25

I8*4S i3"r

18*45

17*12

IC^s
72

16*56

I7V

7154

19*6

69'4i

I9*

20*19 20*41'

69J9

1848

70*30

70V

19*26

19*27

6956 69

e*47 19*8

70*2

72*21

67^27

66rs

70"

7^7I''34
fix te

20*5)

66*48

22 43

i?2

6748 67'23l6^S7

23%

65*33

55

65*3

## 65^55 65*28 64^59 64-29

24*5 24*32 25*1 2S*ai

64

20*

22*1

65*49

70\\

C93S

19*591

22*^15

21

20''s4 21*1

19'

67

68 25 67

2I*48|22*I2

^26

20*57 2l'^2

69*12 6e

12

19*11

69 3 8

20*48 21

68 35 66

21*3

69*50

19*48 20*10

67

ee's?

70^49

18*26

19*43 20*

19

70r2i

2oVi
6833

7363

73^

.e"*5'

## 71*15 70 57 70-371 7017

21

74*13

73S5

1^

20

73*44| 73*25

7?

as

>*46
73] 3I7-73^18 78*59 72 39 72j8 7I66| 71^34 71 to
I8*8(i 18*50 l 4
7"2I 174Z 18
15*t6 IS*3i tB'49 W*5' 16*231 16*42 17
12

15*57 16 13

19

74-51

74"4

35 15*57

13*47 14*^2

l5*o

74

l^ii l^A

76'l3 75'

7^

74;3

16

14* f9

74*21

75"

75V M44 74

15

75;se 7S"4l

74*56

7S'S6 7?43

14

76V

7^4 76*30
I2%5

64"^

63*57'

63

58i

6326
2<r34

62*5M22I
27 6 27*

## 25*5 25*34 26*3

23*45
22 21*27
22u
66*8 65*44 63'w
63-26 62*56 62*a4 6i*sc 6r
6rt8
25'
23*5 23
23*52
23
2442 25*9
28 2S4e
Z6*S 263* 27*A 27
6648 66 26 66' 65m 6S*|4 64 48 6422 63*54 63*26 62^57 62*27 6r5 6r23
27*3
24*46 25*12
26*6
28*37 29
24 23*12 23*34 43*58
65*57 6533 65*9
64
62*w 61-59 61-29
6353) 63
-^z 59jso 59*14
26*7 26*54 27*2
25 24*3
2S*i 28*31 29*3 Zd'stiSo'id 30*46
65'6 6442 6<I8 63*52 63*26 6^99 623t 62*3 6133 613 6d^ 5959 59*25 58
29*29 30*1 30*95
26 24*9^125 2^- 26*8 26*34 27*
59-35 59 58*28
S?C
63*2i
62
62!fi 6138 61*8 60^38
29*23 29*53 30*25 30*58 31*32 32*7
27*26 27*s4
27 25*44
27
60*45 6^
6l4* 61
6236
59
58^
5?5
26*18 26*46 29*15
30*47 31*20 31
32*28 33*4
28 34 2659 27*24
59*53 59
57*46 57
56*37
6^12 61* 6119 60~S1 60
58
58
31*8 31*41
29*9 29*37 30 7 30
29
3248 33 n 34* o 34*87
59m 59*2 S^ 580
6r 60 60*29
56^ 55^.9 55-45 sy
32*0'
29*3'
29*99
33*7
34*0 35*32
30*28
30
2931
3058 3128
3233
24*11'

22*561 23*201

2St\i

24*37

75-

67*41'

64*51 64-a4j

66-5S

22*19 22*42

24*16

24*22

36

20

27*33' 28*4^

26*34

25*3

64-45

to 29-4i

60*57

a6 6Z*S<

27*31

50

'e

64'

34

'22 2*S2

14

>3

29*46 30'

27*51*

62*37'

53

52

2J

## 27*23 27*48 28*15 28*41

31

57*27

28*37

33*41

5^

53*34
59 ta S8*42 58*12 574i' S7'8 56*3^
SS*26
30*4^ 31*.8 31*48 32*19 32*52 33*24 33*69
35*10 35*48 36*26

61'
6036 60 6
28*18 29*** 29*S4
59-48

B9aj 56

## 90*12 30*39 31*8

32
34
59 59*2
30*58
33
26
58*44 Se
57 46 57
34 31-16 44 32 3241
58
35 32*0 32*28 32

52^

## 57*2i 56*52 56-19

54"3s 53*5|
36*2 36'm 37*1
32*37 33*8 33*41 34*15 34*49 35'

58
31*26

57-6

58'

57'36

31*

16

19

31

12

56'33

57*3i

37
38

## 55*5 54-41 54 7 53-32

34*13 34*45 35*19 3S*S3 36*28

STso

38*30 39

55J3?

40

42

50^

SoTit'

50*4
39'^

S6

48 36

4eV

## 54-34 54-2 53*30 Sl'tt 52*3 51'47

5(7S4*5|49''n
37*37 38*13 3646139*25 40%' 40*49 44*23

52W^

53

52^3*1

3621 36*53 37

51*38

50^27

5248 5216

51 45

4949 49

3'

51":

57 38:
20

50

54|

39*6

SO

19

394

494

50 39 50

II

Ao'49
S

46 t7

48 li 47 8
42
4^47*

'zi

I2J42S3

47^ 47&

SOV

17

41

## 54iB 53*42 53*6 5233 5167 61-20 5cr43

35*13 35*45 36*18 36*52 37*27 38*3 38*40 39*17

55si
34*9 34*39 35*8 3^37' 36*9 342 37

35*5fi

37''b2

5447

3451

## 5252 52*18 51*40

a 37*42 38 20 390'

34*56 35*26

SV'm 5?ib

39

Sl'so

33*e8|33'S6|34'

15

56 3

33*41' 34*11

55 55s

53 8

35*39(36

33*11' 33*41

56 49 5619

## 57 33*27 33*57' 34*28

S64S

30 54-56 54*2

56*3* 56*2

29

30*31

36

12

37

61*49'
u'

19

49

30

46

40'3b
15 384 39 2139
3612 3643 37*12 37*44
53*6' 92*38 52-e' 5r3 51*4 50*349|s8 491 4649
36* S2|37'22i37'S2i38>4 38*86 39*28 40*1 40*36 41 II
H 4<

54

4.7

48

r?

342
47 40
42*20

42 84 43

k;

Lss'

4?
43*38

m43;I
42

59

3\$

46jzo
43*40 44*20

4419

^^

BROWN

26

TABLE

3.

Angle of Face.
GEAR.

13 S7 13 57

12

70'

Wss

13

14 39' 15

5'. 17

69V

5'

\St4 15^9-

16 1^ 16 43

fe8*3 67'<59

672

I6a

66'

## 6743 67*9 6633 6556

6si 17

34 16 59 I7\4 1750
68 6 729 66^6 66 65-47

17^

15

17

64-''e*

"11

64'

62

64'io

22%8 23

63*3 62341

22

61

61*17

ffo

24

23'

20 6130 60*53
24

25

2432

2^

60*14 59*34J

23

49*7 JSVo

10 2S'S(

6I9

594-0

23sl

24*4 2

60*14

5t\

58*

24^

25*to

5642 SS*
2 759 27^7

25^0
58 6 2

5'6*|9

25
26)5 26 57 Z7%x 28*9
i5^
58 20 ^7 31 S639
5449 350 5247
265 2 7 38 28 22 as"* 2 9 56 3043 3I''40

59"5

5837
57% 56' 5521 54'2 53
27 34 28(5 2858 2944 30 31
5725 5 6 S3 5549 54*6 54"* 53*9

28 5(24
32'< 33'

26)6 26 55

26"53 27 30

26

(o

Ii5
58 54

62'

21 34]

6220 6;''a2
1

24

2537

23 20 23 52 24i^
61*24 6044] 60*"

|6g.'3|

3'

634

2343 24

60V

64*S4|

63*5 62'i4

2 "53 223.

204.( 2/

63'4d 63
I957 20j

6348

21 -3

I9aj

2i 22^

21

9=40 20

## 66 "4. 6533 64 642>|6S4 63j7

I9V4 2024
22 24

18
19

6540

6645
I84e 19

16

19"!

13 le 18

6<S'9 64-30

27 20 *

18 .9 18 5

65i3

18*
20to 206

16

14

7l8 I7a3

66*-i^ fefc*5

175^

I5'4B

28(0

29'8t
5436

51 9 50*4
3(52 3244 33*3* 34*

30(7
53*8

## 52*50 51*3 2 50*53 49*50 484 7

6025 5946 59S 58-26 574 5-/o 56*/4
35*54
2546 26-9 2653 27^7 28*5 2843 29'i>i. 30 5 304B 3l.34 32 4 2
58 57*8 56*3< 55*5 554. 54*7 53*26 Sfc*32 5/*a
49*4
5920 56'
47l2
262 27n 28*
29(4 2953 355 3(*.B 32
324 3336 34-27 35*20 3?IT3ir^

22
23 58 573B
49*29
53*57 538
46^0
5530
5/a4
27s7 28
29
3I2 3I45 32*28 33 V 34. 3450 35-41 303 37% 3a'28
294;
52*5 52*2
50*5 49*20 4a~2i 47l, 46* 45
2A 57t5
5553 55*( 54*2
323 33
2934 50" 30*3 3I"29
34"2j 35' 3b'e 36*52 37^7 384} 39^
50*57 50
4**5
25
5534 54*52 54* 53*23
4B*i* 47*6
31*54 32*34 33
33'58 344S 353. 35
37io 38"a 36
40
47*
26
45*0
538
50
4
8
5
494S 49%
53|
6(35
A
35"3 55
3I"3
39
32 S7 333 34
36
37a5
40 4
42'
27 54% 53*37
4*\ A7*7
50341 4945
3239
3357] 3439 35^ 36^7 3652 3740
39\ 40*(i 4r
28
52*39 5IS6
50*25 49%7| 48l, 47^6 47
3259 3338
37l^
3458 3539 3623 37
4f.3
29
5
49 i9 48*4 4750 46 e46.
34'36 35*5 3556
37l 38^7 3653 394i|4032|4l IS
30
50*7 49*2 4834 474S|46"55|46 3 45*9
50
56*56

(6

50*28

52-,s

56*35|

SI

-46*. 5

51

56 ^9*5 J

"(9

31

a 46. 2

2;tt

31

52''9

48*5i|

44''.o|

33ie

53*22

43"'9

52*27
33'
5(*33

31

so"/*

36*36

50

## 3+53 353 36i 36

373 3820 39 5 3952
50'
4957| 49* 3| 48"8 4.739 4652 46*1 4.5
35^ 36V 37<b 374S 38 3/ 39':i5 40/ 40 49
482 2 47a 4.649! 4558 45 44'
4950

32
33
371 38.
34
472 46'
3a22 393
35 47I4
36*3 9

384 2

4056

39"k6

44' 43"

46*46
39a5

4547 45*8

5L9

4241

46*'39

39^ 39 62

36::,
40*0

4 2*0

45*52
40"*o]

43*34

4/22 4-2"5

43*37
37 4552 45*8
40"47 All, 42"9
38 45*7
43391
39
43*40
40 4342
44*241
42''.4

43l.8

41

43'^

424J

4iat

43*20

4228

42.M

52

3*2

3t

32''2

II

37

PROVIDENCE,

TABLE

R.

27

I.

{Contimied.)

3.

Angle of Face.
GEAR.

20-

12

21

23

3.

Z4

Z5\

56*4.9 553Z

22 3T 23-2

13

50*5

26*3

28V

25''s

30 <

2!

14 13 12

16

28*25

3:"ii

38*r

\A-7l

32V

53 34

## 4-524 4.3"i* 4QA0

3<

476 45 22 432o|4-[9
50"39
S6'r.
58 is
52
268 27 5 284.
34-8 3540 3728
ZS
47*6 45^2 4-32 4 "2*
5646 5538 54i5
26'
34ff ae'ia 3747
27 3 27" Z&'SB ao-o 3re,
4i39
45
5613 55*7 5358 5244 5
SO't
2 7% 2 28*4.5 29*3| 30 V
dl'ss 3+(2 3531 36'i4 382J
S929

24^2 i

14
15

li 2330
54'

17

]^
19

51*6
4822 46*S2 k-5i9 43
32 28 3335 3447 at'o 3 721 384i
46'
52
50*8 493 2 48
143 a: 42
33* 34 8
31 5
374, 395
514/ 50*32 4 9 8 482
45
3236| 3336 34 38
36 5 3 386 3924
50 B 498 4754
45 43 50
533

522

34 5 356 36''b

3&26

35*3

21

4l5f

30a| 31 26

3632 3 737

39*39

43S2 4227

3844 39S4

43''56

3652 375 5

40

4624J 45. 3

4-24o

4i34

22
4356
38
4020
41 16
23 45*2
4246
39*29 403J
4138
24 44 42ai
40
25 42^7
26
la

"3

43

g,
g,

=
=

90
90

{a,
{a,

(Seepage

+
+

ij.)

/5)
/3)

384a

TABLE

28

## Angle of Face. Gear.

7271

70l6S|68l67|66|65|64|63|62|6i

8"

7-53

B'ZI 8-28

8' 35'

5/

8*

12

7^59 n'SO

rs

78

14

10*54 iry
34 9*42 9:50 9*59' 10^ 10* l lO'as lo^asiio
77 zi 7716 77*4 76 54 76*43 76 30 76*18 767 7555 7541 75*2' 75*15

IS

764C 76 Z9 76

16

75*55

17

75*10

## 78*39 78'39 78/9 78'/0 77*59

40 8'48 8*54
12 78 2 7752 7742

I0;2l' I0*3I'

18

|0>'

11*44

11 56
Jr37
12:7 tt' 17
75 7 7454 74*4*7427 74*13
12*24 12*34 12*4^ I2*S^ 13*7'

f3

12*50

18

7425

^'46 73'3Z
:36 1^48 14*

Id

73*40

20

13*59 14; II' 14:23 14:34 14*46 15*4' 15*11' 15*25 I539
72^ 7r45 71*29 7ri3 7056
72*57 7243 7^29 7214
14*43

21

K'SS

72*13 71*59

13^

73*ii'

7J*I9

7/*ia''

72Z 7144

72

l<

3'

13^

72 ii
J4'26i4^
71*45

7r2

78i4

IV47 l3*5Sf
73*4 7243 7233

## 73* 72*46 7t3i 72*16

7/*29

16 ir27
39 ll'W
75* 7445 74l*3l' 74*14

11*

## 12*40 12*52 13*5 13*18 13*30

73447^*28

13-23 I3'34

74*

7/44

10 31 10*42 10*53:

75*33 75 26 7S-II

I2*4fl:

14

9'5S'

5^^ 76'

## II* 37 11*41 11*59 12* U I2.*Z2 12*35 l?4

iri6
7543 75^30 7516 75 3 74*49 74 35 74 2 74*7 73*56 73*35 73 18

74*12

7327 73

W2l'
75S3

-AS

12*29

13*14 13:25

9' 35

## 77*1' 76*4 76*5i

37 77

10* II
9* a' 3'f8' 9*26 9'3i 9* 4 J S'sz 10'
77*20 77* 8 7656 76*45 7^32 76*19 76 7

76 6' 75 55

11*26
K7'.
7543 75 31 75 20
12*4
12*13
n:54
745a 744 74'33

lO'ssi

60S35857

9'r 9'n

28

71*45

15*15'

71*11

705470

i?5? 16*7

30 70

ri 69'S9 63*85

Wat

69*6' 68*46

## is;a6 i5;ss( J6*83 16*58

7058 7041' 70*25 70*8 69'

69*35!;

2'

18*30

## 69*11 68*54 6**34 6%" 14 67 52

15*27 15*4<> 15*53' 16**; e620 16*33 16*47 17*2' 17*16' 17*31 17*49 16*3 18*20 18*37

18 56; 19* li

## 68*2) 68*4' 67*43 67'2

22 7129 7114 70 59 70*44 70*28
6955 69 38 69*20 69*1
18*54
16*24
119^ I9"4a:20^
I7;2b 17*34 17*50 18*5'
68*33 68*14 67*54 67*34
66*52 66*32
23 70*46 70'30 70 69*59 6943' 692669 8
68*4^'

70*11

16

16*55'

24

3'

67

18*20'

19* 10

67*14^

68*so'

eeTgr

## 18*6 18*21 18*37 IV53 19*9' 19*26 19*44 28*

20*19
^
69*47 69r3z 69*15 68*59 68*48 68*23
5 67*45 67*27 67*6^ 66*46 6625 66*3' 6^41 65*<8

20^

17*51'

## I7*39|l7*5i 18*6' 18*21 18*36' 18*52 19*7 19:2^ 19

69*21
68*48 68*31 68*14 6756 67*37 67/8 67

19*57

2^14 20* L

## 20*51 21*10 21*29

2?^

66*39 6620 65 58
65*14 64*51 64 a
25
21*2 21*21 21*41 22' 2?Sq22^
19*6
1^2 18*36
Sa 20"10
57
66*34
68*22
66*53
66*14
6\$*32
64*49
68*39
68*5
67*?d 67*13
6S*53
6426 64*2
26
20*56
22*49 23*10
21*3^
19*34 19*49 20* 20*2
66*8'
64*46
65*29
64*
67*5
66*28
66*46
63*14 62*49
6S*8'
24
6S48
27 67*57
6/22
19*22' 19

18*51

65*37'

19*

20*26:

20*38'

21*13'

67*48'

19'

3'

65*11

19*19

21*50'

63*39

10 22"

23*31

63*38'

67*39'

*4' 20*1'

20^

## 20*32 20f>50 21*6 21*2^ 21*41

66*22
65*44 6^25
28
21*50 22-8
2043
65*40
64*42
29
21*9
22^ 22*34 52
2lW
6458 64*39 6418
30 65*55
S8
67*16 66*59 66*41'

66'

65*21 65*2'

21*58'

21*25

6!r37' 65*18'

21*50' 22*6'

31

6S*I4

22*48'

32 6435
23*10'

33 S-

2259 2i*n

22*2^

64*21 63*59

6^37

69*38' 63*15'

2^4^

25^3^

23*tf

63'

23*3d

25*12

63*.I6'

22"

62* 55'

6ys6'

22*56'

22*18'

2flr27

22

62*55 62*34

Si^^

## 62*10 61*46' 61*23 60*58' 60 34 68' 8' 5342

26*23' 26*45^ 27*9' 2ri4
2r3si

24P58' 25*18'

6^12

l!>

## 59*49 59*23 58*56

2r28' 23*46 24?4' Z^zi 24*41 ZS"! 2^21 25*42 26-^ 26;24 2F4s: 27*9' 27*31 2fi?2fi9
5'
63*36 63*16 62* 56' 62*36 62 15 6I'S3 6I*3' 61*8 68*44 60*20
58*38 58*11
55 59*31' 59'
24*8 24-*27 24*4425
25*23 25*42 26*3
t264^ 27*7' 27*29 2fs2 28*16 28*4<<29*?
I'

## 60*2 59*37 59*13

62*37 62*16 61*56 61*33
12 6049
34 6317
25*6' 25*25 25^ 26:4 26*24 26*45 27*6 27Vi 27*50
24*29
59*44
58*56
58*6
35 6f39 6218' 61*58 61*37
6054 6032'

58*48' S8*22

61

62*sil

24*48'

60*9'

6I-I6'

27:5 2r26'
5928

58*31'

59*

tr^ 28*10

ST54 57*27

292?

## 57*39 5711 5644

30*9'

30^

36
594 40 58 S7S0 5724 5657 56*29
25*47 26*6' 26*25 26*44 27>' 2^ 27*45 28*7
^9^ 23rM 30*2 38*27 3015 3Pli
60*20
61*"
60*41
57*35 57
58*49
56*42 56*15 5548 552
37
5958 5935
25 58
29*
26*44 27:4
29:3^ 29*5i 30*20 30*44
3l*3rf3ri
28;4;
55*2' 5^35 55
56*30
38 60*47 60*26 604' 5942 5920 58*56 5834
57455
5439
62*

i:

;58"

56*1'.

15

28*51'

61*

59*13'

lb

31*9'

'

28*4-7

58*9'

57*21' 56*55'

7'

29^

33
40
4i

42

## 27*3' 27*22 27/42 2*2' 28 22'

30*13 30*36 31*1' 31* 2i 31*50
28;4^ 29*5 29*27
60*9' 594^ 59 28 59*4' 58*42 58*19 5755 57*31 57*7' 56*41 56 16 5549 5522 54*54
28'2rf 28*41 29*1'

29*43' 30*6'

30*52 31*

59*34 5932

58*5i 58*27

57* 17'

56

2rir 2^37

## 28*57 29*18 29*39' 3crT 3Q*22 30*45

27*4<<

2n3

58*5 57*42

58*57 5837
57*52 57*29' 57* 4
IS'
28*' 29'ia; 29' 33 29' 55 30*16 30*38
58*22 58*1 57 39 57"

IS*

56*52

5^28

5640

56*54
31*

56*15 55*

31* 31*23
56*4' 55*39

2'

17

## 55*37 55*16 54*44

'4r3rior 32*35
13*

54*15'

3?io!??vi 33*12
55* 25 54*59 5432 54 4' 53*36

St'

54*48

54*21'

3?l6 32*4<
54 28 53 51
53*46 5318
33* 3i 34*1
53* 7'

5238

## 3^261 33* ^34?A9 34V

53*54 53*26 52*58 52 29 52
33'

TABLE

(Contimted.)

4.

Angle of Face.

29

Gear.

56 55 S4 53 52 51 504948474645444342
10*

12

j3
14

J6
17

10*

lO'.ZB
9'

ir 30 11*43

sz

## 1116 h;28 IfAZ 11*54: 12*8 IZ'zd 12*37

7456 744 7424J 74 8 73*50 73*32 73 IZ 7253
3*26
KTz' irib 12*2912' 43 12*57
73*58 7342 7325 73 7 7i49 72*29 728 71 A^
13'

15

le'

75 SA 7540 7524 75

I3*I6"

3*
1

2B 13*43'

7/1' 72*44

II*

## m 1755 I2*4J^ irr

'

It"

20

7i5B

72 37 72 15 71*51 71*25

13* Z3'

1340 I3*S

73

12; 51 13'

13*19

14*35

## 33 I4*si 15" 10 IS'36 15'SI'

71*17 71-5 70'4 l(fl7 69 si 69*26 68*59
16*22 16*43
9 14' 4 14*30 14*47 15*5 15^3 15*42 16'
59
A-i 7r2fl 71*6' 70*45 7tf23 69*59 69*34 69 9 6&42 6iiS 67*47

## 3*59 14*13 14*28 I4*44' 15" I'

72*5' 71*47 71*2%' 71*8' 70*49

1^52

7027
r *I8

l6i

18*

## 16 37 16*55 17*15 17^36 I7;57' 18*20 I8*4 19*6' 19^31

I457 15-u' I5*2i 15*44 16*
71*9' 70*49 70*30 7016 69*49 69*26 69*3' 68 39 68 15 67*50 67*23' 66*54 66*27 6S*S8 6^27
17*20 17*39' n*58 18*20 18*44' 19*3' 19*27 19*50 20 18 2tf
I55i 16*7 16*26 16*42 17'

## 6934 69*12 68*43

26 68*3 67*38 67*12 66*47 66* 19 65*si 65*20 64*5 64*18
18* 18*21 18*40 19*1 19*22 i9*4c; 20 8' 20*34 20*59 21*24 21*52
17*2 7*23 17*41
69*19 68*58 68*37 68*15 67*52 67*29 67*4 66*37 66*12 65*44 65*16 64*44
IS 63*44 63*10'

7014

69*53

I6*4f

19

17*44 18"

I'

18*

19'

18*40'

20

21

6l*3r 67*9'

664666 23

22

19*32' I9*5i

2^ 20*33

## 66 38 6616 65*52 65*27 6^3' 6437 6410

13'

18*39 18*57 19*16' 19*37 19*58 20*19 20*41 21* y 21*27 21*52 22*17

23
24

23*3' 23*25

2|
29
30
31

2^

2319

23*46

62*

ii'

24

24*44*8*14

S9S6

24*13

24> 2440

27*21'

2r52 28*26

61*53*

25"

2^

2927

## 27 58*55 58*21 57*47 S/ll 56*34 SS*5S

60*37 60*7 59*38 59*5' 58*33 SB- 57*26 56* 5l' 56* IS 55*38 54*59
2S6l 58 6152
29* li ^9^^^| 3flric; 30^ 5r25
26*4 27*15 27*43' 28*1?
24*441
2?5? 25*56'
61*36 61*9' 6043 6014 59*46 59*16 58*45 58*13 57*42 57*8 56* si 55*5^ 55*2* 54*42 54*
29*5 29^ 30*8' 30*40 31*13' 31*48 32?3
25*33' 25*57 26*22 26*47 2ri4 27*40 28*8 28*
60*47 60*21
si 59*25 58*56 58*26 57*5^ 5/22 S649 5^15 55*40 55*4 54*27 53*48' 53*9
26* 2t 26*47
3p3?
32"44j83*l9
27
2iV 2832 29'
29*S9
60* 5933 59*6 58*36 58*6' 5736
55*58 5i'24 544<i 54*
5254 52*1^
2ri6| 27*34 283' 28*2/ 28*54 29*2J 29*sr 30*2i 3052 3r22 3PSS 32'29 33*2 33*39

59*14

57

18 56*47 56*15

5542 55 8 5434

53*57

30*5 30*32

31*

S^IS 55*49

55*13'

56' '29

lOM?

30*42 31*

52*31'

52 20 51*41

51*3'

8'

5131

5^15 55*46

36

31
55*32

34*45' 32*it

55*

Itf

36*51'

SCTso

50 14 49*3i 4853

31*38

16'

## 37 544) 54 20 53 so 53*18 S2*4 5213 51*40

3?S6 3r24 33*52 34*22 34*54 35*24
38 54 53 5^8 52*38 52*4 51*30 5056 50 2
51*^

35*5-

9'

36'

SOW 49*41

3^3?ii

5^44 52

## 3^7' 32*3^ 33'7 SPi8 34^334*42 35*17 35*51 36*27

5444 5^13' 5340 53* 5234 51*58' 51*22 50*45 50*7 49 27
31*27 31*55 3f23 3^53
33*53 34*25 34*57 35*31 36*5' 36*41 37 16
55*3 5433 54*1' 5^28 52 57 52 23' 5l'4 51* 13 50 37 4959 4921 48*4i

35

34*31' 35* 8

3r56

57*14 56*45

56*

29^(0

56*

53*

## 5^28 54*54 54*20 5344 53 8'

3r3\ 32ri 3?3e ,93:4 33;3af

23*31

37*5' 3ir42
6'

48*47

48

97*53

38^

48*1

47*20

37^ 38*4'

3842 ^.20
50*29 4952 4915 4837 4756 47*16 4634
38*14
3r5r 39*28 40*7
3er29 37*3 37*3

4945 43*9

## 48* 3i 47*52 47* 13 46*32 43*51

7 34* 3(95'.7 5*37 36*9' 36*41 Sri? 37*48 38*24 39* 39r36 401545S
47*16 46*30 4545
49*39 49*3 48 26 47
53 28 si Si 5227 51*54 51*2 50*49
33*52 34*21' 34*50 35*18' 35*49 36*20 36*5' 37*2i
38*33 39*8 39r44 40*20 4tf58 4I*7
33*10' 33* 3^34'

i^

1'l

52*46' 52*17

51*46

5^9

51* 7'

## 51*14! S0*4 50*8' 49'3i

S4?3? 35*3' 35*31 36* I 36*31 37*3' 37*3^

51*37

50*33 50*1

## 48*22 47*45 47*6'

3V7

49 27 48*53 40*17

47*44'

4f4

## 4628 45*48 45*6' 4425

40*2? 4<* 5 44*4* 4^21
45*7' 4426 43*44

35*4i' 36*12 36-42 37*13' 37*44' 3tfl7 38*49 39*23 39'S8 40*34 41*9 41*41 Aiti
51*30 50*5!( 50*28 49*S4l 4^2' 48*48 48*13' 47*37 47*1 46*24 45*46 45*7 +47 43*4*

3ri4

42

6243

## 2?4S 23*|d 23*38 2<8'

6241 68' 61*34 61

62*

32
33 57*43
29*57
34 59

41

63*42 63*13'

23'

6^38 162*4"

25'1*5' 25-29 25'55 26*22 26*48' 27*17 27*46 28*16; 28*4f 29*19
29*si lcr7

## 27*58 28*23 284l 2Sri7 29*33'

58*28' 57*59 57*31' 57*1 56 41'

39
40

11'

63*41 63*13

## 63^5 6249 62*^ 61*56 6128 60*59 6030 59 59

2F5?

27

227 22*32

26*18
zo'zi 20*4i 21*8 21*29' 2r52' 22r 13 22*37 2af2' 23' 27 23*54 24*21 24^49 25*18'
65*47 65 23 6458 6433 64 8' 634t 6513 62*44 62*15 61*44 61* 13 6044 60*6 59*3l' 58*54
24* 24*26 24*53 25*2 2sr4a IZ^Zi 26*51 27;23
21* 19 21*39 22* r 2r24 22*46 23jtf 23*36
64*55 64* ai 64*5' 63*
63 14 6246 62* 19 6I*4' 61*18 60*47 60* IS' 5941 59 6 58*31' 57*53'
22*11' 22*33' 2fS6' 23*18' 234t'

25
26

21*33

BROWN

30

## & SHARPE MFG. CO.

NATURAL
0'

10'

20'

30'

40'

50'

60'

.00000
.01745
.03489
.05233
.06975
.08715
.10452
.12186
.13917
15643
.17364
.19080
.20791
.22495
.24192
.25881
.27563
.29237
.30901
.32556
.34202
.35836
.37460
.39073
.40673
.42261
.43837
.45399
.46947
.48481
.50000
.51503
.52991
.54463
.55919
.57357
.58778
.60181
.61566
.62932
.64278
.65605
.66913
.08199
.69465

.00291
.02036
.03780
.05524
.07265
.09005
.10742
.12475
.14205
.15930
.17651
.19366
.21075
.22778
.24474
.26162
.27843
.29515
.31178
.32831
.34475
.36108
.37730
.39340
.40939
.42525
.44098
.45658
.47203
.48735
.50251
.51752
.53238
.54707
.56160
.57595
.59013
.60413
.61795
.63157
.64501
.05825
.07128
.68412
.69674

.00581
.02326
.04071
.05814
.07555
.09295
.11031
.12764
.14493
.16217
.17937
.19651
.21359
.23061
.24756
.26443
.28122
.29793
.31454
.33106
.34748
.36379
.37999
.39607
.41204
.42788
.44359
.45916
.47460
.48989
.50503
.52001
.53484
.54950
.56400
.57833
.59248
.60645
.62023
.63383
.64723
.66043
.67344
.68624
.69883

.00872
.02617
.04361
.06104
.07845
.09584
.11320
.13052
.14780
.16504
.18223
.19936
.21644
.23344
.25038
.26723
.28401
.30070
.31730
.33380
.35020
.36650
.38268
.39874
.41469
.43051
.44619
.46174
.47715
.49242
.50753
.52249
.53730
.55193
.56640
.58070
.59482
.60876
.62251
.63607
.64944
.66262
.67559
.68835
.70090

.01163
.02908
.04652
.06395
.08135
.09874
.11609
.13341
.15068
.16791
.18509
.20221
.21927
.23627
.25319
.27004
.28680
.30347
.32006
.33654
.35293
.36920
.38536
.40141
.41733
.43313
.44879
.46432
.47971
.49495
.51004
.52497
.53975
.55436
.56880
.58306
.59715
.61106
.62478
.63832
.65165
.66479
.67773
.69046
.70298

.01454
.03199
.04943
.06685
.08425
.10163
.11898
13629
.15356
.17078
.18795
.20506
.22211
.23909
.25600
.27284
.28958
.30624
.32281
.33928
.35565
.37190
.38805
.40407
.41998
.43575
.45139
.46690
.48226
.49747
.51254
.52745
.54219
.55677
.57119
.58542
.59948
.61336
.62705
.64055
.65386
.66696
.67986
.69256
.70504

.01745
.03489
.05233
.06975
.08715
.10452
.12186
.13917
.15643
.17364
.19080
.20791
.22495
.24192
.25881
.27563
.29237
.30901
.32556
.34202
.35836
.37460
.39073
.40673
.42261
.43837
.45399
.46947
.48481
.50000
.51503
.52991
.54463
.55919
.57357
.58778
.60181
.61566
.62932
.64278
.65605
.66913
.68199
.69465
.70710

60'

50'

40'

30'

20'

10'

Deg.

2
3

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33

34
35
36
37
88
39

40
41
42
43

44

SINE.

NATURAL COSINE.

89
88
87
86
85
84
83
82
81
80

79
78
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
69

68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61

60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
I

50

'49
i

48
47
40
45
Deg.

PROVIDENCE,

NATURAL
Deg.

0'

10'

45
46
47
48
49
50

.70710
.71934
.73135
.74314
.75471
.76604
.77714
.78801
.79863
.80901
.81915
.82903
.83867
.84804
.85716
.86602
.87462
.88394
.89100
.89879
.90630
.91354
.93050
.93718
.93358
.93969
.94551
.95105
.95630
.96136
.96593
.97039
.97437
.97814
.98162
.98480
.98768
.99026
.99254
.99452
.99619
.99756
.99863
.99939
.99984

.70916
.72135
.73333
.74508
.75661
.76791
.77897
.78979
.80038
.81072
.82081
.83066
.84025
.84958
.85866
.86747
.87602
.88480
.89282
.90006
.90753
.91472
.92163
.92827
.98461
.94068
.94646
.95195
.95715
.96205
.96667
.97099
.97502
.97874
.98217
.98530
.98818
.99066
.99289
.99482
.99644
.99776
.99877
.99948
.99989

51

53
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
63
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
73
78
74
75
76

77
78
79

80
81

82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
-

60'

50'

20'

.71120
.72836
73530
.74702
.75851
.76977
.78079
.79157
.80212
.81242
.82247
.83227
.84182
.85111
.86014
.86893
.87742
.88566
.89863
.90182
.90875
.91589
.92276
.92984
.93565
.94166
.94739
.95288
.95799
.96284
.96741
.97168
.97566
.97984
.98373
.98580
.98858
.09106
.99328
.99511
.99668
.99795
.99891
.99957
.99993
.

40'

R.

SINE.

30'

40'

.71825
.72587
.78727
.74895
.76040
.77102
.78260
.79335
.80385
.81411
.82412
.83388
.84389
.85364
.86162
.87035
.87881
.88701
.89498
.90258
.90996
.91706
.93388
.98041
.93667
.94364
.94882
.95871
.95882
.96868
.96814
.97237
.97629
.97992
.98325
.98628
.98901
.99144
.99357
.99539
.99691
99813
.99904
.99965
.99996
30'

NATURAL

31

I.

.71528
.72787
.78928
.75088
.76229
.77347
.78441
.79512
.80558
.81580
.82577
.88548
.84495
.85415
.86310
.87178
.88020
88885
.89622
.90888
.91116
.91821
.92498
.93148
.93768
.94860
.94924
.95458
.95964
.96440
.96887
.97304
.97692
.98050
.98378
.98676
.98944
.99182
.99389
.99567
.99714
.99830
.99917
.99972
.99998
.

20'

COSINE.

50'

.71731
.72930
.74119
.75279
.76417
77581
.78621
.79688
.80780
.81748
.82740
.88708
.84650
.85566
.86456
.87820
.88157
.88968
.89751
.90507
.91285
.91936
.92609
.93253
.93869
.94456
.95015
.95545
.96045
.96516
.96958
.97371
.97758
.98106
.98429
98723
.98985
.99318
.99431
.99593
.99785
.99847
.99938
.99979
.99999
.

10'

60'

.71984
.78135
.74314
.75471
.76604
.77714
.78801
79863
.80901
.81915
.83903
.83867
.84804
.85716
.86603
.87463
.88394
.89100
.89879
.90680
.91854
.93050
.92718
.98358
.98969
.94551
.95105
.95630
.96136
.96592
.97029
.97437
.97814
.98162
.98480
.98768
.99036
.99254
.99452
.99619
.99756
.99863
.99939
.99984
1.0000
.

0'

44
43
42
41
40
39
38

37
36
35
34
88
32
31

30
29
28
27
26
25
24
28
22
21

20
19
18
17
16
15

14
13
12
11

10
9
8
7
6
5

4
3
2
1

Deg.

BKOWN

32

&,

bHARPE MFG.

CO.

NATUKAL TANGENT.
Deg.

2
3

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

40
41
42
43

44
-

0'

10'

20'

30'

40'

50'

60'

.00000
.01745
.03492
.05240
.06992
.08748
.10510
.12278
.14054
.15838
.17632
.19438
.21255
.23086
.24932
.26794
.28674
.30573
.32492
.34432
.36397
.38386
.40402
.42447
.44522
.46630
.48773
.50952
.53170
.55480
.57735
.60086
.62486
.64940
.67450
.70020
.72654
.75355
.78128
.80978
.83910
.86928
.90040
.93251
.96568

.00290
.02036
.03783
.05532
.07285
.09042
.10804
.12573
.14350
.16136
.17932
19740
.21559
.23393
.25242
.27106
.28989
.30891
.32813
.34758
.36726
.38720
.40741
.42791
.44871
.46985
.49133
.51319
.53544
.55811
.58123
.60482
.62892
.65355
.67874
.70455
.73099
.75812
.78598
.81461
.84406
.87440
.90568
.93796
.97132

.00581
.02327
.04074
.05824
.07577
.09335
.11099
.12869
.14647
.16435
.18233
.20042
.21864
.23700
.25551
.27419
.29305
.31210
.33136
.35084
.37057
.39055
.41080
.43135
.45221
.47341
.49495
.51687
.53919
.56193
.58513
.60880
.63298
.65771
.68300
.70891
73546
.76271
.79069
.81946
.84906
.87955
.91099
.94345
.97699

.00872
.02618
.04366
.06116
.07870
.09628
.11393
.13165
.14945
.16734
.18533
.20345
.22169
.24007
.25861
.27732
.29621
.31529
.33459
.35411
.37388
.39391
.41421
.43481
.45572
.47697
.49858
.52056
.54295
.56577
.58904
.61280
.63707
.66188
.68728
.71329
.73996
.76732
.79543
.82433
.85408
.88472
.91633
.94896
.98269

.01163
.02909
.04657
.06408
.08162
.09922
.11688
.13461
.15242
17033
.18834
.20648
.22474
.24315
.26172
.28046
.29938
.31850
.33783
.35739
.37720
.39727
.41762
.43827
.45924
.48055
.50221
.52427
.54672
.56961
.59297
.61680
.64116
.66607
.69157
.71769
.74447
.77195
.80019
.82923
.85912
.88992
.92169
.95450
.98843

.01454
.03200
.04949
.06700
.08455
.10216
.11983
13757
.15540
.17332
.19136
.20951
.22780
.24624
.26483
.28360
.30255
.32170
.34107
.36067
.38053
.40064
.42104
.44174
.46277
.48413
.50586
.52798
.55051
.57347
.59690
.62083
.64528
.67028
.69588
.72210
.74900
.77661
.80497
.83415
.86419
.89515
.92709
.96008
.99419

.01745
.03492
.05240
.06992
.08748
.10510
.12278
.14054
.15838
.17632
.19438
.21255
.23086
.24932
.26794
.28674
.30573
.32492
.34432
.36397
.38386
.40402
.42447
.44522
.46630
.48773
.50952
.53170
.55430
.57735
.60086
.62486
.64940
.67450
.70020
.72654
.75355
.78128

1.0000

70
69
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45

60'

50'

40'

30'

20'

10'

0'

Beg.

NATURAL COTANGENT.

80978
.83910
.86928
.90040
.93251
.96568

89
88
87
86
85
84
83
82
81
80
79
78

77
76
75
74
73
72
71

PROVIDENCE,

R.

33

I.

NATURAL TANGENT.
Deg.

0'

10'

20'

30'

40'

50'

60

45
46
47
48
49
50

1.0000
1.0355
1.0723
1.1106
1.1503
1.1917
1.2349
1.3799
1.3370
1.3763
1.4281
1.4825
1.5398
1.6003
1.6643
1.7330
1.8040
1.8807
1.9626
2.0503
3.1445
2.2460
2.3558
2.4750
2.605O
2.7474
2.9042
3.0776
3.2708
3.4874
3.7320
4.0107
4.3314
4.7046
5.1445
5.6713
6.3137
7.1153
8.1443
9.5143
11.430
14.300
19.081
38.636
57.390

1.0058
1.0415
1.0786
1.1171
1.1571
1.1988
1.3433
1.3876
1.3351
1.3848
1.4370
1.4919
1.5497
1.6107
1.6753
1.7437
1.8164
1.8940
1.9768
3.0655
3.1609
3.3637
3.3750
3.4959
3.6379
3.7735
3.9318
3.1084
3.3053
3.5360
3.7759
4.0610
4.3896
4.7738
5.3256
5.7693
6.4348
7.3687
8.3449
9.7881
11.836
14.934
30.305
31.341
68.750

1.0117
1.0476
1.0849
1.1336
1 1639
1.3059
1.3496
1.3954
1.3432
1.3933
1.4459
1.5013
1.5596
1.6212
1.6864
1.7555
1.8390
1.9074
1.9911
3.0809
3.1774
3.3816
3.3944
3.5171
3.6510
3.7980
3.9600
3.1397
3.3402
3.5655
3.8208
4.1135
4.4494
4.8430
5.3092
5.8708
6.5605
7.4287
8.5555
10.078
12.250
15.604
21.470
34.367
85.939

1.0176
1.0537
1.0913
1.1302
1.1708
1.2131
1.2571
1.3032
1.3514
1.4019
1.4550
1.5108
1.5696
1.6318
1.6976
1 7674
1.8417
1.9209
3.0056
3.0965
3.1943
3.3998
3.4143
3.5386
3.6746
3.8339
3.9886
3.1715
3.3759
3.6058
3.8667
4.1653
4.5107
4.9151
5.3955
5.9757
6.6911
7.5957
8.7768
10.385
13.706
16.349
33.904
38.188
114.58

1.0335
1.0599
1.0977
1 1369
1.1777
1.3303
1.3647
1.3111
1.3596
1.4106
1.4641
1.5304
1.5798
1.6435
1.7090
1.7795
1.8546
1.9347
3.0303
3.1123
3.3113
3.3183
3.4343
3.5604
3.6985
3.8503
3.0178
3.3040
3.4123
3.6470
3.9136
4.3193
4.5736
4.9894
5.4845
6 0844
6.8269
7.7703
9.0098
10.711
13.196
17.169
34.541
43.964
171.88

1.0395
1.0661
1.1041
1.1436
1.1847
1.3375
1.2723
1.3190
1.3680
1.4193
1.4733
1.5301
1.5900
1.6533
1.7304
1.7917
1.8676
1.9485
2.0352
2.1383
3.3385
3.3369
3.4545
3.5836
3.7338
3.8770
3.0474
3.3371
3.4495
3.6890
3.9616
4.3747
4.6383
5.0658
5.5763
6.1970
6.9683
7.9530
9.3553
11 059
13 736
18.075
36.431
49.103
343.77

1.0355
1.0733
1.1106
1.1503
1.1917
1 3349
1.3799
1.3270
1.3763
1.4281
1.4825
1.5398
1.6003
1.6642
1.7320
1.8040
1.8807
1.9626
2.0503
2.1445
3.3460
3.3558
2.4750
2.6050
2.7474
2.9042
3.0776
3.2708
3.4874
3.7320
4.0107
4.3314
4.7046
5.1445
5.6712
6.3137
7.1153
8.1443
9.5143
11.430
14.300
19.081
28.636
57.290

60'

50-

40'

30'

20'

10'

0'

51

53
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63

64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71

72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81

82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89

NATURAL COTANGENT.

44
43
42
41

40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
38
37
26
25

24
23
22
21

20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
13
11

10
9
8
7
6
5

4
3
2
1

00

Deg.

34

BROWN

&

SHARPE MFG.

CHAPXE^R

IV.

## WORM AND WORM

(Fig. 8.)

CO.

WHEEL.

PROVIDENCE,

R.

35

I.

FORMULAS.

N = number of teeth in gear.
m = threads or turns per inch
^= diameter of worm.

in

worm.

= diameter of hob.
=
T throat diameter.
B = blank diameter (to sharp corners).
C = distance between centers.
= thickness of hob-slotting cutter.
/= width of bands at bottom.
d = pitch circumference of worm.
V = width of worm thread tool at end.
w = width of worm thread at top.
P = diametral pitch.
P' = circular pitch.
/ = thickness of tooth at pitch line.
f^ = normal thickness of tooth.
d'

/= clearance

at

bottom of tooth.

D"

+/=
d

If

of tooth.

is

L=

P', 2

P;

F,

etc.

etc.,

BROWN

36

a=

L=
P'

60 to 90
I

m
TtT

N +

NP' _ N
7t
P

=_

T=

s...

= 7t{d-2

tan 6

s)
Practical only

= h

b
f^

= Uos S

r^

= -d

when width

is

## ^ pitch diameter of worm.

2 s

r'=r' + D"

+/

B=T+2(r'-r-cos^)
.

-335 P'

measurement
^

of sketch

is

generally

sufficient.

,"

= d+ 2f
= .3iP'

d'
z;

^^=
Note.

.335 P'

The notations and formulas referring: to tooth parts, given on page 5 for

Note.

worm

wheels,

4 turns per

i''

per example

PROVIDENCE,

R.

17

I.

TABLE OF ANGLES
FOR GASHING

WORM WHEELS.

h-5

^1
1

li

2i

2J

3i

1.000 1

.500 2

## 4^10' 3^39' 3^15' 20 40'

3024' 2^58' 2039' 2^11'
20 51' 2^30' 2^15' 1^51'
2^29' 2^11' 1^57' 1^36'
3^39' 2059' 2^11' 1^55' 1<^43' 1^25'
3^15' 20 40' 1^57' 1^44' 1032' 1^16'
2039' 2^10' 1^36' 1^25' 1^16' 1 3'
2^14' 1^50' 1^21' 1^12' 10 4/
53'
1^36'
1^11'
1^57'
57'
47'
10 3'
50'
41'
1^43' 1^25' 1^ 3'
bW
50'
45'
37'
1^32' 1^16'
57'

## 2i 9^42' 7^17' 5^51'

70 40' 5^50' 4042'
.3333 3
.2857 31 6^20' 4052' 3056'
5^25' 4^10' 3 24'
.2500 4
.400

.2222 41 4042'
4^10'
.2000 5
3^23'
.1666 6
2^51'
.1429 7
2^29'
.1250 8
2^11'
.1111 9
.1000 10 1^57'

2^15' 157'

1^51' 1^36'
1^34' 1^22'
1^22' 1^11'
1^13' 10
1

3'

5'

57'

53'

47'

46'

40'

40'

35'

36'

31'

32'

28'

BROWN

38

SHARPE MFG.

&

UNDERCUT

WORM

IN

CO.

WHEELS.

## In worm wheels of less than 30 teeth the thread of the worm

(being 29) interferes with the flank of the gear tooth. Such

## a wheel finished with a hob will have its teeth undercut.

avoid this interference two methods may be employed.

To
'

## Firs f Method. Make throat diameter of wheel

T = cos^i4>^ N + 4^

937

or

4>f

This formula increases the throat diameter, and consequently the center distance. The amount of the increase can
be found by comparing this value of T with the one as obtained
by formula on page ^6. To keep the original center distance,
the outside diameter of the

worm must

## same amount the throat diameter

Second Method.

we found by

Without

is

be reduced by the

increased.

## the formulas given on page 36,

worm

interference to be found in

wheels of

we can avoid
less

the

than 30 teeth

## by simply increasing the angle of worm thread.

value of this angle by the following formula

We

find the

Let there be

y = angle

of

N = number
cos

From

= i/

worm

wheel.

i_

27

2y 30X

31

3i>^

19

18

17

Z^

39

40 41/^

29

threaa.

28

As

this

;/

worm

of teeth in

this latter

26

23

22

21

20

izV^

34K

35

36

37

15

14

13

12

42M

44 >^

46X

48

32X 32^
16

24

25

in

## many cases, on account of change of angle, we prefer to reduce

the diameter of worm as indicated by first method, if the distance of centers must be absolute.

PROVIDENCE,

R.

CHAPTKR
SPIRAL

39

V.

OR SCREW GEARING.
(Figs.

9,

10, II.)

Fig, 9,

## RIGHT HAND SPIRAL GEARS.

In spiral gearing the wheels have cylindrical pitch surfaces,
but the teeth are not parallel to the axis. The line in which
the pitch surface intersects the face of a tooth

is

part of a

## screw line, or helix, drawn at the pitch surface. A screw

wheel may have one or any number of teeth. A one-toothed
wheel corresponds to a one-threaded screw, a many-toothed
wheel to a many-threaded screw. The axes may be placed at

any angle.
Consider

## spiral gears with

I.

II.

III.

Axes parallel.
Axes at right angles.
Axes any angle.

BROWN

40

&

SHARPE MFG.

CO.

Fig, 10.

## LEFT HAND SPIRAL GEAR.

Let there be

n"=
C=
P=

>

number

of teeth in gears

center distance.

diametral pitch

= circular pitch.
= normal diametral pitch.
P'" = normal circular pitch.
y = angle of axes.
Lj = exact lead of spiral on pitch surface.
L^ = approximate lead of spiral on pitch surface.
T = number of teeth marked on cutter to be used when
P'

P"

D = pitch
B=
"

diameter.

blank diameter.

!-

## angle of teeth with axis

/= thickness

of tooth.

+ / = whole depth
s

D"

Note.

of tooth.

I.

Gears of

## notations refer to gears a and

3.

Axes Parallel.

The angle of
must be equal and the spirals
The angles are generally chosen

End

## and left-hand obliquity. Gears of

Herringbone gears. They are comparatively noiseless running at high speed.

this class are

known

as

PROVIDENCE,
II.

Axes

R.

4I

I.

at Right Angles.

## The teeth of same hand spiral

The normal pitches equal in both gears and
The sum of the angles of teeth with axes = 90.

1.

2.

3.

1.

If in

number

## equal to the direct ratio of the diameters,

the

if

/. ^.,

of teeth

is

number

of

two gears are to each other as their pitch diamethen the angles of the spirals will be 45 and 45 for, this
condition being fulfilled, the circular pitches of the two gears
must be alike, which is only possible with angles of 45. In
such a combination either gear may be the driver,
teeth in the

ters,

If

2.

angles are

^-^

tan ^^

larger

is

----^

is

3.

Given N^,

If

Pa

But

upon

tan a^

of teeth,

number

if

is

N^,

and C

Pa

is

P,,',

then

we have

assumed, then

case

''

"

and

C7r-y2NaPJ

^,
and

'

= P-^

'

tan aa

driver,
4.

is

a^,

P
= -^^

Given N,

## See case "

and C or D.
under III., considering

teeth.

Nj,

"

III.

x\xis

## case " i,"

Given
for the same reason.
5.

P' or

tan

;/

AT ANY Angle

under

II.,

90.

{y).

}4 y,

## 6. Analogous cases to "2" and "3," under II., may be

worked out, when angles of axes = y, but they have been

BROWN

42

SHARPE MFG.

&

CO.

## omitted, partly because the formulas are too cumbersome, and

"
partly because they are to some extent covered by cases "5

and "7."
We
of the pitch diameters.
7. Given N, N^ and C, or one
practical
all
which
for
method,
graphic
a
by
angles
the
find
ro and v are the axes of gears
purposes is accurate enough
;

On these axes we
forming angle / (see diagram, Fig. 11.)
v representing the ratio of the number
r and
lay off lines
and
r
z;,
of teeth (velocity ratio), so that N^ N,,
:

.?

.f

Fig, 11.

r s v.
Then, according to McCord,* the angles formed by the tangent s oxn the pitch contact
with the axes of the gears insures the least amount of
sliding.
In bisecting angle y by tangent u
and using angles
produced in this manner we equally distribute the end thrust on
both shafts. Both methods have their advantages to profit
by both we select angles a^ and a^^ produced by tangent x,
bisecting angle u
s.
Thus we have when angles are found and C given,

construct parallelogram

p/ji

TT

N cos
and when

D^^

cos a^ cos al
ajj

-\-

Nj,

cos a

given

p/)i

7t

cos a^

and

=
7t

COS

ai,

## * McCord, Kinematics, page

378.

providence,

r.

43

i.

General Formulas.

D = FN

or

TV

B=D +

2^

P"

or

or

cos

pw

P' cos
7t

p'?i

p= N
P'"

cos

TT

(Pitch of cutter.)

or
TT

2X

+
lO

T= N
Lx

= N

P^

tan

L =

lo

cos

_N7^

or

WG

(6'^<?

SG.
cos 45
cos' 45
tan 45 =:

Note
Use No.

i,

.1

"
"

"

"

2.

tan

P'
o'

cos a

7071
.50
1.

000

cutter for

'*

Note
machine

or

Ptan a

from

" "
" "
" "

Gears

55 to 134

"

35 to
26 to

"

Ci
it
u
5

135 up.

"

(1

54

34

from

21 to 25

..

..

17 to 20

14

t(

(I

(<

14 to 16

"

"

"

"

12 to 13

## used on spiral head and bed for Brown

W = number of teeth
=
Gi =
S =
Gi

"

"

''

"
"

"

in

&

Sharpe milling

gear on worm.
"
stud.
2d "
stud.
ist

"

screw.

Should a spiral head of different construction be used, the formula might not
apply.

BROWN

44

The

following data

SHARPE MFG.

&

is

CO.

## gears in a Universal Milling Machine, and

convenient to arrange

in table

it

it

will

be found

form as follows
GEAR.

"Mr

r>f

_____

Tf^f^th

Outside Diameter

Angle

of

PINION.

---------________
_-__-_
Tooth

nf r'ntfpr-

Pil-rVi

Thickness of

Whole Depth

D''

+f

of Spiral

Worm

Gear on
1st

Gear on Stud

Gear on Screw

## the exact lead Li can be obtained by the gears at hand,

we shall have from the formula

If

_ 10 W

G,

S Gi

U _ W_G2
Example

(for B.

S Gi

10

&

S.

I.

## Required the gears for cutting a

2^

=i_
I

--

Milling Machine.)

spiral of

2^"

factoring,

## the most simple way,

28

_ 32

28

4"^2X2~"56x2'^56 Y64

G.,

S Gi

we have

PROVIDENCE,

R.

I.

45

will be 32 T. on worm, 64 T.
28 T. 2nd on stud, and 56 T. on screw.
Trying these gears on the Milling Machine

on stud,

ist,

we

find that

## they cannot be used, and as we have no other regular gears

in the ratio of 2 to i that can be used we must try, by factoring, to get such ratios for the two pairs of gears as to be able
to use the gears at hand, bearing in
ratio

must be

that the

combined

J.

3x6

18

mind

24

~ 72 ~ 9T~8 ~ 9
4

64

""

24

72

48
64

## These gears are at hand and the combination can be used

on the machine, giving the exact lead of 2^".

Example

II,

## Required the gears for cutting a spiral of 8.639" l^^d.

8yVo%; reducing, by continued fractions, to a
smaller fraction of approximately the same value, as described
on pages 73 and 74
8.639

639

1000
639
361

( I

)639(

361

278

361

278
83

278
249
29

83
5

25

29

25

4)25(6
24

1)4(4
4

BROWN

46

1
?

i
1

SHARPE MFG.

&

2.

Tf

16

2 3

2^5^

"3^

CO.

154

63

2TT

S)

TDTJTJ-

## Selecting if as an approximation near enough for our

we are likely to find gears for,

we have
.mple

Ex-

in

1.

G,

S G,

10

216

108

10

250

125

X 12

25 X

9 X 48
100 X 5

factoring
72

we have

48

,,

= i"^^T^

'^^

^^^''

required,

## these being regular gears furnished with the Milling Machine.

Proof:
72

48

100

X 10

40

= 8.640 = L9
_

-.

..

'

o ^

8-639

T
=Li

In shops where

much work

is

done

in milling spirals

it

is

## from the smallest to the largest numbers of teeth that can be

This makes it possible, in most cases, to get closer
used.
approximations than could be otherwise obtained, and often
saves a great deal of figuring.

When

## enough approximation, one method to secure a closer

result is to add to or substract from the numerator and denominator of the fraction to be reduced, any numbers nearly
in proportion to the given fraction, seeing that the numbers
added or substracted are such as to make the fraction reducBy a little ingenuity and patience exable to lower terms.
close

in

this way.

Take, as an

'TOOO"

8639

10

lOOOO

-6-3-9-

to the

numerator and 10

Example

II.

PROVIDENCE,

R.

47

I.

## being in about the same ratio to each other as the numerator

and denominator of the fraction, we have

86394-9
loooo-f 10

= 8648 _ 4324 _ 47
= looio 5005 55

92

91

in

Example

II.

we

of 8.6393+,

find that

making an

No

this

trial.

## Another method is to multiply both terms of the fraction

by some number which will make one term of the fraction
easily reducible, and adding one to or subtracting it from the
ether term to make it possible to reduce that also.
There is an element of uncertainty in both of these
methods, as we never feel sure that we have obtained the
best combination; practical work, however, rarely requires
accuracy beyond a point that can readily be reached.
The accompanying list of prime numbers and factors will
be found useful in reducing and factoring fractions.

BROWN

48

SHARPE MFG.

&

CO.

## PRIME NUMBERS AND FACTORS.

TO

lOOO.
1

26

2x13

27

28

3
4

2-

2x3

8
9

10

3'

52

2^X13

77

7x11

2^X7

53

78

2x3x13

54

2x3-^

79

55

2x3x5
2"'

5x11

80

2-*x5

56

2'^x7

81

3^

57

3x19
2x29

82

2x41

33

3x11

58

3-

34

2x17

59

2x5

35

5x7

60

36

2=-'x3-'

61

2^x3

37

13

62

2x31

87

2^x3x7
5x17
2x43
3x29
2^X11

84
2^

X3X5

85

86

2x19

63

3^X7

88

39

3x13

64

2'^

89

2V.5

65

5x13

^^

2x3x11

2x3x7

67

2x7
3x5

40

16

2^

41
42

17

83

38

15

14

2^x19

2-3

11
12

76

31
32

3x17

29
30

51

91

2x3^x5
7x13

92

2^x23

2^x17

93

3x31

90

2x32

43
44

2^x11

69

3x23

94

20

2^x5

45

3^X5

70

2x5x7

95

2x47
5x19

21

3x7

46

2x23

71

96

2^X3

22

2x11

47

18

19

23

68

72

48

2^X3

74
75

24

2^X3

49

72

25

52

50

2x52

2^x32

97
98

2x7^

2x37

99

3^x11

3x52

100

2^x5^

73

PROVIDENCE,

131

101
102

2x3x17

103

R.

49

I.

.161

7x23
2x3^

132

2^x3x11

162

133

7x19

163

191
192

2x3

193

104

2^X13

134

2x67

164

2^x41

194

2x97

105

3x5x7

135

3^X5

165

3x5x11

195

3x5x13

106

2x53

136

2^x17

166

2x83

196

2^X7-

137

107
108

22x33

138

167
2

23

139

109

197

168

2'x3x7

198

109

13-

199

2x3^x11

170

2x5x 17

200

3x47

171

3^x19

201

3x67

2x71

172

2-X43

202

2x101

11x13

173

203

2^X3-^

174

2x3x29

204

7x29
2-x3xl7

5x29

175

5^x7

205

5x41

146

2x73

176

2^X11

206

2x103

147

3x7-

177

3x59

207

3-'x23

2x59

148

2^x37

178

2x89

208

2^x13

110

2x5X11

140

2^x5 X

111

3x37

141

112

2V7

142
143

114

2x3x19

144

115

5x23

145

116

2=^X29

117

3^x13

118

113

2'^X52

209

11x19

210

2x3x5x7

119

7x17

149

120

2"^X3X5

150

121

11^

151

181

122

2x61

152

2'^Xl9

182

2x7x13

212

2^X53

123

3x41

153

3-X17

183

3x61

213

3x71

124

2-^x31

154

2x7x11

184

2V23

214

2x107

125

5'

155

5x31

185

5x37

215

5x43

126

2x3^x7

156

2^X3X13

186

2x3x31

216

2=^X3-^

179
2

X3X

5^

180

22x3-x5

211
1

127

157

187

11

X17

217

7x31

188

2^x47

218

2x109

189

3^X7

219

3x73

190

2x5x19

220

2V5X11

128
129

130

2-7

3x43

2x5x13

158
159

160

2x79
3x53
2-^x5

BROWN

50

&

SHARPE MFG.

CO.

221

13x17

251

222

2x3x37

252

2^x3^x7

282

253

11x23

283

223

281

311

2x3x47

312

2^x3x13

313

2^X7

254

2X127

284

2^x71

314

2X157

225

3^x52

255

3x5x17

285

315

3'x5x7

226

2x113

256

286

3x5x19
2x11x13

316

2^x79

224

228

287

7x41

317

258

2x3x43

288

2^X3=^

318

2x3x53

259

7x37

289

17'

319

11x29

2^x5x13

257

227

2^x3x19

229

2x5x23
3X7X11

260

290

2x5x29

320

2x5

231

261

3^x29

291

3x97

321

3x107

232

2=^X29

262

2x131

292

2^x73

230

233
234

293

263

2x3^x13

264

2^x3x11

294

322

X 7 X 23

323

17x19

324

2^X3*

2x3x7'
5x59

325

5^X13

2x163

235

5x47

265

5x53

295

236

2^x59

266

2x7x19

296

2-^x37

326

237

3x79

267

3x89

297

3^X11

327

3x109

238

2x7x17

268

2^X67

298

2x149

328

2^X41

299

13x23

329

239
240

269

2^x3x5

2x3^x5

2x11'

300 2^x3x5'
301

7x43

331

272

2^X17

302

2x151

332

22x83

271

241
242

270

7x47
330 2X3X5X11

243

i\'

273

3x7x13

303

3x101

333

3'x37

244

2^x61

274

2x137

304

2^X19

334

2x167

245

5X7'

275

5^x11

305

335

246

2x3x41

276

2^x3x23

5x67
2^x3x7

247

13x19

277

248

2^X31

278

249

3x83

279

250

2x5^

280

306

5x61
2x3^x17
2'x7xll

338

2x13'

309

3X103

339

310

2x5x31

340

3x113
2'x5xl7

2X139

308

3^x31
2^

X5X7

336

337

307

PROVIDENCE,

7x53
2^x3x31

401

374

2X11X17

3x5x23

375

3x5^

2x173

376

377
378

2x3'^X7

341

11x31

371

342

2x3^X19

372

343

373

344

2^X43

345
346

347
348

2^x3x29

51

431

2x3x67

432

403

13x31

433

404

2-xlOl

434

2x7x31

405

3^X5

435

2-^x47

406

2x7x29

436

2^x109

13x29

407

11X37

437

19x23

408 2=^x3x17

438

2x3x73

409

439

879

349

R.

402

2^X3'^

X 5 X 29

350

2x5^x7

380

2-X5X19

410

2x5x41

351

3^X13

381

3x127

411

3x137

441

3^X7^

352

2^X11

382

2x191

412

2^x103

412

2x13x17

413

7x59

443

383

353

440 2^^X5x11

354

2x3x59

384

2'x3

414

2x3^x23

444

2^x3x37

355

5x71

385

5x7x11

415

5x83

445

356

2^x89

386

2X193

416

2^X13

446

5x89
2x223

357

3x7x17

387

3-X43

417

3x139

447

3x149

358

2X179

388

2-X97

418

2x11x19

448

2x7

389

359

419

449

420 2^X3X5X7

450

2x3^x5'

451

11X41

2x211

452

2-X113

3x151

360

2^x3^x5

390

2X3X5X13

361

192

391

17x23

421

362

2x181

392

2'^X7-

422

363

3x11^

393

3X131

423

3^X47

453

364

2^x7x13

394

2x197

424

2^X53

454

2x227

365

5x73

395

5x79

366

2x3x61

367

425

5-X17

455

5x7x13

396 2^x32x11

426

2x3x71

456

2^x3x19

397

427

7x61

457

368

2^X23

398

2x199

428

2-X107

458

2x229

369

3^x41

399

3x7x19

429

459

3'^X17

370

2x5x37

400

2*X52

430

3X11X13
2X5X43

460

2^x5x23

BROWN

52

2X3X7X11

492

CO.

521

491

461
462

SHARPE MFG.

&

2'^x3x41

522

2x3^x29

551

19x29

552

2^x3x23

463

493

17x29

523

553

7x79

464

2^X29

494

2x13x19

524

2^x131

554

2x277

465

3x5x31

495

3^x5x11

525

3x5^x7

555

3x5x37

466

2x233

2^X139

496

2*X31

526

2x263

556

467

497

7x71

527

17x31

557

468 2^x32x13

498

2x3x83

528

2*x3xll

558

2x3^x31

529

232

559

2x5x53

560

469

7x67

499

470

2x5x47

500

22x5-^"

530

471

3x157

501

3x167

531

3-X59

561

13x43
2^X5X7
3x11x17

472

2^X59

502

2X251

532

2-X7X19

562

2x281

473

11X43

503

533

13x41

563

474

X3X

79

475

5^x19

476

2^x7x17

504

23x3^x7

534

2x3x89

564

2^x3x47

505

5x101

535

5x107

565

5x113

536

2'^X67

566

2x283

506 2 X

1 1

23

477

3^X53

507

3x13^'

537

3x179

567

3*X7

478

2x239

508

2^x127

538

2x269

568

2^X71

539

7=^X11

569

2X3X5X17

540

22x3'^x5

570

479

509

480

2'5x3x5

510

481

13x37

511

482

2x241
X

483

X 23

7x

73

541

2x3X5X19

571

512

29

542

2x271

572

2^x11x13

513

3-^x19

543

3x181

573

3x191

514

2x257

544

2^X17

574

2x7x41

5x109
2X3X7X13

575

5^X23

576

2X32

484

2^x11^

485

5x97

515

5x103

545

486

2x3^

516

2-x3x43

546

487

517

11x47

547

488

2^x61

518

2x7x37

548

2^x137

578

2x172

489

3x163

519

3x173

549

3^X61

579

3x193

520

2^x5x13

550

2X5=^X11

580

2^x5x29

490

X 5 X 72

577

PROVIDENCE,

R.

I.

53

581

7x83

611

13x47

641

582

2x3x97

612

2^x3^x17

642

583

11x53

613

584

2'^X73

614

2x307

644

2^x7x23

585

3^x5x13

615

3x5x41

645

586

2x293

616

2^x7x11

646

2x3x107

643

X5

672

2^x3x7

674

2x337

X 43

675

3'^X52

2x17x19

676

2^x132

2-^x3x7^

618

589

19x31

619

590

2x5x59

620

650

591

3x197

621

3'^X23

651

592

2^X37

622

2x311

652

2-X163

647
648

2->x3*

678

649

11X59

679

2x3x113
7x97

2X5^X13

680

2'x5xl7

3x7x31

681

3x227

682

2x11x31

683

623

7x89

653

594

2x3''xll

624

2^x3x13

654

2x3x109

595

5x7x17

625

b'

655

5x131

685

2x7^

593

684 2-^x32x19

5x137

596

2=^X149

626

2x313

656

2^X41

686

597

3x199

627

3x11x19

657

3-^x73

687

3x229

598

2x13x23

62S

2-^X157

658

2x7x47

688

2^X43

599
600

629

2^X3X5^

630

677

617

588

2^x5x31

11X61

673

587

2x3x103

671

689

659
17x37
2X3-X5X7 660 2^X3X5X11 690 2X3X5X23'
691

631

661

2x7x43

632

2'X79

662

2x331

692

2^x173

603

3^x67

633

3x211

663

3x13x17

693

3^X7X11

601
602

604

2^x151

634

2x317

664

2'^X83

694

2x347

605

5xlP

635

5x127

665

5x7x19

695

5x139

606

2x3x101

636

2-x3x53

666

2X3-X37

696

2''X3X29

X 29

697

17x41

2x349

607

637

7^X13

667

23

608

2^X19

638

2x11x29

668

2^X167

698

639

3^'X71

669

X 223

699

X 29

609

610

2x5x61

640

2^X5

670

2x5x67

700

3
2-

X 233
X

ir

BROWN

54

&

SHARPE MFG.

CO.

731

17x43

761

702

2x3^x13

732

2^x3x61

762

2x3x127

703

19x37

733

763

7x109

793

704

2Xll

734

2x367

764

2-X191

794

2x397

705

3x5x47

735

X5X

765

3^x5x17

795

3x5x53

706

2x353

736

2^X23

766

2x383

796

2^x199

707

7x101

737

11X67

767

13x59

797

708

2^x3x59

738

2x3^x41

768

2x3

798

2X3X7X19

799

17x47

2X5X7X11

800

2^X5^

701

711

769

7x113
13x61

2x5x71

740

2^x5x37

770

3^x79

741

3x13x19
2x7x53

771

3x257

801

3^x89

772

2^x193

802

2x401

803

11

712

2X89

742

713

23x31

743

714

2X3X7X17

744

2'^x3x31

774

715

5x11x13

745

5x149

775

716

2^X179

746

2x373

776

717

3x239

747

3=^X83

718

2x359

748
749

2x3x5^

719
720

2^X3-'X5

750

721

7x103

751

722

2x192

752

723

3x241

753

724

2^x181

754

725

5-'x29

755

726

2x3xlP

756

773

2^x7x13

2x3^x43

804

X73

2^x3x67

5^X31

805

5x7x23

2^X97

806

2x13x31

777

3x7x37

807

3x269

22x11x17

778

2x389

808

2=^X101

7x107

779

809
19x41
780 2^X3X5X13 810 2x3^x5

781

11X71

811

782

2x17x23

812

3x251

783

3-5x29

813

3x271

2x13x29

784

2^X7^

814

2x11x37

5x151

785

5x157

815

5x163

2^x3^x7

786

2x3x131

816

2^x3x17

817

19x43

2^X47

757

727

787

2-X7X29

758

2x379

788

2-^x197

818

2x409

729

759

3x11x23

789

3x263

819

730

2x5x73

760

2^x5x19

790

2x5x79

820

3^x7x13
2^x5x41

728

7^

739

709
710

791

792 2^x3^x11

PROVIDENCE,

R.

I.

55

.,

821
822

2x3x137

851

23x37

881

852

2^x3x71

882

853

823

911

2x3^x72

912

2^x3x19

883

913

11x83

884

2^x13x17 914

2x457

854

2x7x61

3x5^x11

855

3^x5x19

885

3x5x59

915

3x5x61

2x7x59

856

2^X107

886

2x443

916

2^x229

917

7x131

2x3^x17

824

2^X103

825

826

857

827
828 2^x3^x23

887

858 2x3x11x13

859

829

888

2^^x3x37

918

889

7x127

919

2x5x89

920

2^X5X23

830

2x5x83

860

2^x5x43

890

831

3x277

861

3x7x41

891

3^X11

921

3x307

832

2xl3

862

2x431

892

2^x223

922

2x461

833

7^x17

863

893

19x47

923

13x71

864

2^X33

894

2x3x149

865

5x173

895

5x179

925

5^x37

834
835

2x3x

139

5x167

924 2^x3X7X11

836

2^x11x19 866

2x433

896

2^X7

926

2x463

837

3^X31

867

3x172

897

3x13x23

927

3^x103

838

2x419

868

2^x7x31

898

2x449

928

2^X29

839
840

869
899
11x79
29x31
929
2^X3X5X7 870 2X3X5X29 900 2^x32x52 930 2X3X5X31
901

17x53

931

7^x19

2^x109

902

2^x233

903

2x11x41
3x7x43

932

3^x97

933

3x311

2x19x23

904

2^X113

934

2x467

5^X7

905

5x181

935

5x11x17

906

2x3x151

292

871

13x67

842

2x421

872

843

3x281

873

844

2^x211

874

5x132

875

841

845

2^x3x73

846

2x3^x47

876

847

7xlP

877

848

2^X53

878

2x439

908

2^x227

938

2x7x67

849

3x283

879

X 293

909

3^x101

939

3x313

850

2x5^x17

880

910

2X5X7X13

940

2^x5x47

937

907

2^x5x11

936 2=^x3^x13

BROWN

56

&

SHARPE MFG.

CO.

986

2x17x29

2^x239

971

942

2x3x157

957

3x11x29

972

2^x3^

987

3x7x47

943

23x41

958

2x479

973

7x139

988

2^x13x19

944

2^X59

959

7x137

974

2x487

989

23x43

945

3^x5x7
2x11x43

960

2x3x5

975

3x5-xl3

976

2^X61

941

946

947

956

961

962

31^

2x13x37 977

990 2x32X5X11

991
992

2'x31

948

2-x3x79

963

3^x107

978

2x3x163

993

3x331

949

13x73

964

2^x241

979

11x89

994

2x7x71

950

2X5-X19

965

5x193

980

2^X5X7=^

995

5x199

951

3x317

966

2X3X7X23

981

3-X109

996

2^x3x83

952

2^x7x17

967

982

2x491

997

953

968

2^X11-^

3x17x19
2x5x97

954

2x3^x53

969

955

5x191

970

983
984 2'^x3x41
985

5x197

998

2x499

999

3"x37

1000

2'^X5'^
1

PROVIDENCE,

R.

CHAPTER

S7

I.

VX.

INTERNAL GEARING.
PART A. INTERNAL SPUR GEARiNG.
(Figs. 12, 13, 14, 15, 16.)

little

consideration will

or annular gear

is

of an internal

external

gear.

We

## prefer the epicycloidal form of tooth in this class of

gearing to the involute form, for the reason that the difficulties
in overcoming the interference of gear teeth in the involute
system are considerable. Special constructions are required

when

pinion

is

number

of teeth in gear

and

small.

form of tooth

in

which

## the gear of 15 teeth has radial flanks, this difference must be

at least 15 teeth, if the teeth have both faces and flanks. Gears

## condition present no difficulties.

Their pitch
diameters are found as in regular spur gears, and the inside
diameter is equal to the pitch diameter, less twice the addenfulfilling this

dum.
If,

then

we may

is

less

than

15,

say

6,

or

2,

or

i,

## construct the tooth outline (based on the epicy-

cloidal system) in

First Method.

two

different ways.

To explain

this

method

## pose the case as in Fig. 12, in which the difference between

gear and pinion is more than 15 teeth. Here the point o of
the describing circle B (the diameter of which in the best
practice of the present day is equal to the pitch radius of a 15
tooth gear, of the same pitch as the gears in question) generates the cycloid o, o', o^, o^, etc., when rolling on pitch circle
L L of gear, forming the face of tooth and when rolling on
the outside of L L the flank of the tooth. In like manner is the
face and flank of the pinion tooth produced by B rolling outA little study
side and inside of E E (pitch circle of pinion).
;

BROWN

58
of Fig.

12

produced)

(in

will

## show the describing

circle

divided into 12

equal parts and circles laid through these points (i, 2, 3, etc.),
concentric with L L. We now lay off on L L the distances
o-i, 1-2, 2-3, etc., of the circumference of B, and obtain points

PROVIDENCE,
i^,

2\

3^, etc.

[Ordinarily

R.

59

I.

## sufficient to use the chord.]

it is

It

on L L will successively come in contact with i', 2', 3', etc., c meanwhile moving
to c\ r', r^, etc. (points on radii through i\ 2\ ^\ etc.), and the
generating point o advancing to o\ o^, o^, etc., being the intersections of B with c^j c^^ r', etc., as centers and the circles laid
through I, 2, 3, etc. Points o, o\ o^ o^, etc., connected with a
will

now

in rolling

obtained.
In this

in like

of tooth

and pinion

is

manner the
obtained,

than

flank

when

is

the

15,

with the

in gears.

is

less

## exception that the diameter of describing circle

-y-<^-^)
where P = diametral

The

pitch,

## when the difference in gear and

very small, where we obtain a short tooth, as in Figs.
In such a case the height of tooth is arbitrary and
13 and 14.
only conditioned by the curve. In internal gears it is best to
allow more clearance at bottom of tooth than in ordinary spur
gears by the pitch, except
pinion

is

gears.

29

TeetJi

42

T.

8 P.

30

TeetJi

Fig. 13.

tooth outline

An

many

times

full size

AB

it

is

6o

BROWN

&

SHARPE MFG.

CO.

PROVIDENCE,

R.

6l

I.

## Second Method. The difference between gear and pinion

being very small, it is sometimes desirable to obtain a smooth
action by avoiding what is termed the " friction of approaching action."* This is done, the pinion drivings by giving gear
only flanks, Fig. 15, and the gear driving., by giving gear only
In both these cases we have but one describfaces, Fig. 16.
ing circle, whose diameter is equal to the difference of the two
pitch diameters. The construction of the curve is precisely
the same as described under A. The describing circle has
been divided into 24 parts simply for the sake of greater
accuracy.

(Fig.

The
are at a

17.)

## pitch surfaces of bevel gears are cones

common

point, rolling

upon each

whose apexes

other.

The tooth

forms for any given pair of bevel gears are the same as for a
pair of spur gears (of same pitch) whose pitch radii are equal to
the respective apex distances of the normal cones (/. f., cones
whose elements are perpendicular upon the elements of the
bevel gear pitch cones).
(Compare Fig 19, page 67.)

The same

is

## true of internal bevel gears, with the modifica-

tion that here one of the pitch cones rolls inside of the other.

The spur gears to whose tooth forms the forms of the bevel
gear teeth correspond, resolve themselves into internal spur
gears (Fig. 17). The problem is now to be solved as indicated
in the first part of this chapter.

107, io8.

62

BROWN

&

SHARPE MFG.

8 P.

Gear 40 Teeth
JPinion 20 Teeth

Fig. 17.

CO.

PROVIDENCE,

R.

CMAPTER

63

VII.

GEAR PATTERNS.
(Fig. 18.)

## To place in bevel gears the best iron where it belongs, the

tooth side of the pattern should always be in the nowel, no
matter of what shape the hubs

are.

## if long they should

long hub should go on a tapering arbor, to
prevent tipping in the sand. 1 taper for draft on hubs when
loose, and 3 when solid is considered sufficient.

Hubs,

if

short,

## Coreprints as a rule are made separate, partly to allow the

pattern to be turned on an arbor, partly for convenience,

should

it

## Put rap- and draw-holes as near

sizes.

to

center as possible.

## Referring to Fig. 18, make L = D for D from y^" to i>^", or

even more, should hubs be very long. Otherwise if D is more
i>^^
than I >^" leave

L=

waxed.
Shrinkage

For

brass,

yV'

Yi^^

per foot.

arm

"

Up

From
"

"

## to \2" diameter allow no shrink.

"
"
Yi regular shrink.
''
"
18" to 24"
"
>^
"
"
24" to 48"
yi
"
"
.10"
"
"
Above 48"

12" to 18"

for cast-iron.

64

BROWN

&

SHARPE MFG.

CO.

PROVIDENCE,

R.

65

I.

## gears the teeth are to be cast, the tooth thickness t in

is made smaller than called for by the pitch, to avoid
binding of the teeth when cast. No definite rule can be given,
If in

the pattern

etral pitches

on

we would

this point.

making

For the
/

different

smaller by an

DiAM Pitch.

Amount
IS

Smaller.

16

.010"

12

DiAMo Pitch,

diam-

amount

Amount
IS

Smaller.

.020''

.012"

.022''

10

.014"

.026'^

.016"

.030''

.018"

.040''

BROWN

66

CHAPTER

VIII.

CUTTERS.
(Fig. 19.)

to determine the

P=

## form and thickness of a

pitch.

N= number of teeth in

large gear.

## n = number of teeth in small gear.

F = length of face of tooth, measured on pitch line.
After having laid out a diagram of the pitch cones a d c and

into two parts

of face, the

problem resolves

itself

Part

I.

## be remembered that in the involute system of cutters

one used for bevel gears that are cut with rotary
cutter), a set of eight different cutters is made for each
pitch, numbering from No. i to No. 8, and cutting from
a rack to 12 teeth. Each number represents the form of
For
a cutter suitable to cut the indicated number of teeth.
instance, No. 4 cutter (No. 4 curve) will cut 26 to 34 teeth.
In order to find the curve to be used for gear and pinion
we simply construct the normal pitch cones by erecting
the perpendicular p q through b, Fig. 19. We now measure the
lines b q and b p, and taking them as radii, multiplying each by
2 and P we obtain a number of teeth for which cutters of
proper curves may be selected. From example we have
No. 2 curve.
Gear : b q 9^" 2 X P X 9.75 = 97 T
Pinion: b p = 3>^"
2 X P X 3-5
= 35 T No. 3 curve.
It will

(the only

The

No.

"

"

"
"

''

((,

a
((
((

((

in the involute

"

"

will cut

((

55
35
26
21

134 teeth
"
54
"
34
25

''

17

20

14

16

"
"

12

13

"

system

PROVIDENCE,

R.

67

BROWN

68

## Part II. Determine Thickness of Cutter.

It is very evident that a bevel gear cutter cannot be thicker
than the width of the space at small end of tooth the practice
is to make cutter .005" thinner. Theoretically the cutting angle
(/i) is equal to pitch angle less angle of bottom (or /i = a fi').
Practically, however, better results are obtained by making
h = a f3 (substituting angle of top for angle of bottom), and
in calculating the depth at small end, to add the full clearance
(/) to the obtained working depth, giving equal amount of
clearance at large and small end. This is done to obtain a
tooth thinner at the top and more curved.
As the small end
of tooth determines the thickness of cutter, we shall have to
From the diagram it
find the tooth part values at small end.
will be seen that the values at large end are to those at small
;

The
end as their respective apex distances {a b and a I).
numerical values of these can be taken from the diagram and
the quotient of the larger in the smaller is the constant wherewith to multiply the tooth values at large end, to obtain those
In our example we find
at small end.
:

ab=c,^

S
"^^

For

P we uhave
-d

= .2057
= .1310
/ = :3i4

/=.3i4i
s

ir

/'

.2000

/=.o3i4
+/=.23i4
D" + /= .4314.

/ +/=.i624

^'

D"'

- -^310

+/=.2934

## evident that a spur gear cutter

From
could not be used, since a bevel gear cutter must be thinnen
If in gears of more than 30 teeth the faces are proportionately long, we select a cutter whose curve corresponds to the
midway section of the tooth. The curve of the cutter is found
the foregoing

it

is

in Part

I.

of this Chapter.

PROVIDENCE,

R.

CHAPITER

69

IX.

## DIRECTIONS FOR CUTTING BEVEL GEARS

WITH ROTARY CUTTER.
(Fig.

In order to obtain

20.)

## good results, the gear blanks must be

The following sizes for each end

the tooth

of
of

## Total depth of tooth.

Thickness of tooth at pitch line.
Height of tooth above pitch line.

These

## obtained as explained in Chapter VIII.

further know the cutting angle (see
formula on page 13 and compare Chapter VIII.), and be provided with the proper tools with which to measure teeth, etc.
sizes are

1.

2.

line.

3.

4.

## number of teeth to be cut,

numbered row of holes,

## set the pointer (or in some machines the

screw of millmg machine to zero line.

and

5.

large

dial)

on cross-feed

## As a matter of precaution, mark the depth to be cut for

and small end of tooth on their respective places.

6.

marks

## Cut two or three

in depth.

The

teeth in blank to

teeth will

now be

## too thick on both their

pitch circles.
7. Set the cutter off the center by moving the saddle to or
from the frame of the machine by means of the cross-feed
must not be moved further than what to good judgment

70

BROWN

&

SHARPE MFG.

Eig. 20.

CO.

PROVIDENCE,

R.

Jl

I.

## appears as not excessive at the same time bearing in mind

that an equal amount of stock is to be taken off each side of
;

tooth.
8.

is

moved

off

## in the opposite direction from which the

the center, and trim the sides of teeth (A)

(Fig. 20.)
9.

## Then move the saddle the same distance on the opposite

and rotate the gear an equal amount in the

side of center

10.

If

off

still

move

the

## the center and repeat the operation, bearing

mind that the gear must be rotated and the saddle moved
an equal amount each way from their respective zero settings.

in

It is

## file the sides of teeth above the

on the small ends of teeth, as indicated
This applies to pinions of less than 30

generally necessary to

pitch line

more or

by dotted

lines

less

F.

teeth.

## For gears of coarser pitch than 5 diametral it is best to

cut around before attempting to obtain the tooth

make one

thickness.

## The formulas for obtaining the dimensions and angles of

gear blanks are given in Chapter III.

BROWN

72

CHAPTER

X.

(Fig. 21

Change Gear

Fig. 21,

## In indexing on a machine the question simply

is
advance a unit division of the number required. To which

many
is

divisions of the

to

the

= divisions
number

of

machine index

to be

indexed

to be 2i6.

Example

I.

Index

72.

216
72

=3

(3

turns of v/orm).

machine

PROVIDENCE,

Example

II.

Index

R.

I.

73

123.

=i +

-93

123

123

## now we should put on worm shaft a change gear having

teeth, give the worm shaft, Fig. 21, one turn, and in addi-

If

123

## advance 93 teeth of the change gear (to give the

we would have indexed correctly one unit of
the given number, and so solved the problem. Should we not
have change gear 123 we may try those on hand. The question then is
How many teeth (x) of the gear on hand (for
instance 82) must we advance to obtain a result equal to the
one when advancing 93 teeth of the 123 tooth gear? We have
tion thereto

fractional turn),

-^ = -Example

III.

= -i
365

Here

147

is

= ^^

where x

82

123

where

;^

87

-^
365

147

## we advanceS^teeth of our 147 tooth

in so doing we advance too fast and

of 365

that

To avoid having

will

many when

## three teeth of our change gear too

completed.

gear.

this error

show

It is

evident

have indexed
the circle

in its total

is

amount

between the last and the first division, we can distribute the
error by dropping one tooth at a time at three even intervals.

Example

IV.

Index
7^

=
190

igo.

.26

216 _

""

-^

where j

12

88

88

190

## To distribute the error in this

tcoth ot a time of the change gear at eight even intervals.
Example V.

Index 117.3913.
216
117.3913

986087
1173913

## This example is in nowise different from the preceding

ones, except that the fraction is expressed in large numbers.
This fraction we can reduce to lower approximate values,
which for practical purposes are accurate enough. This is
done by the method of continued fractions. [For an explana-

BROWN

74

method we

tion of this

## & SHARPE MFG. CO.

refer to our " Practical Treatise

on

Gearing."]
986087
II739I3
986087) II739I3 (I

986087
187826) 986087 (5

939130
46957) 187826 (3
140871
46955) 46957 (^

46955
2)

46955 (23477
46954

1)2(2
2
0"

986087

"V39M

5+1
3

+1
i

+i
23477

+1
2

If^

a^

Note.

c=s
d=

16

21

23477
493033

ig

25

586944

^1=1
1

Find

the

=
=

first

d^
two

fractions

by reduction
^

986087
1173913

= - and
II
+
,

^
,

the

The

fraction

is

<^

+^

"

worm

shaft,

(beside

Of

## any but the correct fraction we have an

we index a division so that when indexed
whole circle, we have multiplied this error by the

course, in using

around the

number

of divisions.

is

## difference between the correct and the approximate fraction

used. Reducing both common fractions to decimal fractions

we have

-5

.84000006

1173913
21

=.84000000
.00000006

= error

in

each division.

PROVIDENCE,

R.

I.

75

1 17.3913 = .00000704348
total error in complete
This error is expressed in parts of a unit division. (To
find this error expressed in inches, multiply it by the distance
between two divisions, measured on the circle.) In this case
the approximate fraction being smaller than the correct one,

.00000006 X

circle.

in indexing the

whole

we

circle

fall

short .00000704348 of a

division.

Example

VI.-

15708
983) 1309(1

983
326) 983 (3

978
5) 326 (65

30
26
25

1)5(5
5

o
983
1309

+1
3+1
65

65
196

261

983
1309

## In using the approximation |^f ^ the error for each division

(found as above) will be .000002927, for the whole circle
.0000460. In this case, the approximation being larger than
the correct fraction, we overreach the circle by the error.

/6

BROWN

CHAPTER

XI.

CUTTING.
(Figs. 22, 23.)

## The problem of cutting a screw on a lathe resolves itself into

connecting the lathe spindle with the lead screw by a train of
gears in such a manner that the carriage (which is actuated by

Simple a earing.

Fig. 22.

PROVIDENCE,

R.

77

I.

## some definite dismakes a number of revolutions

tance, while the lathe spindle

## equal to the number of threads to be cut per inch.

The lead screw has, with the exception of a very few cases,
always a single thread, and to advance the carriage one inch it
therefore makes a- number of revolutions equal to its number

## Should the lead screw have double

accomplish the same result, make a number
of revolutions equal to half its number of threads per inch. It

it

will, to

follows that

we must know

in

the

first

place the

number

of

BROWN

78

## & SHARPE MFG. CO.

It ought to be clearly understood that one or more intermediate gears, which simply transmit the motion received from
one gear to another, in no wise alter the ultimate ratio of a
train of gearing.
An even number of intermediate gears
simply change the direction of rotation, an odd number do not

alter

it.

## The gearing of a lathe to solve a problem in screw cutting

can be accomplished by
A. Sim. pie gearing.
B.

Compound

gearing.

## Referring to the diagrams, Figs. 22 and 23, we have in Fig.

and in Fig. 23 a case of compound gear-

22 a case of simple,
ing.

## In simple gearing the motion from gear

either directly to gear

Ron

is

transmitted

## lead screw or through the interme-

diate F.
In compound gearing the motion of E is transmitted
through two gears (G and H) keyed together, revolving on the
same stud ;?, by which we can change the velocity ratio of the
motion while transmitting it from E to R. With these four
variables E, G, H, R, we are enabled to have a wider range of
changes than in simple gearing.

B and
as

If,

is

equals gear D,

we

disregard

## them both, simply remembering that gear E (being fast on

same shaft with D) makes as many revolutions as the spindle.
Sometimes gear D is twice as large as gear A, then, still considering gear E as making as many revolutions as the spindle,

we

per inch as

it

many

measures.

SIMPLE GEARING.
Let there be
expressed by
s

L
I.

the

number

^

5:

then

and

PROVIDENCE,
If

will

now one

be

two gears

of the

R.

and

I.

79

is

2.

""f

-p

## The above holds good when

a fractional thread is to be
expressed in large numbers, as, for
instance, s = 2.833 (2TTHfV) we first reduce this fraction (y^o^) to
lower approximate values by the process of continued fraction
3.

cut,

but

(see

pages 73 and

if

the fraction

is

74).

833) ICOO

(I

833
167) 833 (4

668
165) 167
165

(I

2) 165 (82

16

"^
1)2(2
2

156

82

414

833
1000

_^

_5_

497

.S^^ (nearly)

and

6
If in this

case

L=

4,

E =

and we

select

R = 34

R=

## 48, then, since

COMPOUND GEARING.
In a lathe geared compound for cutting a screw the
4.
product of the drivers (E and H, Fig. 23) multiplied by the number of threads per inch to be cut must equal the product of the
driven (G and R) multiplied by the number of threads on lead
screw.

This

is

expressed by

E.H.^=G.R.Lor ^i^- =

BROWN

So
If

SHARPE MFG.

&

CO.

GR L

H=

^^
E

or

n =E H^
G
RL
E
H^
R

or

GL
L
RG
S=:
E

VL.E.H/
" 3,"

## a fractional thread is to be cut, as under

the fraction to lower approximate values.
If

Example. Gear

we reduce

.2327

2^27
-^J-

lOOOO

2327) lOOCO (4

9308
692) 2327 (3

2076
251) 692 (2

502
190) 251

(I

190
"61) 190 (3

183
7) 61 (8

5)7(1
5_

2j 5 (2

4
i) 2

(2.

43213
13
4

13

10

37

306

343

992

2327

30

43

159

^3^5

1474

4263

loooo

= .2327

(nearly)

and 5.2327

E=

43,

^ = E H
G
R L
.

j-

H=

52,

R =

we have ^
G
,

50,

and

^50
43

"43

43

Selecting

2_

1^2

K^^

ii-5
.

^g.
'^^

is

PROVIDENCE,

R.

8l

I.

## The examples so far given all deal with single thread.

5.
The pitch of a screw is the distance from center of one thread to
the center of the next. The lead of a screw is the advance for
each complete revolution. In a single thread screw the pitch
is equal to the lead, while in a double thread screw the pitch
in a triple thread screw equal to
is equal to one-half the lead
;

If

we have

/.

we

^.,

as

Example.

Gear

we would with

we have

for double

to gear

to obtain the

it,

our

in previous

is

-1-=:

num-

lathe.

1-=
As

we simply

etc.),

Number

is

.4654.

2.1487

-4654

examples,

we reduce

## to lower approximate values

the fraction

.l4S']=-^Jf-^-^^-Q

frac-

tion.

From

## the different values received in the usual

way we

select

\l

We have

= .1487

therefore

(nearly)

and

= 2^

2.1487

L =4
(E=74
^ G = 30
( H = 40

Selecting

G L
30 4
In using any but the original fraction we
.

## commit an error. This error

can be found by reducing the approximate fraction used to a decimal fraction, and
comparing it with the original fraction. In the above example the original fraction is
Note,

.1487

H=
Error

In

cutting

a multiple

correct

amount

and

14864

how

to

move

BROWN

82

## & SHARPE MFG. CO.

In cutting double, triple, etc., threads, if in simple or compound gearing the number of teeth in gear E is divisible by
then leaving the carriage
2, 3, etc., we so divide the teeth
at rest we bring gear E out of mesh and move it forward one
division, whereby the spindle will assume the correct position.
;

When E

## is not divisible we find how many turns (V) of

made to each full turn of the spindle. Dividing
this number by 2 for double, by 3 for triple thread, etc., we
advance R so many turns and fractions of a turn, being careful

gear

are

G.R
A

yS.)
formula
would
paragraph,
page
the
fifth
be
plained in

When

G. R.

## simple gearing both E and R are not divisible, one

or the faceto gear the lathe compound
plate may be accurately divided in two, three or more slots,
and all that is then necessary is to move the dog from one slot
If in

remedy would be