Anda di halaman 1dari 21

16/07/2015

SicilianDefenceWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

SicilianDefence
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

TheSicilianDefenceisachessopeningthatbeginswith
themoves:

SicilianDefence

1.e4c5
TheSicilianisthemostpopularandbestscoring
responsetoWhite'sfirstmove1.e4.1.d4isastatistically
moresuccessfulopeningforwhiteduetothehigh
successrateoftheSiciliandefenceagainst1.e4.[1]New
InChessstatedinits2000Yearbookthatofthegamesin
itsdatabase,Whitescored56.1%in296,200games
beginning1.d4,but54.1%in349,855gamesbeginning
1.e4,mainlyduetotheSicilian,whichheldWhitetoa
52.3%scorein145,996games.[2]
17%ofallgamesbetweengrandmasters,and25%ofthe
gamesintheChessInformantdatabase,beginwiththe
Sicilian.[3]Almostonequarterofallgamesusethe
SicilianDefence.[4]

1
a

Moves

1.e4c5

ECO

B20B99

GrandmasterJohnNunnattributestheSicilianDefence's
Origin
GiulioCesarePolerio,1594
popularityto"itscombativenatureinmanylinesBlack
Namedafter
Sicily
isplayingnotjustforequality,butfortheadvantage.The
Parent
King'sPawnGame
drawbackisthatWhiteoftenobtainsanearlyinitiative,
soBlackhastotakecarenottofallvictimtoaquick
attack."[5]GrandmasterJonathanRowsonconsideredwhytheSicilianisthemostsuccessfulresponseto
1.e4,eventhough1...c5developsnopieces,andthepawnonc5controlsonlyd4andb4.Rowsonwrites:
Tomymindthereisquiteastraightforwardexplanation.Inordertoprofitfromtheinitiative
grantedbythefirstmove,Whitehastomakeuseofhisopportunitytodosomethingbefore
Blackhasanequalnumberofopportunitiesofhisown.However,todothis,hehastomake
'contact'withtheblackposition.Thefirstpointofcontactusuallycomesintheformofapawn
exchange,whichleadstotheopeningoftheposition.Sothethoughtbehind1...c5isthis:
OK,I'llletyouopentheposition,anddevelopyourpiecesaggressively,butatapriceyou
havetogivemeoneofyourcenterpawns.
JonathanRowson,ChessforZebras:ThinkingDifferentlyAboutBlackandWhite[6]
TheearliestrecordednotesontheSicilianDefencedatebacktothelate16thcenturybytheItalianchess
playersGiulioPolerioandGioachinoGreco.[7][8]

Contents

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicilian_Defence

1/21

16/07/2015

SicilianDefenceWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Contents
1Generalconcepts
2History
3OpenSicilian:2.Nf3and3.d4
3.12...d63.d4cxd44.Nxd4Nf65.Nc3
3.1.1NajdorfVariation:5...a6
3.1.2DragonVariation:5...g6
3.1.3ClassicalVariation:5...Nc6
3.1.4ScheveningenVariation:5...e6
3.22...Nc63.d4cxd44.Nxd4
3.2.1SveshnikovVariation:4...Nf65.Nc3e5
3.2.2AcceleratedDragon:4...g6
3.2.3KalashnikovVariation:4...e55.Nb5d6
3.32...e63.d4cxd44.Nxd4
3.3.1TaimanovVariation:4...Nc6
3.3.2Kan(Paulsen)Variation:4...a6
3.3.3FourKnightsVariation:4...Nf65.Nc3Nc6
42.Nf3without3.d4:White'sthirdmovealternatives
4.12...d6without3.d4
4.1.1CanalSokolskyAttack:3.Bb5+
4.1.2Others
4.22...Nc6without3.d4
4.2.1NimzovichRossolimoAttack:3.Bb5
4.2.2Others
4.32...e6without3.d4
4.43.Bd3
52.Nf3:Black'ssecondmovealternatives
5.12...g6:HungarianVariation
5.22...a6:O'KellyVariation
5.32...Nf6:NimzovichRubinsteinVariation
5.4Others
6ClosedSicilian
7White'ssecondmovealternatives
7.1AlapinVariation:2.c3
7.2GrandPrixAttack:2.f4
7.3SmithMorraGambit:2.d4
7.4Others
8ECOcodes
9Seealso
10References
11Furtherreading

Generalconcepts

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicilian_Defence

2/21

16/07/2015

SicilianDefenceWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Byadvancingthecpawntwosquares,Blackassertscontroloverthed4squareandbeginsthefightforthe
centreoftheboard.Themoveresembles1e5,thenextmostcommonresponseto1.e4,inthatrespect.
Unlike1...e5,however,1...c5breaksthesymmetryoftheposition,whichstronglyinfluencesbothplayers'
futureactions.White,havingpushedakingsidepawn,tendstoholdtheinitiativeonthatsideoftheboard.
Moreover,1...c5doeslittleforBlack'sdevelopment,unlikemovessuchas1...e5,1...g6,or1...Nc6,which
eitherdevelopaminorpieceorpreparetodoso.InmanyvariationsoftheSicilian,Blackmakesanumber
offurtherpawnmovesintheopening(forexample,...d6,...e6,...a6,and...b5).Consequently,Whiteoften
obtainsasubstantialleadindevelopmentanddangerousattackingchances.
Meanwhile,advancingaqueensidepawnhasgivenBlackaspatialadvantagethereandprovidesabasisfor
futureoperationsonthatflank.Often,Black'sc5pawnistradedforWhite'sd4pawnintheearlystagesof
thegame,grantingBlackacentralpawnmajority.ThepawntradealsoopensthecfileforBlack,whocan
placearookorqueenonthatfiletoaidtheirqueensidecounterplay.

History
TheSicilianDefencewasanalysedbyGiulioPolerioinhis1594manuscriptonchess,[9]thoughhedidnot
usetheterm"SicilianDefence".[10]Itwaslaterthesubjectofanalysesbyleadingplayersoftheday
AlessandroSalvio(1604),DonPietroCarrera(c.1617),andGioachinoGreco(1623),andlaterComte
CarloFrancescoCozio(c.1740).ThegreatFrenchplayerandtheoreticianAndrDanicanPhilidoropined
oftheSicilianin1777,"Thiswayofopeningthegame...isabsolutelydefensive,andveryfarfrombeing
thebest...butitisaverygoodonetotrythestrengthofanadversarywithwhoseskillyouare
unacquainted."[11]
In1813,theEnglishmasterJacobHenrySarratteffectivelystandardisedhisEnglishtranslationofthename
ofthisopeningas"theSicilianDefence",referringtoanoldItalianmanuscriptthatusedthephrase,"il
giocosiciliano"("TheSicilianGame").[12]TheSicilianwasfairlypopularformuchofthenineteenth
centuryLouisCharlesMahdeLaBourdonnais,AdolfAnderssen,HowardStaunton,LouisPaulsen,and
CarlJaenischallplayeditwithsomeconsistency.InthenintheditionofModernChessOpenings,Walter
KornnotedthattheSicilian"receivedthreeofitsearliestpracticaltests,andabigboostinpopularity,inthe
1834MacDonnell[sic]LaBourdonnaismatch,1843StauntonSt.Amantmatch,andthe1851London
Tournament."[13]StauntonwroteoftheSicilian,"IntheopinionofJaenischandtheGerman'Handbuch',
withwhichIcoincide,thisisthebestpossiblereplyto1.PK4,[1.e4inalgebraicnotation]'asitrendersthe
formationofacentreimpracticableforWhiteandpreventseveryattack.'"[14]
Theopeningfelloutoffavourinthelaterpartofthenineteenthcentury,whensomeoftheworld'sleading
playersrejectedit.[A]PaulMorphy,theworld'sbestplayerinthelate1850s,decried"thatpernicious
fondnessfortheSicilianDefense...extendingfromabout1843tosometimeafter1851".[15]Wilhelm
Steinitz,thefirstWorldChampion,alsodislikedtheSicilianandrejecteditinfavourof1...e5.[B][16]The
deathoftheopening'stwogreatestproponents,StauntonandAnderssen,in1874and1879respectively,
alsocontributedtoitsdecline.Ithasbeensaidthat"theselossesalmostdealtaknockoutblowtothe
SicilianbecauseittookalongtimetofindsuchimportantfigurestocarrytheSicilian'sstandard."[17]
GeorgeH.D.Gossip,inTheChessPlayer'sManual,firstpublishedin1874,wrote,"Oflateyears...
discoverieshavebeenmadewhichhavetheeffectofconsiderablystrengtheningWhite'sattack,andthe
'Sicilian'isnowconsideredbymostmodernauthoritiestobeacomparativelyweakmodeofplay."[18]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicilian_Defence

3/21

16/07/2015

SicilianDefenceWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

FreeboroughandRanken,intheirtreatiseChessOpenings:AncientandModern(1889,1896),wrotethat
theSicilian"hadatonetimethereputationofbeingthebestreplyto1.PK4,butthishasnotbeen
confirmedbypopularpractice.Severaleminentplayershave,however,heldtotheopinionthatitisquite
trustworthy."[19][20]
TheSiciliancontinuedtobeshunnedbymostleadingplayersatthestartofthetwentiethcentury,as1...e5
heldcentrestage.Capablanca,WorldChampionfrom1921to1927,famouslydenounceditasanopening
where"Black'sgameisfullofholes".[21]Similarly,JamesMasonwrote,"Fairlytriedandfoundwanting,
theSicilianhasnowscarcelyanystandingasafirstclassdefence....[It]istoodefensive.Therearetoo
manyholescreatedinthePawnline.Commandofthefield,especiallyinthecentre,istooreadilygiven
overtotheinvadingforce."[22]SiegbertTarraschwrotethat1...c5"iscertainlynotstrictlycorrect,forit
doesnothingtowarddevelopmentandmerelyattemptstorenderdifficultthebuildingupofacentrebythe
firstplayer....[T]heSicilianDefenceisexcellentforastrongplayerwhoispreparedtotakeriskstoforcea
winagainstaninferioropponent.Againstbestplay,however,itisboundtofail."[23]TheSicilianwasnot
seenevenonceinthe75gamesplayedatthegreatSt.Petersburg1914tournament.[24]
Nonetheless,someleadingplayers,suchasEmanuelLasker(WorldChampionfrom1894to1921),Frank
Marshall,SaviellyTartakower,andAronNimzowitsch,andlaterMaxEuwe(WorldChampionfrom1935
to1937)playedtheSicilian.[25]EvenCapablanca[26][27]andTarrasch,[28]despitetheircriticalcomments,
occasionallyplayedtheopening.Itwasplayedsixtimes(outof110games)atNewYork1924.[29]The
followingyear,theauthorsofModernChessOpenings(4thedition)wrote,"TheSicilianhasclaimstobe
consideredasthebestoftheirregulardefencesto1.PK4atBlack'sdisposal,andhasbeenpractisedwith
satisfactoryresultsbytheleadingplayersoftheday."[C]InthisperiodBlack'sapproachwasusuallyslow
andpositional,andthealloutattacksbyWhitethatbecamecommonafterWorldWarIIhadnotyetbeen
developed.[30]
ThefortunesoftheSicilianwerefurtherrevivedinthe1940sand1950sbyplayerssuchasIsaac
Boleslavsky,AlexanderKotov,andMiguelNajdorf.ReubenFine,oneoftheworld'sleadingplayersduring
thistimeperiod,wroteoftheSicilianin1948,"Blackgivesupcontrolofthecentre,neglectshis
development,andoftensubmitstohorriblycrampedpositions.Howcanitbegood?Yet,thebrilliantwins
byWhitearematchedbyequallybrilliantwinsbyBlacktimeandagaintheBlackstructurehasbeenable
totakeeverythingandcomebackformore."[D]Later,BentLarsen,LjubomirLjubojevi,LevPolugaevsky,
LeonidStein,MarkTaimanov,andMikhailTalallmadeextensivecontributionstothetheoryandpractice
ofthedefence.ThroughtheeffortsofworldchampionsBobbyFischerandGarryKasparov,theSicilian
DefencebecamerecognisedasthedefencethatofferedBlackthemostwinningchancesagainst1.e4.Both
playersfavouredsharp,aggressiveplayandemployedtheSicilianalmostexclusivelythroughouttheir
careers,burnishingthedefence'spresentreputation.Today,mostleadinggrandmastersincludetheSicilian
intheiropeningrepertoire.SomeofthecurrenttoplevelplayerswhoregularlyuseitincludePeterLeko,
ViswanathanAnand,BorisGelfand,VassilyIvanchuk,AlexeiShirov,PeterSvidler,andVeselinTopalov.
In1990,theauthorsofModernChessOpenings(13thedition)notedthat"inthetwentiethcenturythe
Sicilianhasbecomethemostplayedandmostanalysedopeningatboththeclubandmasterlevels."[31]In
1965,inthetentheditionofthatbook,grandmasterLarryEvansobservedthat,"TheSicilianisBlack's
mostdynamic,asymmetricalreplyto1.PK4.Itproducesthepsychologicalandtensionfactorswhich
denotethebestinmodernplayandgivesnoticeofafiercefightontheveryfirstmove."[32]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicilian_Defence

4/21

16/07/2015

SicilianDefenceWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

OpenSicilian:2.Nf3and3.d4
Over75%ofgamesbeginningwith1.e4c5continuewith2.Nf3,whentherearethreemainoptionsfor
Black:2...d6,2...Nc6,and2...e6.LineswhereWhitethenplays3.d4arecollectivelyknownastheOpen
Sicilian,andresultinextremelycomplexpositions.Whitehasaleadindevelopmentandextrakingside
space,whichWhitecanusetobeginakingsideattack.ThisiscounterbalancedbyBlack'scentralpawn
majority,createdbythetradeofWhite'sdpawnforBlack'scpawn,andtheopencfile,whichBlackuses
togeneratequeensidecounterplay.

2...d63.d4cxd44.Nxd4Nf65.Nc3
Black'smostcommonmoveafter2.Nf3is2...d6.Thisprepares...Nf6
toattacktheepawnwithoutlettingWhitepushittoe5.Thegame
usuallycontinues3.d4cxd44.Nxd4Nf65.Nc3.Sometimesplayedis
3...Nf64.Nc3cxd45.Nxd4givingthesameresult.Blackcanthen
choosebetweenfourmajorvariations:inorderofdecreasing
popularity,thesearetheNajdorf(5...a6),Dragon(5...g6),Classical
(5...Nc6),andScheveningen(5...e6).TheVeniceAttack(5...e5
6.Bb5+)andKupreichikVariation(5...Bd7)arerarelyplayed.5...e5
isoftenconsideredsomethingofanerroronBlack'spartand5...Bd7
cantransposetooneofthemorecommonvariations,suchasthe
ClassicalorDragon,buttherearealsoanumberofindependentlines.

1
a

Thereareafewwaysforeithersidetodeviatefromthemovesgiven
Positionafter1.e4c52.Nf3d63.d4
above.After3...cxd4,Whiteoccasionallyplays4.Qxd4,the
cxd44.Nxd4Nf65.Nc3
ChekhoverVariation,intendingtomeet4...Nc6with5.Bb5Bd7
6.Bxc6,whenWhitehopesthattheirleadindevelopment
compensatesforBlack'sbishoppair.Blackcanavoidthislinebyplaying3...Nf6,when4.Nc3cxd45.Nxd4
returnstomainlines.However,Whitehastheoptionof4.dxc5!?,whenBlackcanplayeither4...Nxe4or
4...Qa5+.Anotherunusualsidelineis3...cxd44.Nxd4Nf65.f3!?,thePrinsVariation,whichtriesto
maintaintheoptionofc4withaMarczyBindformation.
NajdorfVariation:5...a6
TheNajdorfVariationisBlack'smostpopularsystemintheSicilianDefence.Najdorf'sintentionwith
5...a6wastoprepare...e5onthenextmovetogainspaceinthecentretheimmediate5...e5?!howeveris
metby6.Bb5+!,whenBlackmusteitherplay6...Bd7or6...Nbd7.TheformerallowsWhitetoexchangeoff
Black'slightsquaredbishop,afterwhichthed5squarebecomesveryweakbutthelatterallows7.Nf5,
whenBlackcanonlysavethedpawnbyplayingtheawkward7...a68.Bxd7+Qxd7.Inbothcases,White's
gameispreferable.
Thus,byplaying5...a6,BlackdeprivesWhiteofthecheckonb5,sothat...e5mightbepossiblenextmove.
Ingeneral,5...a6alsopreventsWhite'sknightsfromusingtheb5square,andhelpsBlackcreatequeenside
playbypreparingthe...b5pawnpush.Thisplanof5...a6followedby...e5representsBlack'straditional
approachintheNajdorfVariation.Later,GarryKasparovalsoadoptedthe5...a6moveorder,butwiththe
ideaofplaying...e6ratherthan...e5.Kasparov'spointisthattheimmediate5...e6(theScheveningen
Variation,discussedbelow)allows6.g4,whichisWhite'smostdangerouslineagainsttheScheveningen.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicilian_Defence

5/21

16/07/2015

SicilianDefenceWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Byplaying5...a6first,BlacktemporarilypreventsWhite'sg4thrust
andwaitstoseewhatWhiteplaysinstead.Often,playwilleventually
transposetotheScheveningenVariation.
Currently,White'smostpopularweaponagainsttheNajdorfis6.Be3.
ThisiscalledtheEnglishAttack,becauseitwaspopularisedby
EnglishgrandmastersMurrayChandler,JohnNunnandNigelShort
inthe1980s.White'sideaistoplayf3,Qd2,g4and000insome
order.Blackcanrespondwith6...e6,6...e5or6...Ng4toprevent
...Ng4,Whitesometimesstartswith6.f3instead,butthisallows
6...Qb6!ArelatedattackingideaforWhiteis6.Be3e67.g4,known
astheHungarianAttackorPerenyiAttack.

1
a

NajdorfVariation:1.e4c52.Nf3d6

Formerly,6.Bg5e67.f4wasthemainlineoftheNajdorf,when
3.d4cxd44.Nxd4Nf65.Nc3a6
Whitethreatenstoattackthepinnedknightwith8.e5.Blackcan
simplybreakthepinwith7...Be7,whenWhiteusuallyplays8.Qf3
and9.000.SomeofBlack'salternativesare7...Qb6,thePoisonedPawnVariationpopularizedbyFischer,
and7...b5,thePolugaevskyVariation,whichhasthetacticalpoint8.e5dxe59.fxe5Qc7!10.exf6Qe5+
winningthebishopinreturnfortheknight.
Whitehasotherchoicesonthesixthmove.6.Be2preparestocastlekingsideandisaquieteralternative
comparedto6.Be3and6.Bg5.EfimGellerwasanearlyproponentofthismove,afterwhichBlackcanstay
in"pure"Najdorfterritorywith6...e5ortransposetotheScheveningenwith6...e6.Otherpossibilitiesfor
Whiteinclude6.f4,6.Bc4(theFischerSozinAttack),6.g3,and6.h3,(theAdamsAttack,namedafter
WeaverAdams),whichwasusedseveraltimesbyBobbyFischer.
DragonVariation:5...g6
IntheDragonVariation,BlackfianchettoesaBishopontheh8a1
diagonal.ItwasnamedbyFyodorDusChotimirskyin1901,who
noticedaresemblancebetweenBlack'skingsidepawnstructure
(pawnsond6,e7,f7,g6andh7)andthestarsoftheDraco
constellation.[33]White'smostdangeroustryagainsttheDragonisthe
YugoslavAttack,characterisedby6.Be3Bg77.f3008.Qd2Nc6,
whenboth9.000and9.Bc4maybeplayed.Thisvariationleadsto
extremelysharpplayandisferociouslycomplicated,sincethe
playerscastleonoppositewingsandthegamebecomesarace
betweenWhite'skingsideattackandBlack'squeensidecounterattack.
White'smainalternativestotheYugoslavAttackare6.Be2,the
ClassicalVariation,and6.f4,theLevenfishAttack.

1
a

DragonVariation:1.e4c52.Nf3d6
3.d4cxd44.Nxd4Nf65.Nc3g6

ClassicalVariation:5...Nc6

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicilian_Defence

6/21

16/07/2015

SicilianDefenceWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Thisvariationcanarisefromtwodifferentmoveorders:1.e4c5
2.Nf3d63.d4cxd44.Nxd4Nf65.Nc3Nc6,or1.e4c52.Nf3Nc6
3.d4cxd44.Nxd4Nf65.Nc3d6.Blacksimplybringstheirknightto
itsmostnaturalsquare,anddefers,forthemoment,thedevelopment
oftheirking'sbishop.
White'smostcommonreplyis6.Bg5,theRichterRauzerAttack
(ECOcodesB60etseq).Themove6.Bg5wasKurtRichter's
invention,threateningtodoubleBlack'spawnsafterBxf6and
forestallingtheDragonbyrendering6...g6unplayable.After6...e6,
VsevolodRauzerintroducedthemodernplanofQd2and000inthe
1930s.White'spressureonthed6pawnoftencompelsBlackto
respondtoBxf6with...gxf6,ratherthanrecapturingwithapiece(e.g.
thequeenond8)thatalsohastodefendthedpawn.Thisweakens
theirkingsidepawnstructure,inreturnforwhichBlackgainsthetwo
bishops,plusacentralpawnmajority,thoughtheseassetsare
difficulttoexploit.

1
a

ClassicalVariation:1.e4c52.Nf3
d63.d4cxd44.Nxd4Nf65.Nc3
Nc6

Anothervariationis6.Bc4,called"Sozin"(ECOcodeB57).Itbringsthebishoptoanaggressivesquare.
Blackusuallyplays6...e6tolimittherangeofWhite'sbishop,butWhitecaneventuallyputpressureonthe
e6pawnbypushingtheirfpawntof5.Whitecaneithercastlekingsidewith7.Bb3a68.00(theFischer
SozinAttack,namedafterBobbyFischerandRussianmasterVeniaminSozin,whooriginateditinthe
1930s),orqueensidewith7.Be3Be7(or7...a6)8.Qe2and9.000(theVelimiroviAttack).Insteadof
6...e6,BlackcanalsotryBenko'smove6...Qb6,whichforcesWhitetomakeadecisionoverthed4knight.
Thistypicallyleadsintomorepositionallinesthantherazorsharp,highlytheoreticalSozinand
Velimirovicvariations.
6.Be2isthe"classical"line(ECOcodeB58).Blackcanchooseamong6...e56...e6,transposingtothe
ScheveningenVariationand6...g6,transposingtotheClassicalVariationoftheDragon.Withmove...e5,
7.Nf3usuallycontinues...h68.OOBe79.Re17.Nb3isthedynamicandnotverygoodBoleslavsky
Variation(ECOcodeB59).Othermovesinclude6.Be3,6.f3,and6.g3.
ScheveningenVariation:5...e6
IntheScheveningenVariation,Blackiscontentwitha"smallcentre"(pawnsond6ande6,ratherthane5)
andpreparestocastlekingside.Inviewofthis,PaulKeresintroduced6.g4,theKeresAttack,in1943.
Whiteintendstodriveawaytheblackknightwithg5.IfBlackpreventsthiswith6...h6,whichisthemost
commonanswer,WhitehasgainedkingsidespaceanddiscouragedBlackfromcastlinginthatarea,and
maylaterplayBg2.Ifthecomplicationsafter6.g4arenottoWhite'staste,amajoralternativeis6.Be2,a
typicallinebeing6...a6(thispositioncanbereachedfromtheNajdorfvia5...a66.Be2e6)7.00Be78.f40
0.6.Be3and6.f4arealsocommon.
WhiletheoryindicatesthatBlackcanholdthebalanceintheKeresAttack,playerstodayoftenpreferto
avoiditbyplaying5...a6first,anideapopularizedbyKasparov.However,ifWhiteisdeterminedtoplay
theg4thrust,theycanprepareitbyrespondingto5...a6with6.h3(asFischersometimesplayed)or6.Rg1.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicilian_Defence

7/21

16/07/2015

SicilianDefenceWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

1
a

ScheveningenVariation:1.e4c5
2.Nf3d63.d4cxd44.Nxd4Nf6
5.Nc3e6

2...Nc63.d4cxd44.Nxd4
2...Nc6isanaturaldevelopingmove,andalsoprepares...Nf6(like
2...d6,BlackstopsWhitefromreplyinge5).After3.d4cxd44.Nxd4,
Black'smostcommonmoveis4...Nf6.Otherimportantmovesare
4...e6(transposingtotheTaimanovVariation),4...g6(the
AcceleratedDragon)and4...e5(theKalashnikovVariation).Less
commonchoicesinclude4...Qc7,whichmaylatertransposetothe
TaimanovVariation,4...Qb6,theGrivasVariation,and4...d6.
After4...Nf6,Whiteusuallyreplies5.Nc3.Blackcanplay5...d6,
transposingtotheClassicalVariation5...e5,theSveshnikov
Variationor5...e6,transposingtotheFourKnightsVariation.

1
a

SveshnikovVariation:4...Nf65.Nc3e5

Positionafter1.e4c52.Nf3Nc6
3.d4cxd44.Nxd4

TheSveshnikovVariationwaspioneeredbyEvgenySveshnikovand
GennadiTimoshchenkointhe1970s.Beforetheirefforts,the
variationwascalledtheLaskerPelikanVariation.EmanuelLaskerplayeditonceinhisworld
championshipmatchagainstCarlSchlechter,andJorgePelikanplayeditafewtimesinthe1950s,but
Sveshnikov'streatmentofthevariationwasthekeytoitsrevitalization.Themove5...e5seemsanti
positionalasitleavesblackwithabackwardsdpawnandaweaknessond5.Also,blackwouldhaveto
acceptthedoubledfpawnsinthemainlineoftheopening.TheopeningwaspopularisedwhenSveshnikov
sawitsdynamicpotentialforBlackinthe1970sand80s.Today,itisextremelypopularamong
grandmastersandamateursalike.ThoughsomelinesstillgiveBlacktrouble,ithasbeenestablishedasa
firstratedefence.Themainlineafter5...e5runsasfollows:
6.Ndb5
Thetheoreticallycriticalmove,threateningNd6+.AllothermovesareconsideredtoallowBlack
easyequality.6.Nxc6isusuallymetby6...bxc6,whenBlack'sextrapawninthecentregivesgood
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicilian_Defence

8/21

16/07/2015

SicilianDefenceWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

playalternatively,even6...dxc67.Qxd8+Kxd8issufficient
forequality.[34]6.Nb3and6.Nf3canbewellmetby6...Bb4,
threateningtowinWhite'spawnone4.[35]6.Nf5allows6...d5!
7.exd5Bxf58.dxc6bxc69.Qf3Qd7.[36]6.Nde2canbemetby
either6...Bc5or6...Bb4.[37]
6...d6
Blackdoesnotallow7.Nd6+Bxd68.Qxd6,whenWhite'spair
ofbishopsgivethemtheadvantage.
7.Bg5
Whitegetsreadytoeliminatetheknightonf6,further
weakeningBlack'scontroloverthed5square.Alesscommon
alternativeis7.Nd5Nxd58.exd5Nb8(or8...Ne7),whenWhite
willtrytoexploittheirqueensidepawnmajority,whileBlack
willseekcounterplayonthekingside.

1
a

SveshnikovVariation:1.e4c52.Nf3
Nc63.d4cxd44.Nxd4Nf65.Nc3
e5

7...a6
BlackforcesWhite'sknightbacktoa3.
8.Na3
Theimmediate8.Bxf6forces8...gxf6,whenafter9.Na3,Blackcantransposeintothemainlinewith
9...b5ordeviatewith9...f5!?
8...b5!
8...b5wasSveshnikov'sinnovation,controllingc4andthreatening...b4forkingWhite'sknights.
Previously,Blackplayed8...Be6(theBirdVariation),whichallowedthea3knighttoreturntolife
with9.Nc4.Theentirevariationupto8...b5isreferredtoastheChelyabinskVariation.Itcanalsobe
reachedfromthealternatemoveorder1.e4c52.Nf3e63.d4cxd44.Nxd4Nf65.Nc3Nc66.Ndb5d6
7.Bf4e58.Bg5a69.Na3b5,whichisonemovelonger.(ThatalternativemoveordergivesWhite
otheralternatives,including6.Nxc6bxc67.e5Nd58.Ne4,intendingc4,andthegambit6.Be2Bb4
7.00!?,allowingBxc38.bxc3Nxe4.)Themovenumbersinthefollowingdiscussionarebasedon
themoveordergiveninbold.
TheSveshnikovVariationhasbecomeverypopularinmasterlevelchess.Black's...e5pushseemsanti
positional:ithasmadethed6pawnbackwardandthed5squareweak.However,inreturn,Blackgetsa
footholdinthecentreandgainstimeonWhite'sknight,whichhasbeendriventotheedgeoftheboardon
a3.TopplayerswhohaveusedthisvariationincludeVladimirKramnik,VeselinTopalov,Teimour
Radjabov,BorisGelfand,MichaelAdamsandAlexanderKhalifman,amongmanyothers.
Inthediagrammedpositionafter8...b5,Whiteusuallyparriesthethreatof...b4byplaying9.Bxf6or9.Nd5.
After9.Bxf6,9...Qxf6?!10.Nd5Qd8failsto11.c4b4(11...bxc412.Nxc4isgoodforWhite,whothreatens
13.Qa4)12.Qa4Bd713.Nb5!axb514.Qxa8Qxa815.Nc7+Kd816.Nxa8andtheknightescapesviab6.
Thus9...gxf6isforced,whenWhitecontinues10.Nd5.White'spowerfulknightond5andBlack'sshattered
kingsidepawnstructurearecompensatedbyBlack'sbishoppairandWhite'soffsideknightona3.Also,
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicilian_Defence

9/21

16/07/2015

SicilianDefenceWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Blackhastheplanofplaying10...f5,followedby...fxe4and...f5
withthesecondfpawn,whichwouldgivethemgoodcontrolofthe
centre.Analternativeplanistoplay10...Bg7followedby...Ne7to
immediatelytradeoffWhite'spowerfulknightthislineisknownas
theNovosibirskVariation.

Insteadof9.Bxf6,Whitecanalsoplay9.Nd5,whichusuallyleadsto
4
4
quieterplay.WhitedecidesnottodoubleBlack'sfpawnsandthe
3
3
gameoftencontinues9...Be710.Bxf6Bxf611.c3.ThisallowsWhite
2
2
tomaintaintheirknightond5bytradingoffBlack'sknightonf6,and
1
1
preparestobringtheknightona3backintoplaywiththemanoeuvre
a b c d e f g h
Na3c2e3.Anotherlineis10.Nxe7Nxe7!(fightingforcontrolofd5
andnotfearingthedoubledpawns)11.Bxf6gxf6.However,arecent
ChelyabinskVariation:6.Ndb5d6
developmentintheSveshnikovhasbeen11.c4(insteadofc3),which
7.Bg5a68.Na3b5
oftenleadstopositionswherewhiteispressingforthewinatnorisk.
Aquickdrawispossibleafter9.Nd5Qa5+!?10.Bd2(inorderto
prevent10...Nxe4)10...Qd811.Bg5Qa5+etc.Inordertoavoidthis,Whitecanplay11.Nxf6+or11.c4.
AcceleratedDragon:4...g6
LikethestandardDragonVariation,Blackdevelopsthebishoptog7
intheAcceleratedDragon.ThedifferenceisthatBlackavoids
playing...d7d6,sothattheycanlaterplay...d7d5inonemoveif
possible.Forexample,ifWhitetriestoplayinthestyleofthe
YugoslavAttackwith5.Nc3Bg76.Be3Nf67.f3008.Qd2,8...d5!
equalisesimmediately.WhenWhitedoesplay5.Nc3,itisusually
withtheideaofcontinuing5...Bg76.Be3Nf67.Bc4008.Bb3
(forestallinganytricksinvolving...Nxe4and...d5),followedby
kingsidecastling.
ThecriticaltestofBlack'smoveorderis5.c4,theMarczyBind.
WhitehopestocrampBlack'spositionbyimpedingthe...d7d5and
...b7b5pawnthrusts.Generally,thislineislesstacticalthanmany
oftheotherSicilianvariations,andplayinvolvesmuchstrategic
maneuveringonbothsides.After5.c4,themainlineruns5...Bg7
6.Be3Nf67.Nc3andnow7...00or7...Ng4ismostfrequently
played.

1
a

AcceleratedDragon:1.e4c52.Nf3
Nc63.d4cxd44.Nxd4g6

KalashnikovVariation:4...e55.Nb5d6
TheKalashnikovVariation(ECOcodeB32)[38]isacloserelativeoftheSveshnikovVariation,andis
sometimesknownastheNeoSveshnikov.Themove4...e5hashadalonghistoryLouisCharlesMahde
LaBourdonnaisuseditinhismatchesagainstAlexanderMcDonnellin1834,anditwasalsopopularfora
shorttimeinthe1940s.TheseearliergamesfocusedontheLwenthalVariation(similartothe
Kalashnikovbutthereplyto5.Nb5is5...a6)with4...e55.Nb5a66.Nd6+Bxd67.Qxd6Qf6,whereBlack
givesupthetwobishopstoachievealeadindevelopment.However,themovefelloutofuseonceitwas
determinedthatWhitekepttheadvantageintheselines.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicilian_Defence

10/21

16/07/2015

SicilianDefenceWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Onlyinthelate1980sdidBlackplayersrevive4...e5withthe
intentionofmeeting5.Nb5with5...d6:thisistheKalashnikov
Variation.TheideasinthislinearesimilartothoseintheSveshnikov
Blackacceptsabackwardpawnond6andweakensthed5square
butgainstimebychasingtheknight.Thedifferencebetweenthetwo
variationsisthatBlackhasnotdevelopedtheirknighttof6and
Whitehasnotbroughttheirknightouttoc3,sobothplayershave
extraoptions.Blackmayforego...Nf6infavourof...Ne7,e.g.after
6.N1c3a67.Na3b58.Nd5Nge7,whichavoidsWhite'splanofBg5
andBxf6toinflictdoubledfpawnsonBlack.Or,Blackcandelay
bringingouttheknightinfavourofplaying...Be7g5oraquick...f5.
Ontheotherhand,Whitehastheoptionof6.c4,whichsolidifiestheir
gripond5andclampsdownon...b5,butleavesthed4square
slightlyweak.

1
a

KalashnikovVariation:1.e4c5
2.Nf3Nc63.d4cxd44.Nxd4e5
5.Nb5d6

2...e63.d4cxd44.Nxd4
Black'smove2...e6givesprioritytodevelopingthedarksquaredbishop.After3.d4cxd44.Nxd4,Black
hasthreemainmoves:4...Nc6(theTaimanovVariation),4...a6(theKanVariation)and4...Nf6.After
4...Nf65.Nc3,BlackcantransposetotheScheveningenVariationwith5...d6,orplay5...Nc6,theFour
KnightsVariation.Alsonotethatafter4...Nf6Whitecannotplay5.e5?becauseof5...Qa5+followedby
Qxe5.
TaimanovVariation:4...Nc6
NamedafterMarkTaimanov,theTaimanovVariationcanbereached
through1.e4c52.Nf3e63.d4cxd44.Nxd4Nc6or1.e4c52.Nf3Nc6
3.d4cxd44.Nxd4e6.Blackdevelopstheknighttoanaturalsquare
andkeepshisoptionsopenregardingtheplacementofhisother
pieces.Oneoftheideasofthissystemistodeveloptheking'sbishop
tob4orc5.Whitecanpreventthisby5.Nb5d6,when6.c4leadstoa
versionoftheMarczyBindfavouredbyKarpov.Theresulting
positionafter6.c4Nf67.N1c3a68.Na3b6isatypeofHedgehog.
TheKasparovGambit8...d5wasplayedtwiceintheWorldChess
Championship1985,butvirtuallydisappearedfrommasterpraxis
afterthegameKarpovvanderWiel,Brussels(SWIFT)1986.

1
a

TaimanovVariation:1.e4c52.Nf3

5.Nc3ismorecommonnowadaysthan5.Nb5,when5...d6normally
e63.d4cxd44.Nxd4Nc6
transposestotheScheveningenVariationand5...Nf6istheFour
KnightsVariation(seebelow).IndependentmovesforBlackare
5...Qc7and5...a6,withtheformerbeingthemoreusualmoveorderseeninrecentyears,asafter5...a6,the
continuation6.Nxc6bxc67.Bd3,despiteitsapparentsimplicity,hasgivenBlackdifficultiesinreaching
equality.Taimanov'sideawastoplay5...a6(preventingNb5)followedby...Nge7and...Nxd4.
Kan(Paulsen)Variation:4...a6
NamedafterIlyaKan.Byplaying4...a6,BlackpreventsNb5andpreparesaneventual...b5advance.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicilian_Defence

11/21

16/07/2015

SicilianDefenceWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

White'ssecondmostpopularreplyis5.Nc3,whenBlack's
developmentofthekingsideknightoftentakesfocus,sinceplaying
...Nf6canbemetwithe5whichbothcreatesaBlackweaknessonthe
d6squareandcausestheBlackknightadisadvantageousmove.So
Blacknormallyplaysamovetocontrolthee5squareandpreventthe
pawnfromadvancing.ThemainKanmoveis5...Qc7,although
5...Nc6transposingintoaTaimanovor5...d6transposingintoa
Scheveningencanoccur.Analternativeideaistheimmediate5...b5
tocreatepressurefromthequeensidewiththeideaofplaying...b4
attackingthec3knight,orBb7tobuildpressurealongthelong
whitesquareddiagonal.Whitegenerallyanswerswith6.Bd3,
supportingthee4pawn.
ThemostpopularfifthmoveforWhiteis5.Bd3,whenafter5...Bc5
6.Nb3Blackcaneitherretreat6...Be7where7.Qg4makesBlack's
kingsideproblematic,or6...Ba7.Alsopossibleis5.c4tocreatea
Marczybindsetup.

1
a

KanVariation:1.e4c52.Nf3e6
3.d4cxd44.Nxd4a6

FourKnightsVariation:4...Nf65.Nc3Nc6
TheFourKnightsVariationismainlyusedasawayofgettinginto
themainlineSveshnikovVariation,reachedafter6.Ndb5d67.Bf4e5
8.Bg5a69.Na3b5.Thepointofthismoveorderistoavoidlines
suchastheRossolimoVariation(1.e4c52.Nf3Nc63.Bb5),or1.e4
c52.Nf3Nc63.d4cxd44.Nxd4Nf65.Nc3e56.Ndb5d67.Nd5,
whicharepossibleinthestandardSveshnikovmoveorder.Onthe
otherhand,intheFourKnightsmoveorder,Whiteacquirestheextra
optionof6.Nxc6bxc67.e5Nd58.Ne4,soWhiteisnotobligedto
entertheSveshnikov.
IfBlackisnotaimingfortheSveshnikov,themainalternativeisto
play6...Bb4inreplyto6.Ndb5.Then7.a3Bxc3+8.Nxc3d59.exd5
exd5leadstoapositionwhereBlackhasgivenupthetwobishops
buthasactivepiecesandthepossibilityofplaying...d5d4.

1
a

FourKnightsVariation:1.e4c5
2.Nf3e63.d4cxd44.Nxd4Nf6
5.Nc3Nc6

2.Nf3without3.d4:White'sthirdmovealternatives
Whitecanplay2.Nf3withoutintendingtofollowupwith3.d4.Thesystemsgivenbelowareusually
classifiedalongwithWhite'ssecondmovealternativesasAntiSicilians.

2...d6without3.d4
CanalSokolskyAttack:3.Bb5+

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicilian_Defence

12/21

16/07/2015

SicilianDefenceWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

After1.e4c52.Nf3d6,White'smostimportantalternativeto3.d4is
3.Bb5+,knownastheMoscowVariationortheCanalSokolsky
Attack.Grandmasterssometimeschoosethisvariationwhenthey
wishtoavoidtheoryforinstance,itwasplayedbyGarryKasparov
intheonlinegameKasparovTheWorld.Expertsinthislineinclude
GMsSergeiRublevskyandTomOral.Blackcanblockthecheck
with3...Bd7,3...Nc6or3...Nd7.Thepositionafter3...Nc6canalso
bereachedviatheRossolimoVariationafter1.e4c52.Nf3Nc6
3.Bb5d6.Mostcommonis3...Bd7,whenafter4.Bxd7+Qxd7,White
caneitherplay5.00followedbyc3andd4,or5.c4inthestyleofthe
MarczyBind.
TheWorldTeamVariationoftheCanalSokolskyAttack
continueswith5.c4Nc66.Nc3Nf67.00g68.d4cxd49.Nxd4Bg7
10.Nde2Qe6,forkingWhite'spawnsone4andc4.Thismovewas
suggestedbyIrinaKrush,andplayedintheKasparovTheWorld,
1999onlinegame.Kasparovnoteditsnovelty.[39]

1
a

MoscowVariationortheCanal
SokolskyAttack:1.e4c52.Nf3d6
3.Bb5+

Others
AnotherpossibilityforWhiteis3.c3,intendingtoestablishapawncentrewithd4nextmove.Themost
frequentcontinuationis3...Nf64.Be2,when4...Nxe4??losesto5.Qa4+.Whitesometimesplays3.Nc3,
whichusuallytransposestotheOpenSicilianafter3...Nf64.d4.

2...Nc6without3.d4
NimzovichRossolimoAttack:3.Bb5
TheRossolimoVariation,3.Bb5,isawellrespectedalternativeto
3.d4.ItisnamedafterNicolasRossolimoandisrelatedtothe
MoscowVariation.White'susualintentionistoplayBxc6,giving
Blackdoubledpawns.Black'smajorresponsesare3...g6preparing
...Bg7,3...d6preparing...Bd7(ahybridlinethatalsoarisesfromthe
MoscowVariationafter2...d63.Bb5+Nc6),and3...e6preparing
4...Nge7.SergeiRublevskyandTomOralbothplaythislineas
wellastheMoscowVariation.
Others
3.Nc3isacommontranspositionaldeviceforWhite,whocanplay
4.d4or4.Bb5nextmovedependingonBlack'sresponse.Black
sometimesplays3...e5toavoidbothmovesthen4.Bc4isconsidered
White'sbestmove.3.c3transposestolinesoftheAlapinVariation
after3...Nf6or3...d5.

1
a

RossolimoVariation:1.e4c52.Nf3
Nc63.Bb5

2...e6without3.d4
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicilian_Defence

13/21

16/07/2015

SicilianDefenceWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Whitesometimesplays3.Nc3asawaitingmove,thoughithaslittleindependentsignificance.With3.d3,
WhiteplanstodevelopinKing'sIndianAttackstylewithg3andBg2thislinewasusedbyFischerto
crushOscarPannoinafamousgame(FischerPanno,BuenosAires1970).3.c3willtransposetolinesof
theAlapinVariationafter3...Nf6,ortheFrenchDefenceafter3...d54.e5Nc65.d4,though4...d4is
stronger,asafter5.cxd4cxd46.Qa4+Nc67.Bb5Bd78.Bxc6Bxc69.Qxd4Bxf3isastrongpawnsacrifice,
givingBlackexcellentcompensation.3.b3,intendingBb2,isarareindependenttry,occasionallyessayed
byHeikkiWesterineninthe1970s.

3.Bd3
InFoxyOpeningsVol.30,IMDannyKopecsuggeststhemove3.Bd3againstanyofBlack'scommon
responses,intendingtofollowupwithc3andBc2.Thislineisknownas"TheKopecSystem."[40]

2.Nf3:Black'ssecondmovealternatives
After1.e4c52.Nf3,Blackhassomelesscommonlyplayedoptionsapartfrom2...d6,2...Nc6and2...e6.

2...g6:HungarianVariation
2...g6istheHyperAcceleratedDragon.Whitecommonlyplays
3.d4.Othermovesare3.c3and3.c4.Mostcommonhereis3...cxd4
but3...Bg7isalsoplayed.Incaseof3...cxd4Whitemayplay
4.Nxd4.Then4...Nc6maybeplayedfora2...Nc6line.Theother
mainmoveforBlackis4...Bg7.Thiswillhaveeither5.c4or5.Nc3.
Foreither3.c3or3.c4,thenBlackmayplay3...Bg7.Then4.d4with
3.c4transposestothe3.d4line.Or4.d4with3.c3transposestoan
Alapin(orAcceleratedDragon)line.

2...a6:O'KellyVariation
2...a6istheO'KellyVariation.Theideaisthat3.d4runsinto
3...cxd44.Nxd4Nf65.Nc3e5when6.Nb5isprevented,andBlack
willequalizebyplaying6...Bb4andpossibly...d5.However,after
3.c3or3.c4itisunclearhow2...a6hasimprovedBlack'sposition.

1
a

1.e4c52.Nf3g63.d4Bg74.c4
cxd4

2...Nf6:NimzovichRubinsteinVariation
2...Nf6istheNimzowitschVariation.ItbearssomesimilaritytoAlekhine'sDefence.[41]White'sstrongest
replyistochasetheknightby3.e5Nd54.Nc3andnow(a)4...Nxc35.dxc3,when5...b6?,asNimzowitsch
playedandrecommended,losesto6.e6!f67.Ne5![42]or(b)4...e6(themainline)5.Nxd5exd56.d4Nc6
7.dxc5Bxc58.Qxd5Qb6(8...d69.exd6Qb6isalsoplayed)[43]9.Bc4!Bxf2+10.Ke20011.Rf1Bc5
12.Ng5Nd4+13.Kd1withsharpplayfavoringWhite.[44]

Others
Othermovesinclude:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicilian_Defence

14/21

16/07/2015

SicilianDefenceWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

2...b6istheKatalymovVariation,aftertheKazakh/RussianmasterBorisKatalymov.Itisgenerally
consideredbetterforWhite,thoughithasfrequentlybeenplayedbytheFrenchGMChristianBauer.
OtherGMs,includingGataKamsky,haveoccasionallyuseditasasurpriseweapon.
2...Qc7istheQuinterosVariation.Itwillfrequentlytransposeintoastandardlinesuchasthe
TaimanovVariationorPaulsenVariation,orelseWhitecanplay3.c3inthestyleoftheAlapin
Variation,whereBlack'squeenmaynotbesowellplacedonc7.

ClosedSicilian
2.Nc3isWhite'ssecondmostcommonmoverespondingto1.e4c5.
Black'soptionsaresimilartothosefor2.Nf3,themostcommon
being...Nc6,alongwith...e6and...d6,andlesscommonly...a6and
...g6.Inallcases,Whitecanthenplay3.Nf3,asifWhitehadplayed
2.Nf3then3.Nc3(e.g.2.Nf3Nc63.Nc3,B30).
Forthemostpart,othermovesaretheClosedSicilian.Possible
movesare3.g3and3.f4ingeneral,also3.Nge2,andlesscommonly
3.d3and3.Bc4.SomelinesmaytransposetotheOpenSicilian,but
therearemanythatdonot.
Alsoofsomeinterestis3.Bb5to...Nc6.
Atypicallineis2...Nc63.g3(ECOcodeB24).Also2...Nc63.f4is
theClosedSicilian,GrandPrixAttack(partofB23).

1
a

ClosedSicilian(Mainline):1.e4c5
2.Nc3Nc63.g3g64.Bg2Bg75.d3
d6

Whitecanalsokeeptheiroptionsopenwith3.Nge2.AndrewSoltis
hasdubbedthatthe"ChameleonSystem",sinceWhitemaintainstheoptionofplayingaClosedSicilian
with4.g3ortransposingtoastandardOpenSicilianwith4.d4cxd45.Nxd4.Twodrawbacksarethat(a)the
ClosedSicilianlineswithanearlyNge2arenotverychallengingforBlack,and(b)ifBlackplays2...Nc6
3.Nge2g6,4.d4reachesanAcceleratedDragonwhereWhitehaslosttheoptionofplayingc4,theMarczy
Bind,oftenconsideredWhite'sbestline.[45]InviewofpossibletranspositionstothemainSicilian
variations,Black'sreplyto2.Nc3willdependonwhattheyplayintheOpenSicilian.2...Nc6isthemost
commonchoice,but2...e6and2...d6areoftenplayed.TheMainlineoftheClosedSicilianis2.Nc3Nc6
3.g3g64.Bg2Bg75.d3d6(diagram),whenWhite'smainoptionsare6.Be3followedbyQd2andpossibly
000,and6.f4followedbyNf3and00.

White'ssecondmovealternatives
Othermovesbesides2.Nf3and2.Nc3arepopular.

AlapinVariation:2.c3
2.c3istheAlapinVariationorc3Sicilian.OriginallychampionedbySemyonAlapinattheendofthe
19thcentury,itwasrevivedinthelate1960sbyEvgenySveshnikovandEvgenyVasiukov.Nowadaysits
strongestpractitionersincludegrandmastersSergeiTiviakovandEduardasRozentalis.Whiteaimstosetup
aclassicalpawncentrewith3.d4,soBlackshouldcounterimmediatelyinthecentreby2...Nf6or2...d5.
Theline2...Nf63.e5Nd5resemblesAlekhine'sDefence,buttheinclusionofthemovesc3and...c5is
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicilian_Defence

15/21

16/07/2015

SicilianDefenceWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

definitelyinBlack'sfavour.NowWhitecanplay4.d4cxd45.Nf3,whenBlackhasachoicebetween5...e6
and5...Nc6.AnotherideaforWhiteis5.Bc4,whichismetby5...Qc7.2...d53.exd5Qxd54.d4Nf65.Nf3
istheothermainline,whenBlack'smainoptionsare5...e6and5...Bg4.Inthisline,Whiteusuallyendsup
withanisolatedqueen'spawnafterpawnsareexchangedond4.ArareroptiononBlack'ssecondmoveis
2...e6,withtheaimoftransposingtotheAdvanceVariationoftheFrenchDefenceafter3.d4d54.e5.

GrandPrixAttack:2.f4
2.f4istheGrandPrixAttackorMcDonnellAttack:thelatternamestemsfromthe14thmatchgame
playedinLondonin1834betweenAlexanderMcDonnellandCharlesLouisMahdeLaBourdonnais,won
byBlack.AccordingtoJeremySilmanandothers,Black'sbestreplyis2...d53.exd5Nf6!,theTalGambit,
whichhascausedtheimmediate2.f4todeclineinpopularity.[46]Whitemaydeclinethegambitwith3.Nc3,
calledthe"ToiletVariation",sonamedafteritsreputedplaceofinvention.[47]Alesscommonoptionis
2...e6,asLaBourdonnaisplayedagainstMcDonnell.PlayersusuallyentertheGrandPrixAttacknowadays
byplaying2.Nc3firstbeforecontinuing3.f4.Themodernmainlineruns2.Nc3Nc63.f4g64.Nf3Bg7.
Themove2.Nc3hasbeenplayedathighlevelgrandmasterchess(GelfandandShorthaveplayedit)but
onlyrarely.HereWhitecanplaythepositional5.Bb5,threateningtodoubleBlack'spawnswithBxc6,or
themoreaggressive5.Bc4,aimingforakingsideattack.

SmithMorraGambit:2.d4
2.d4cxd43.c3istheSmithMorraGambit.Decliningitbyeither3...Nf6or3...d5,transposingtothec3
line,ispossible,butacceptingitby3...dxc3iscritical.[48]After4.Nxc3,Whiteisconsiderednottohave
enoughcompensationforthepawn[49][50][51][52]however,itcanbedangerousforBlackifheisunprepared,
astherearemanypitfallsfortheunwary.[53]

Others
Othermovesinclude:
2.Ne2istheKeresVariation,afavouriteofPaulKeres,andhassimilarideastotheChameleon
Systemdiscussedunder2.Nc3Whitecanfollowupwith3.d4withanOpenSicilian,3.g3witha
ClosedSicilian,or3.Nbc3,continuingtodeferthechoicebetweenthetwo.
2.d3signalsWhite'sintentiontodevelopalongKing'sIndianAttacklines,andusuallytransposesto
theClosedSicilian.
2.b3followedby3.Bb2istheSnyderVariation,namedforUSCFmasterRobertM.Snyder.[54]It
hasbeenusedoccasionallybyNigelShortandisafavouriteofGeorgianGMTamazGelashvili.
2.g3istheSteinitzVariation,whichwassometimesalsoplayedbyTaimanov,andcantransposeto
theClosedSicilianbutoffersotheroptionssuchas2...d53.exd5Qxd5forBlack,andacentral
buildupwithc3andd4forWhite.
2.c4occasionallyleadstopositionsthatresemblelinesintheEnglishOpening.
2.b4istheWingGambit.White'sideais2.b4cxb43.a3,hopingtodeflectBlack'scpawn,then
dominatethecenterwithanearlyd4.However,Blackcangainanadvantagewithaccurateplay.The
WingGambitisthusgenerallyconsideredtooreckless.GMJoeGallaghercallsit"aforgottenrelic,
hardlyhavingsetfootinatournamenthallsincethedaysofFrankMarshallandRudolphSpielmann.
Whitesacrificesapawnfor...well,notalot."[55]
2.a3issimilartotheWingGambit,theideabeingtoplay3.b4nextmove.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicilian_Defence

16/21

16/07/2015

SicilianDefenceWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

2.Na3isaneccentricmoverecentlybroughtintoprominencebyGMVadimZvjaginsevatthe2005
RussianChessChampionshipSuperfinal.Heuseditthriceduringthetournament,drawingtwiceand
beatingAlexanderKhalifman.
2.Bc4istheBowlderAttack,andthoughonceplayedatthehighestlevel,ispopulartodayonly
amongclubplayersorbeginnerswhoareunfamiliarwiththeSicilianandarelookingeithertoattack
theweakf7pawnortoprepareforaquickkingsidecastle.However,afteramovesuchas2...e6,
Blackwillsoonplay...d5andopenupthecentrewhilegainingtimebyattackingthebishop.
AnderssenWyvill,London1851continued2..e63.Nc3a64.a4Nc65.d3g66.Nge2Bg77.00Nge7
8.f4009.Bd2d510.Bb3Nd411.Nxd4,andnowSoltisrecommends11...cxd4!12.Ne2Bd7![56]
2.e5,whichgainsspaceandpreventsBlackplayingNf6.Whiteoftensupportthee5pawnwith3.f4
or3.Nf3.Thedrawbackof2.e5isthatnoadditionalpressureisbroughttothecenter,allowingBlack
variousoptions.WilhelmSteinitzplayed2.e5atleastthreetimesintournamentplay,defeating
SzymonWinawer,MaxWeiss,andCelsoGolmayoZpide.[57]
2.Qh5,threateningthecpawnasintheWaywardQueenAttack,wasplayedtwicein2005byHikaru
Nakamura,butthemoveisconsidereddubious.Simply2...Nf6givesBlackacomfortableposition
after3.Qxc5Nxe4,while3.Qh4displacesthequeenandlosestime.Nakamuralostin23movesto
AndreiVolokitinin2005,andNeilMcDonaldcriticisedtheopeningexperimentas"rather
foolish".[58]

ECOcodes
TheEncyclopaediaofChessOpeningsclassifiestheSicilianDefenceunderthecodesB20throughB99,
givingitmorecodesthananyotheropening.Ingeneraltheseguidelinesapply:
CodesB20throughB29coverlinesafter1.e4c5whereWhitedoesnotplay2.Nf3,andlineswhere
Whiteplays2.Nf3andBlackrespondswithamoveotherthan2...d6,2...Nc6or2...e6.
CodesB30throughB39coverthelinesbeginning1.e4c52.Nf3Nc6thatdonottransposeintolines
thatcanalsobeginwith2...d6.ThemostimportantvariationsincludedherearetheRossolimo,
Kalashnikov,SveshnikovandAcceleratedDragon.
CodesB40throughB49coverthelinesbeginning1.e4c52.Nf3e6,mostimportantlytheTaimanov
andKanvariations.
CodesB50throughB59coverthelinesafter1.e4c52.Nf3d6notcoveredincodesB60B99.This
includestheMoscowVariation(3.Bb5+),3.d4cxd44.Qxd4,andlinesintheClassicalVariation
exceptfortheRichterRauzerAttack,includingtheSozinAttackandtheBoleslavskyVariation.
CodesB60throughB69covertheRichterRauzerAttackoftheClassicalVariation.
CodesB70throughB79coverthenormal(unaccelerated)DragonVariation.
CodesB80throughB89covertheScheveningenVariation.
CodesB90throughB99covertheNajdorfVariation.

Seealso
Listofchessopenings
Listofchessopeningsnamedafterplaces

References
Notes
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicilian_Defence

17/21

16/07/2015

SicilianDefenceWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

A. HenryBird,writingin1883,summarizedthefluctuationsintheSicilian'sreputationthus:
TheSicilian...hasprobablyundergonemorevicissitudesinregardtoitsestimationand
appreciationthananyotherformofdefence.In1851,whentheGreatExhibitionLondon
Tournamentwascommenced,itwasentirelyoutoffavor,butitssuccessfuladoptiononsomany
occasionsbyAnderssen,thefirstprizewinner,entirelyrestoredittoconfidence.Itsrejectionby
Morphyin18578,andbySteinitzin1862,causeditagaintolapseinconsiderationasnotbeinga
perfectlyvalidandreliabledefence.Itsfortuneshaveeversincecontinuedinanunsettledstate.
Staunton(threeweeksbeforehisdeath),...pronouncedittobequitetrustworthy,andonthesame
dateLowenthalexpressedasimilaropinion.BaronKolisch...concursintheseviews.
J.I.Minchin(editor)(1973).GamesPlayedintheLondonInternationalChessTournament1883(reprinted.).
BritishChessMagazine.pp.28687.SBN900846089.
B. "Steinitz,throughouthislife,hadacertaindislikeoftheSicilian.Heneverceasedtowritethathepreferred1...e5
andthemajorityofplayersfollowedhisexample."Polugaevsky,LevJeroenPiketChristopheGuneau(1995).
SicilianLove:LevPolugaevskyChessTournament,BuenoAires1994.NewinChess.p.65.ISBN907168999
9.
C. Griffith,R.C.J.H.White(1925).ModernChessOpenings.Leeds:Whitehead&Miller.p.191.Twelveyears
earlier,inthesecondedition,theauthorshadwritten,"Formanyyears,theSicilianhasenjoyedafair,though
fluctuatingamountoffavourformatchplay.WhileitisnotanalyticallysosoundastheFrench,itaffordsgreater
opportunityforcounterattackandlesschanceofanearlydraw."Griffith,R.C.J.H.White(1913).Modern
ChessOpenings.London:Longmans,GreenandCo.p.164.
D. Fine,Reuben(1965).GreatMomentsinModernChess.NewYork:DoverPublications.ISBN0486214494.
(describedas"anunabrigedandunalteredrepublication"ofMcKay,David(1948).TheWorld'saChessboard.
p.212..

Citations
1. Rowson,Jonathan(2005).ChessforZebras:ThinkingDifferentlyAboutBlackandWhite.GambitPublications.
p.243.ISBN1901983854.
2. Sosonko,GennadyPaulvanderSterren(2000).NewInChessYearbook55.InterchessBV.p.227.ISBN90
56910698.
3. Watson,John(October2006).MasteringtheChessOpenings:UnlockingtheMysteriesoftheModernChess
Openings,Volume1.GambitPublications.p.175.ISBN1904600603.
4. JohnEmms,StartingOut:TheSicilian,2nded.,p.5
5. Nunn,John(February2001).UnderstandingChessMovebyMove.GambitPublications.p.57.ISBN1901983
412.
6. Rowson,Jonathan(2005).ChessforZebras:ThinkingDifferentlyAboutBlackandWhite.GambitPublications.
p.243.ISBN1901983854.
7. DeFirmian,Nick(2008).ModernChessOpenings:MCO15.RandomHousePuzzles&Games.p.244.
ISBN0812930843.
8. Ristoja,ThomasAulikkiRistoja(1995).Perusteet.Shakki(inFinnish).WSOY.p.63.ISBN9510205052.
9. "ChessandChessPlayersoftheRenaissance"(http://batgirl.atspace.com/Renplayers.html).Retrieved
20080119.
10. Polugaevsky,LevJeroenPiketChristopheGuneau(1995).SicilianLove:LevPolugaevskyChessTournament,
BuenoAires1994.NewinChess.p.50.ISBN9071689999.
11. Philidor,FranoisAndrDanican(2005).AnalysisoftheGameofChess(1777).HardingeSimpoleLtd.
pp.20001.ISBN1843821613.
12. Polugaevsky,LevJeroenPiketChristopheGuneau(1995).SicilianLove:LevPolugaevskyChessTournament,
BuenoAires1994.NewinChess.p.53.ISBN9071689999.
13. Korn,WalterJohnW.Collins(1957).ModernChessOpenings(9thed.).Pitman.p.113.ASINB0007E54DW
(https://www.amazon.com/dp/B0007E54DW).ISBN0713486562.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicilian_Defence

18/21

16/07/2015

14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.

SicilianDefenceWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

(https://www.amazon.com/dp/B0007E54DW).ISBN0713486562.
Staunton,Howard(1848).TheChessPlayer'sHandbook(2nded.).HenryG.Bohn.p.371.ISBN184382088
9.ModernplayerswouldconsiderthenotionthattheSicilian"preventseveryattack"naive.
Shibut,Macon(2004).PaulMorphyandtheEvolutionofChessTheory.Dover.p.42.ISBN0486435741.
J.I.Minchin(editor)(1973).GamesPlayedintheLondonInternationalChessTournament1883(reprinted.).
BritishChessMagazine.pp.28687.SBN900846089.RemarksofHenryBird,quotedabove.
Polugaevsky,LevJeroenPiketChristopheGueneau(1995).SicilianLove:LevPolugaevskyChessTournament,
BuenoAires1994.NewinChess.p.64.ISBN9071689999.
Gossip,G.H.D.Lipschtz,S.(1902).TheChessPlayer'sManual.DavidMcKay.p.799.
Freeborough,E.Rev.C.E.Ranken(1889).ChessOpenings:AncientandModern(1sted.).TrbnerandCo.,
Ltd.p.239.ISBN088254179X.
Freeborough,E.Rev.C.E.Ranken(1896).ChessOpenings:AncientandModern(3rded.).KeganPaul,
Trench,TrbnerandCo.,Ltd.p.248.ISBN088254179X.
"CapablancaontheSicilianDefence"
(http://www.chesshistory.com/winter/winter15.html#3961._Capablanca_on_the_Sicilian_Defence).Retrieved
20080119.
Mason,James(originally1894,republished1958onwards).TheArtofChess.DavidMcKay.pp.46162.Check
datevaluesin:|date=(help)
Tarrasch,Siegbert(1976).TheGameofChess.DavidMcKay.p.322.ISBN0679140425.
TheGrandInternationalMasters'TournamentatSt.Petersburg1914,DavidMcKay,c.1915,p.75.
Polugaevsky,LevJeroenPiketChristopheGueneau(1995).SicilianLove:LevPolugaevskyChessTournament,
BuenoAires1994.NewinChess.pp.6769.ISBN9071689999.
Keene,R.(March22,1997)."Mafiaconnections"
(http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3724/is_199703/ai_n8772960).TheSpectator.Retrieved20080713.
"CapablancaplaystheSicilian"(http://www.chessgames.com/perl/chess.pl?
yearcomp=exactly&year=&playercomp=black&pid=47544&player=&pid2=&player2=&movescomp=exactly&mo
ves=&opening=B20B99&eco=&result=).
"TarraschplaystheSicilian"(http://www.chessgames.com/perl/chess.pl?
yearcomp=exactly&year=&playercomp=black&pid=10510&player=&pid2=&player2=&movescomp=exactly&mo
ves=&opening=B20B99&eco=&result=).
Alekhine,Alexander(1961).TheBookoftheNewYorkInternationalChessTournament1924.NewYork:Dover
Publications.p.253.ISBN0486207528.
Harding,T."TheOpeningsatNewYork1924"
(http://web.archive.org/web/20080531132119/http://www.chesscafe.com/text/kibitz34.txt).Archivedfromthe
original(http://www.chesscafe.com/text/kibitz34.txt)on20080531.Retrieved20080713.
Korn,WalterNickDeFirmian(1990).ModernChessOpenings.DavidMcKay.p.243.ISBN0812917855.
Evans,LarryWalterKorn(1965).ModernChessOpenings.Pitman.p.182.ASINB000HX7GR0
(https://www.amazon.com/dp/B000HX7GR0).
Gufeld,Eduard(June1998).SecretsoftheSicilianDragon.CardozaPublishing.ISBN0940685922.
AtanasKolevandTrajkoNedev,TheEasiestSicilian,ChessStars(Bulgaria),2008,pp.20305.ISBN978954
8782661.
Kolev&Nedev,pp.20509.
Kolev&Nedev,pp.21113.
Kolev&Nedev,pp.20910.
"KalashnikovVariation"(http://maskeret.com/cgibin/diapos.cgi?num=540).
"Kasparovvs.restofworld:BarnetChessClubperspective"
(http://www.gtryfon.demon.co.uk/bcc/drama/kaspvsrestofworld/kaspvsrest.htm).RetrievedMarch23,2014.
"FOXYOPENINGSVOLUME30KopecAntiSicilianSystem"(http://www.houseofstaunton.com/foxy
openingsvolume30kopecantiscilliansystem.html).
AronNimzowitsch,MySystem(21stCenturyEdition),HaysPublishing,1991,p.250,ISBN1880673851
AronNimzovich,MySystem,DavidMcKay,1947,p.358,ISBN0679140255.
JohnNunnandJoeGallagher,BeatingtheSicilian3,HenryHoltandCompany,1995,pp.20001.ISBN08050
4227X.
JohnNunnandJoeGallagher,BeatingtheSicilian3,HenryHoltandCompany,1995,pp.20102.ISBN08050
4227X.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicilian_Defence

19/21

16/07/2015

44.
45.
46.
47.

48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.

SicilianDefenceWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

4227X.
JohnNunnandJoeGallagher,BeatingtheSicilian3,HenryHoltandCompany,1995,pp.20305.ISBN08050
4227X.
JohnCox,StartingOut:SicilianSveshnikov,GloucesterPublishers,2007,pp.24950.ISBN9781857444315.
TalGambitDeclined(http://www.jeremysilman.com/chess_opng_anlys/030403_tal_gambit_e5.html)
jeremysilman.com
NigelDavies(1998).TheChessPlayer'sBattleManual(http://books.google.com/books?
id=NwEYAQAAMAAJ&q=%22toilet+variation%22&dq=%22toilet+variation%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ToWiUsjd
J8m8kQWtsIDQBg&ved=0CEgQ6AEwAg)(book).London:BatsfordBooks.p.104.ISBN9780713470437.
Retrieved7December2013.
AlexanderRaetsky,Meeting1.e4,EverymanChess,2002,p.134.ISBN1857442199.
JohnWatson,MasteringtheChessOpenings,Volume1,GambitPublications,2006,p.175.ISBN9781
904600602.
JoeGallagher,BeatingtheAntiSicilians,Batsford/HenryHolt,1994,p.78.ISBN0805035753.
RichardPalliser,FightingtheAntiSicilians,GloucesterPublishers,2007,pp.20102.ISBN9781857445206.
JeremySilman,WinningwiththeSicilianDefence:ACompleteRepertoireAgainst1.e4(2nded.1998),Chess
Digest,p.289.ISBN0875681980.
JoeGallagher,BeatingtheAntiSicilians,Batsford/HenryHolt,1994,pp.7879.ISBN0805035753.
Snyder,Robert(1977).SnyderSicilian:ACompleteOpeningSystem2.PQN3....vs.Sicilian.Ron'sPostal
ChessClub.
Gallagher,Joe(1994).BeatingtheAntiSicilians.HenryHoltandCompany.p.81.ISBN0805035753.
AndySoltis,TheGreatChessTournamentsandTheirStories,ChiltonBookCompany,1975,pp.1718.ISBN
0801961386.
http://chesstempo.com/gamedatabase.html
WashingtonPost(http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2005/09/25/AR2005092500990.html)
ChesscolumnbyLubomirKavalek,September26,2005.NakamuraVolokitinisalsoannotatedbyNeil
McDonald

Furtherreading
Levy,DavidO'Connell,Kevin(1987).HowtoPlaytheSicilian
TheWikibookChess
Defense.MacmillanPublishers.ISBN0020291914.
OpeningTheoryhasapage
Bangiev,Alexander(1988).DevelopmentsintheSicilian2.f41980
onthetopicof:Sicilian
88.QuadrantMarketing.
Defence
Plaskett,James(1997).TheSicilianTaimanov.EverymanChess.
ISBN9781901259018.
Plaskett,James(2000).SicilianGrandPrixAttack.EverymanChess.ISBN9781857442915.
Golubev,Mikhail(2000).TheSicilianSozin.GambitPublications.ISBN9781901983388.
Rogozenko,Dorian(2003).AntiSiciliansAGuideforBlack.GambitPublications.ISBN1901983846.
Rogozenko,Dorian(2005).SveshnikovReloaded.QualityChess.ISBN9197524352.
Raetsky,AlexanderChetverik,Maxim(2007).ClassicalSicilian.EverymanChess.ISBN1857445376.
Hellsten,Johan(2008).PlaytheSicilianKan.EverymanChess.ISBN9781857445817.
delaVilla,Jesus(2009).DismantlingtheSicilian.NewinChess.ISBN9789056912949.
Yakovich,Yuri(2010).SicilianAttacks.NewInChess.ISBN9789056913328.
Taylor,Timothy(2012).SlaytheSicilian!.EverymanChess.ISBN9781857446845.
UnderstandingTheSicilianDefenseB21B99(http://www.ez
net.com/~mephisto/Understanding%20Sicilian%20Dragon.html)

Retrievedfrom"https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sicilian_Defence&oldid=669075919"
Categories: Chessopenings 16thcenturyinchess Italianinventions
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicilian_Defence

20/21

16/07/2015

SicilianDefenceWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Thispagewaslastmodifiedon28June2015,at18:22.
TextisavailableundertheCreativeCommonsAttributionShareAlikeLicenseadditionaltermsmay
apply.Byusingthissite,youagreetotheTermsofUseandPrivacyPolicy.Wikipediaisa
registeredtrademarkoftheWikimediaFoundation,Inc.,anonprofitorganization.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicilian_Defence

21/21