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# CHAPTER 3 : FORCE AND PRESSURE

## SPM 2004, Section B, No. 10 [20 Marks]

1
Figure 14 shows two identical spherical plasticine balls before being released from the
same height. Figure 15 shows the state of the balls when they hit the wood and the
sponge. It was observed that the plasticine stopped more quickly when it hit the wood.

Figure 15
(a)(i) What does the word momentum mean ?
[1 marks]
(ii) Observe Figure 14 and Figure 15. Compare the shape of the plasticine balls, the
surface of the wood and the surface of the sponge before and when the plasticine
balls hit the surfaces.
Relate the changes in shapes of the plasticine balls and the surfaces to deduce a
relevant physics concept.
[5 marks]
(b) Explain the changes in energy that occur from the moment the plasticine ball is
released until it reaches the position in Figure 15.
[4 marks]
(c) An eart-monitoring satellite falls into the earths atmosphere at high velocity and
reaches a high temperature. This is caused by the earths gravitational force and air
resistance.
Using the appropriate physics concepts, suggest and explain suitable designs or ways
to protect the satellite and its equipment;
(i)
from extreme heat.
(ii)
from breaking up on landing
[10 marks]

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## SPM 2005, Section B, No. 9 [20 Marks]

2 (a) A fisherman finds that his boat is at different levels in the sea and in the river although
the boat carries the same load.

Figure 9.1
(i)

Figure 9.2

## What is meant by density ?

[1 mark]

(ii)

Using Figure 9.1 and 9.2, compare the levels of the boat and the volumes of
water
displaced by the boat.
Relating the mass of the boat with its load, the volume of water displaced and the
density of the water, deduce a relevant physics concept.
[5 marks]

(ii) Name the physics principle that explains the above situation.
[1 mark]
(b) A submarine can sail on the surface and under the sea.
Explain how a submarine on the surface submerges.
[3 marks]
(c) Figures 9.3 and 9.4 illustrate the working principle of a hydrometer. The depth to which
the test tube sinks depends on its surrounding liquid.

Figure 9.3

Figure 9.4

Explain how you would design a hydrometer that can determine a wide range of
densities of liquid, using the ideas of the working principle of a hydrometer shown
above.
Draw a diagram that shows the design of your hydrometer and in your explanation,
emphasise the following aspects:
(i)
The stability of the hydrometer
(ii)
The sensitivity of the hydrometer,
(iii)
The ability to measure a wide range of densities of liquids,
(iv)
The calibration of the hydrometer.
[10 marks]

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## SPM 2007, Section B, No. 9 [20 Marks]

3 (a) Diagram 9.1 shows a cross-sectional of a moving aeroplane. The wing of the aeroplane
experiences a lift.

Diagram 9.1
(i)

## Name the shape of the cross-sectional in diagram 9.1

[1 mark]

(ii)

Explain why the lift force acts on the wing of the aeroplane.
[3 marks]

(b) Two ski jumpers ski down from a very high platform with the same take off velocity.
Diagram 9.2 and Diagram 9.3 show the posture of the two ski jumpers during take off
from the platform.
Diagram 9.4 and Diagram 9.5 show the posture of the two ski jumpers in the air. They
land on the ground at the same instant.

Based on the Diagram 9.2 and Diagram 9.3, compare the posture of the two ski jumpers.
[1 mark]
Based on the Diagram 9.4 and Diagram 9.5, Compare the landing distance of the two ski
jumpers.
[1 mark]
Based on Diagram 9.4 and Diagram 9.5, Relate the lift force to the landing distance.
[2 marks]
Name one sport which uses the same principle of lift force as the ski jumper.
Explain the similarities.
[2 marks]

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Diagram 9.6
(c) Diagram 9.6 shows a sailboat.
You are required to give some suggestion to design a sailboat which can travel faster.
Using the knowledge on motion, force and the properties of materials, explain the
suggestions based on the following aspects.
(i) The surface of the board.
(ii) The shape of the board
(iii) Material used for the board
(iv) Material used for the sail
(v) The size of the sail.
[10 marks]

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